恩典国际圣经学院

第一课 上瘾
lesson 1 Addictions

Addictions 上瘾
Case Study … 1 实例学习。。。1
  • Mr. Jones complains that his wife has been “nagging” him about his drinking. He admits that he has increased his amount of alcohol consumption that last few months, but that he only drinks on weekends. He drinks every weekend and is vague about the actual amount.

  • 琼斯先生抱怨妻子一直“唠叨”他喝酒。他承认过去几个月酒量增加,但他只在周末喝。他每周末喝酒,喝多少没数。

  • Jill, a woman in her mid-forties, is a wife and mother of three children. She started playing card games in her teens, and became involved in betting on horses. She always believed she had her behavior under control until a casino opened up near her home. Now, she is there every chance she can get.

  • 吉尔,45岁的女士,是位有三个孩子的妻子和母亲。她在青少年时就开始玩牌游戏,并参与赌马。她总是认为她能自控,直到她家附近开了个赌场。现在她逢赌必去。 

Key Terms … 2 关键词…2

Addiction - dependence on a particular substance or activity.

上瘾— 依赖于一种特别物质或行为。

An addiction is either a physical or psychological compulsion to use a substance or engage in an activity to cope with the stress of daily life.

上瘾即产生身体上或是心理上的强迫症,使用一种物质或参与一种行为来解决日常生活的压力。

Addiction is a habit and it is difficult to control.

上瘾是一个习惯,难以控制。

Addiction is largely driven by denial. The addict will blame his or her problems on someone else.

上瘾很大程度上是因被拒绝所驱使。上瘾者会把自己的问题归咎在其他人身上。

Addiction is usually divided into two categories:

上瘾一般被划分为两类:

Drug-addiction is a biochemical dependence on a substance (such as alcohol/drug addiction.) Over time the body needs increased amounts of the substance in order to avoid symptoms of withdrawal.

药瘾是对一种物质(如酒精/毒品上瘾)的生化依赖。长时间后身体需要提高这种物质的用量来避免脱瘾症状。

Non-drug addictions are compulsive behaviors, which trigger dopamine surges in the body. Such behaviors are: compulsive overeating, gambling, sexual addictions, video-gaming, or compulsive shopping.

非药成瘾是指强迫性行为,这些行为在身体里引起多巴胺激增。类似的行为有:暴饮暴食,赌博,性瘾,电子游戏瘾,或疯狂购物。

Causes/Character … 3 实例/特征… 3

While the causes of addictions are not fully understood, one view is that addiction is a defense against anxiety. This generalized anxiety is characterized by the “blame and defend” model of denial, in which the addict blames his or her problems on someone else, spouse, family, or friends. This can cause loving friends and family to feel guilty about the situation and can actually transform them into enablers. The result is that the addict avoids any responsibility for his or her actions. (Thombs, 2006)

虽然上瘾的原因还没有完全弄清楚,有一种看法认为上瘾是对焦虑的一种抵御方式。这种普遍性焦虑以 “责备与防卫”的拒绝模式为特征,上瘾者把自己的问题归咎在别人身上,如配偶,家人或朋友身上。这会造成有爱心的朋友或家人对这种处境感到愧疚,真的替人受过。结果是上瘾者逃避了对自己的行为应付的责任。(Thombs, 2006)

This causes of addict can be traced to any of the following factors:

上瘾的原因可以追究为以下的任何因素:

  • Physical: An addict becomes physically dependent upon a substance or behavior. This need can become obsessive to the point that the anxiety results in serious withdrawal symptoms.

  • 身体的:一个上瘾者变得依赖于一种特别物质或行为。这种需要变得强迫到导致严重脱瘾症状。

  • Emotional: Most addicts are emotionally hurt. One study states that the sexual abuse rate for alcoholics has been reported at 12 percent for men and 49 percent for women (Sack, D. 2012).

  • 情绪的: 大多数上瘾者感情受伤。一个调查表明性虐待的酗酒者12%为男性和49%为女性。

  • Relational: Studies show that addictive behaviors are also related to trauma in early childhood. Such trauma causes stress in adulthood relationships and social interaction (Miller, D. 2002).

  • 关系的: 调查显示上瘾行为和童年早期的创伤有关。这样的创伤导致成人以后人际关系和社交的压力。

  • Behavioral: Addicts often develop irrational beliefs about themselves. (Mynatt, S. et al, 2009). Such false beliefs conflict with the identity one has as a child of God.

  • 行为的:上瘾者经常对自己形成不合理的观念。(Mynatt, S. et al, 2009)。这种错误观念与作为神儿女的身份相抵触。

  • Spiritual: Ultimately, addiction is act of rebellion against God’s will. It is the result of the selfish, sinful nature in control of a person’s life.

  • 灵性的:最后,上瘾是违背神旨意的行为。是被自私,罪性控制人生命的结果。

Counseling Advice … 4 心理辅导建议… 4

Many addicts are so dependent on a substance or behavior that it consumes their daily activities, interferes with normal responsibilities, and even replaces hobbies that once provided pleasure and recreation.

Addiction can completely control a person’s desires and ambitions. The saddest tragedy is that addictions can ruin an individual’s relationship with the Lord. Instead of providing comfort and peace, addictions often rob the addict of joy. The very things the addict desires most are lost because of the addiction.

Addiction is also accompanied by painful emotions such as anger, jealousy, fear, and abandonment (Corsini & Wedding, 2008)

很多上瘾者非常依赖于一种特别物质或行为,以致吞噬了他们的日常生活,干扰了正常关系,甚至代替了曾经带给人愉快和欢乐的兴趣爱好。

上瘾可以完全控制一个人的欲望和理想。最悲哀的是上瘾能毁灭一个人与神的关系。它不能带来安慰和平安,而是经常掠夺上瘾者的喜乐。这正是上瘾者因为上瘾而失去的最想要的东西。

上瘾同时也伴随着痛苦的情绪,如愤怒,妒忌,恐惧和抛弃。

The following points summarize some signs or characteristics of addiction:

以下的几点概述上瘾的几个征兆或特征:

1)Uncontrollable: For addicts, the dependency on the addiction is beyond their ability to control.

无法控制:对于上瘾者来说,对瘾的依赖超过他们的控制能力。

2)Tolerance: An addict builds up a chemical tolerance, which means their bodies need an increased amount of the chemical/activity to produce the same results.

耐受性:上瘾者形成了化学耐受性,这意味着他们的身体需要增加药量/行为次数来产生同样的效果。

3)Progression: Most addictions begin with experimentation – just sampling the drug, one puff off of the cigarette. Since there is a chemical tolerance, the addict will increase the frequency of the behavior.

发展过程:大多数上瘾者开始有个试验过程—只是抽取些毒品,从香烟中吸进去。因为有化学耐受性,上瘾者会增加吸毒的次数。

4)Isolation: Addiction is a way to lessen and hidden fears or worries a person might experience. Addiction becomes a way to escape from frustration or feelings of anxiety.

孤立:上瘾是一种减轻或隐藏人所经历的恐惧或焦虑的方法。上瘾变成了逃避挫败或焦虑的途径。

Steps to Follow … 5 遵循步骤… 5

1)Safety First – if there are small children involved, then their safety is a priority. Driving under the influence, sexual or verbal abuse needs to be confronted. If family members are in immediate danger because of the addict’s behavior, then they must be removed from the situation at once.

安全第一 — 如果涉及到小孩子在中间,那么首先要考虑的是他们的安全。酒后或吸毒后开车,性虐待或言语虐待的问题需要解决。如果家庭成员因为上瘾者的行为而处于直接危险的情况下,必须立刻将他们转移。

2)Encourage a Physical Examination – A doctor’s exam will determine if the addiction has caused any physical problems. This is important with substance abuse, such as alcoholism.

鼓励身体检查— 医生的检查将确定上瘾者是否有任何健康问题。这对滥用药物的情况尤为重要,如酗酒。

3)Refer to a Professional – As a Christian, your main focus is to provide spiritual counsel. That can only happen if an individual is receiving physical and emotional help as well. Church leaders are wise to have a working relationship with the addict’s physician or dependency counselor. This allows the pastor to be free to focus on the addict’s spiritual well-being. A doctor or addiction counselor will offer professional help in ways that a pastor or church member is not equipped. A Christian support group is also quite helpful because it provides accountability and encouragement to a struggling Christian who is caught in an addiction. The support group concept will be discussed and developed in future pastoral counseling courses. (Scheutze & Matzke, 1988)

移交给专业人士— 作为一名基督徒,你的主要目的是提供灵性辅导。这只能是在个人接受身体和情绪的帮助下进行。教会领袖和上瘾者的医生或药品咨询师有协作关系是十分明智的。这可以使牧师自由地专注于上瘾者灵性健康的问题。医生或上瘾问题咨询师将提供牧师或教会成员不具备的专业帮助。基督徒团队的支持也是非常有帮助的,因为他们担负责任并鼓励与瘾争战的基督徒。在以后的教牧辅导课程中将讨论和发展团队支持理念。(Scheutze & Matzke, 1988)

Light on the Path … 6 路上的光… 6

Read and React. Read the passage and answer the following questions:

阅读并回答。阅读经文并回答以下问题:

Woe to those who rise early in the morning to run after their drinks, who stay up late at night till they are inflamed with wine. Isaiah 5:11

祸 哉 ! 那 些 清 早 起 来 追 求 浓 酒 , 留 连 到 夜 深 , 甚 至 因 酒 发 烧 的 人 。以赛亚书5:11

1)How would you categorize the addiction described in this passage?

你怎样给这节经文中描述的瘾分类?

2)One of the characteristics of addiction is that it becomes an uncontrollable behavior. Explain how this passage addresses that concept.

上瘾的其中一个特征是它变成不可控制的行为。请解释这节经文是如何看待这个观点的。

3)Notice the progression: what does the addiction intend to do to this person?

注意变化过程:瘾使这个人做什么?

4)Why does the alcoholic need a drink “early in the morning” as well as “late at night”?

为什么酗酒者要在“清早”和“深夜”喝酒?

5)How does the Lord react to the problem of addiction?

主对上瘾的问题怎样反应?

Many people question God’s intentions when they see suffering in the world. People wonder why God doesn’t fix all of our problems if he is able.

许多人看到世上的苦难时就质问神的意图。人们想知道如果神能够解决我们所有的问题,他为什么不去做呢?

Let’s consider 1 Timothy 6:17 – Command those who are rich in this present world not to be arrogant nor to put their hope in wealth, which is so uncertain, but to put their hope in God, who richly provides us with everything for our enjoyment.

让我们思考提摩太前书6:17 –你 要 嘱 咐 那 些 今 世 富 足 的 人 , 不 要 自 高 , 也 不 要 倚 靠 无 定 的 钱 财 ;只 要 倚 靠 那 厚 赐 百 物 给 我 们 享 受 的 神 。 享 受 的 神 。

1)Describe how God blesses us according to this passage.

根据这节经文,请描述神怎样祝福我们?

2)If God provides richly provides all we need, then what does God not send to us?

既然神厚 赐 百 物 给 我 们,那么有什么东西神不会赐给我们?

3)Addiction is really an illogical trust in something that is uncertain. How could you use 1 Tm. 6:17 to explain that truth?

上瘾实际上是盲目相信不确定的东西。你怎样用提摩太前书6:17来解释这个道理?

This passage tells us that God is the one “who richly provides us with everything for our enjoyment.” That means that God is not the author of evil. Rather, he is the giver of all good things. The Bible makes it clear that Satan is the one who works diligently to ruin God’s blessings.

这节经文告诉我们 神是“厚 赐 百 物 给 我 们”的 那一位。这意味着神不是邪恶的王。他是所有美好事物的给予者。圣经明确告诉我们撒旦是竭力毁坏神祝福的那一个。

Addiction is really an illogical trust in something that is uncertain, as the passage explains. Addictions are not God’s problems; they are human problems. Satan takes advantage of them to try to control us and lead us to hopelessness. So, is there hope for an addict? As Christian counselors, it is our privilege to announce the certainty that there is hope in the Lord!

正如经文所解释的,上瘾实际上是盲目相信不确定的东西。上瘾不是神的问题,而是人的问题。撒旦利用上瘾试图控制我们,使我们毫无希望。那么,上瘾者还有希望吗?作为基督徒心理辅导员,我们有特权宣告这个确据:靠神有希望!

Let’s look at 1 John 1:8, 9 – If we claim to be without sin, we deceive ourselves and the truth is not in us. If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just and will forgive us our sins and purify us from all unrighteousness.

参看约翰一书1:8, 9 –我 们 若 说 自 己 无 罪 , 便 是 自 欺 , 真 理 不 在 我 们 心 里 了 。 9我 们 若 认 自 己 的 罪 , 神 是 信 实 的 , 是 公 义 的 , 必 要 赦 免 我 们 的 罪 , 洗 净 我 们 一 切 的 不 义 。

What is the main truth we want to leave with someone dealing with addictions?

我们要向对付上瘾问题的人传达什么主要真理?

Remember that repentance means:

记住悔改意味着:

Philippians 4:13 I can do everything through him who gives me strength. There are two important pronouns in this verse “I” and “him.”

腓立比书4:13 我 靠 着 那 加 给 我 力 量 的 , 凡 事 都 能 做 。这节经文中有两个重要的人称代词“我”和“他”。

Give examples of how an addict might make excuses about his/her addiction.
请举例一个上瘾者怎样为他/她的瘾症找借口。

Explain how addicts need to have Christ in order to overcome their struggles.

请解释为什么上瘾者需要基督帮助才能克服争战。

Evaluate: it is important to tell an addict that s/he needs to work with God to overcome addiction.

评价: 告诉一个上瘾者他/她需要与神合作来戒瘾是非常重要的。

Some Mindful Questions … 7 思考题… 7

Mental health professionals are expected to conduct a variety of clinical interviews. Counselors must be able to put clients at ease, help them to feel understood, gather important information, set goals, and safely address any crises. This also applies to Christians in a helping our counseling ministry.

心理健康专家总是会进行各种各样的临床访谈。心理辅导员必须能使辅导对象感觉放松,帮助他们感觉被理解,还有收集重要信息,设立目标,安全地处理各种危机。这也适用于基督徒帮助心理辅导的事工。

The following list of questions are examples of how a counselor can ask certain questions with the goal of better understanding the situation:

以下的系列问题列举了辅导员怎样问一些目的在于更好地了解情况的问题。

1)Have you ever been concerned about your substance use? If so, why?

你曾经为你使用瘾品担忧吗?如果是,为什么?

2)How often do you use this substance?

你多久使用瘾品?

3)At what age did you first begin using it?

你最早开始使用瘾品是多大年龄?

4)Is there a history of addiction in your family of origin?

你原生家庭有上瘾的历史吗?

5)Has your addiction ever affected your job or family?

上瘾影响你的 工作 或家庭吗?

6)Have you ever tried to quit? What happened when you did? How did it make you feel?

你曾经试过戒瘾吗?你戒瘾时发生了什么?你有什么感觉?

7)Do you want to quit?

你想戒瘾吗?

8)How do you envision your life changing if you could overcome your addiction?

如果你能戒瘾,你想象生活的改变会是什么样?

Evaluation of Mood Disorder Patients in a Primary Care Practice:

情绪失调病人初级治疗实践中的评估:

Now, it’s Your Turn … 8 现在,实例练习8

Choose one of the case studies provided. Apply the concepts we’ve learned in this lesson to the case study:

请从提供的案例研究中选择一个,将我们本课所学的理念对这个案例研究加以应用。

  • Mr. Jones complains that his wife has been “nagging” him about his drinking. He admits that he has increased his amount of alcohol consumption the last few months, but that he only drinks on weekends. He drinks every weekend and is vague about the actual amount.

  • 琼斯先生抱怨妻子一直“唠叨”他喝酒。他承认过去几个月酒量增加,但他只在周末喝。他每个周末喝酒,喝多少没数。

  • Jill, a woman in her mid-forties, is a wife and mother of three children. She started playing card games in her teens, and became involved in betting on horses. She always believed she had her behavior under control until a casino opened up near her home. Now, she is there every chance she can get.

  • 吉尔,45岁的女士,是位有三个孩子的妻子和母亲。她在青少年时开始玩牌游戏,并参与赌马。她总是认为她能自控,直到她家附近开了个赌场。现在她逢赌必去。  1)Identify the addiction (drug or non-drug addiction).

确定瘾症(药瘾或非药瘾)。

2)What are some of the characteristics that help you to identify this as an addiction?

帮助你确定为一种瘾症的几个特征是什么?

3)Apply the Steps to Follow part 5 to the case. Which one(s) fit the case study?

对这个案例应用第五部分遵循步骤。哪一个(些)符合这个案例研究?

4) List the specific sins that you feel need to be addressed.

列出你认为需要解决的具体的罪的问题。

4)Explain how you would share good news of the gospel to this person.

解释你将如何向这个人分享福音的好消息。

5)Discuss the differences between drug addiction and non-drug addiction.

讨论药瘾和非药瘾的区别。

6)List and explain the 5 factors that can be traced to addiction.

列举并解释能找出上瘾根源的五个因素。

7)How does “chemical tolerance” become a characteristic of addiction?

为什么化学耐受性变成上瘾的一个特征?

References: 参考:

Corsini, R.J., Wedding, D. (2008) Current Psychotherapies 8th ed. Belmont, CA Thomas Higher Education.

Meier, Minirth, Wichern, Ratcliff. (1992) Introduction to Psychology and Counseling: Christian Perspectives and Applications. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House.

Schuetze, A., Matzke, F. (1988) The Counseling Shepherd. Milwaukee, WI: Northwestern Publishing House.

Thombs, Dennis L. (2006) Introduction to Addictive Behaviors. Guilford Press.

Christian-Counseling-Part 1
基督徒心理辅导 大纲
Christian Counseling Catalog
第一课 上瘾
lesson 1 Addictions
第二课 抑郁症
lesson 2 Depression
第三课 焦虑
lesson 3 Anxiety
第四课 妒忌和羡慕
lesson 4 Jealousy and Envy
第五课 生气的解决方案
lesson 5 Anger Resolution
第六课 愧疚和羞耻
lesson 6 Guilt and Shame
第七课 悲痛和损失
lesson 7 Grief and Loss
第八课 自尊
lesson 8 Self Esteem
第一课 上瘾
lesson 1 Addictions