恩典国际圣经学院

第三课 焦虑
lesson 3 Anxiety

Anxiety 焦虑
Case Study … 1 案例研究… 1
  • Steve is a handsome man in his mid-40’s. As a child, he was always considered to be shy. He developed social anxiety as he grew into his teen years. He would often feel overwhelmed with dread whenever he was is a social gathering. Steve has always been afraid that he’d say or do something to embarrass himself in front of others.

  • 史蒂夫是一位45岁的英俊男人。小时候,他总是被认为很害羞。到了青少年时他形成了社交焦虑症。每当在社交聚会上,他常常感到惊慌失措。史蒂夫总是害怕他在别人面前的言行令自己尴尬。

  • Stephanie is a 29 year old divorced mother with two children. She was divorced a year ago after her husband decided to leave her for a co-worker. Soon after the divorce Stephanie started having a lot of headaches. She also began to experience headaches, was irritable, and found herself losing her temper at the children. Recently, she began to have shortness of breath, heart palpitations, and a tingling sensation in her hands.

  • 史蒂芬妮是一位29岁,离异带着两个孩子的妈妈。丈夫为了一个同事决定离开她,一年前他们离婚。离婚后不久,史蒂芬妮开始遇到很多令她头疼的事。她也开始头疼,易怒,发现自己对孩子发脾气。最近,她开始呼吸短促,心悸,手发麻。

Terms/Definitions … 2 术语/定义… 2

Anxiety is a continued state of fear. Feelings of dread, worry, and stress also arise in the individual. If a person is overwhelmed about work, family, or life event – even if there is nothing particularly stressful happening – this person may likely have an anxiety disorder.

焦虑是恐惧的延续状态。人会感觉恐惧,担忧,和压力。如果一个人对工作,家庭或生活中的事情感到不知所措—即使没有遇到任何特别的压力—这个人也可能会焦虑失调。

Fear and anxiety are not necessarily the same. Fear is a response to a direct threat. For example, a person is walking down a dark sidewalk and someone threatens to rob him. That is a direct threat. Fear triggers an autonomic response in the brain to fight or flee from dangerous situation.

恐惧和焦虑并不一定等同。恐惧是对一个直接的威胁的反应。比如,一个人走在黑暗的人行道上,有人威胁要抢劫他。这是一个直接的威胁。恐惧引起大脑中想反抗或逃离危险处境的自发反应。

Anxiety is a response to a possible or perceived threat. The same individual walks down a dark sidewalk and feels uneasy about the potential reality that a stranger might harm him – that is anxiety. (NIMH, 2016)

焦虑是对可能的或感知的威胁的反应。同一个人沿着黑暗的人行道走,对陌生人伤害他的潜在可能感到不安—这是焦虑。

Causes/Character … 3 原因/特征… 3

Anxiety can be caused by a number of factors:

很多因素会导致焦虑:

Trauma – a current situation appears to be similar to a past pain or hurt

创伤— 当前的情形似乎和过去的痛苦或伤害相似。

Modeled behavior – parents may have displayed anxious tendencies as they coped with stress

效仿行为— 父母可能在处理压力时表现出焦虑倾向。

Physical health – blood sugar imbalance, over-working, lack of sleep.

身体健康— 血糖失衡,过度劳累,缺少睡眠。

Daily events – over-scheduled pace, repeated viewing certain TV shows or watching graphic news clips.

日常事务— 计划过满,节奏过于紧张,重复看某个电视节目或新闻片段。

Symptoms of anxiety can include the following:

焦虑包括以下症状:

  • Nervous, restless or tense feelings

  • 紧张,焦躁不安

  • A sense of impending panic or doom

  • 感觉恐慌和厄运到来

  • Increased heart rate (palpitations)

  • 心跳加速(心悸)

  • Breathing rapidly (hyperventilation)

  • 呼吸急促(过度换气)

  • Sweating

  • 出汗

  • Trembling

  • 颤抖

  • Feeling weak or tired

  • 感觉虚弱或疲乏

  • Trouble concentrating on anything other than the current worry

  • 除了当前的焦虑难以专注其他事情

  • Difficulty sleeping

  • 睡眠障碍

(NIMH, 2016)

Counseling Advice … 4 辅导建议… 4

Relationship fears are very common with people suffering from anxiety disorder. These may include: fear of rejection or abandonment, fear of not being understood, fear of being judged, fear of being alone, fear of loss, fear of change, fear of aging, fear of being overwhelmed, fear of being ignored, fear of lack of control, and fear of failure. (NIMH, 2016)

焦虑失调患者普遍害怕人际关系。包括:害怕被拒绝或抛弃,害怕不被理解,害怕被论断,害怕独自一人,害怕失去,害怕改变,害怕变老,害怕不知所措,害怕被忽视,害怕失控,害怕失败。(NIMH, 2016)

Explain how these fears could lead to anxiety.

解释这些害怕怎样导致焦虑。

Phobia vs. Fear: Phobias are a consistent, excessive, and irrational fear of specific things. A phobia will also interfere everyday activities.

恐惧和害怕:恐惧是持续的,过度的,对特定事情不合理的害怕。恐惧也会影响每天的行动。

Anxiety is generally based on an irrational belief that people establish about a particular thing, event, or activity. Since anxiety is often a learned behavior, it is important to help the person that their irrational fears are not necessarily going to come true. Encourage an anxious person to move their focus from internal feelings to external observations. (Corsini and Wedding, 2008)

焦虑通常基于人对于特定的东西,事件,或行动产生的不合理信念。既然焦虑常常是一种习得行为,帮助人明白不合理的害怕不一定是真的,这一点很重要。鼓励一个焦虑的人将注意力从内在感觉转移到外部观察上。

Steps to Follow … 5 遵循步骤… 5

1)Be renewed in your mind. Philippians 4:8 and Ephesians 4:23 offer Scriptural guidance in this area. It is important to assist the client to learn to “re-think” what is true and real. Most fear, anxiety, and phobias are based on illogical thought-patterns. Help the client to focus on God’s promises in his Word regarding his providence, protection, and eternal salvation in Christ Jesus.

心意更新。腓立比书4:8和以弗所书4:23 在这个方面给以圣经的指导。务必要帮助辅导对象学会“反思”什么是正确的,真实的。大多数害怕,焦虑和恐惧是基于不合逻辑的思想模式。帮助辅导对象专注于神对于他的供应,保护,和耶稣基督里永远的救恩的应许。

2)Gradually move ahead. This requires patience and trust. As a counselor, you need to remember that anxiety develops over a period of time. Changes and forward progression will also develop slowly over time. Consistent, patient encouragement is a vital attribute for a counselor in dealing with someone with anxiety disorder.

循序渐进。 这需要耐心和信任。作为一个心理辅导员,你需要记住焦虑是经一段时间形成的。改变和进展也需要随着时间慢慢来。持续的,耐心的鼓励是心理辅导员辅导焦虑失调者至关重要的因素。

Light on the Path … 6 路上的光… 6

Read and React. Read the passage and answer the following questions:

阅读并回答。阅读经文并回答以下问题。

Look at these phrases from Psalm 37:3-7. Notice a progression and pattern. Look at each phrase and the underlined word. What comfort does each of those phrases offer to an anxious heart? What pattern is provided that someone struggling with anxiety could apply to daily life?

参看诗篇37:3-7的经文。注意过程和模式。考虑每句话和下划线的词语。每个句子给一颗焦虑的心带来什么安慰?这里为与焦虑争战的人提供能应用在日常生活中的模式是什么?

3 Trust in the Lord; 依靠耶和华;

4 Take delight in the Lord, 以耶和华为乐,

5 Commit your way to the Lord; 当将你的事交托耶和华;

7 Be still before the Lord 你当默然依靠耶和华

and wait patiently for him; 耐性等候他;

Proverbs 3:5-6 – Trust in the Lord with all your heart and lean not on your own understanding;6 in all your ways submit to him, and he will make your paths straight.

箴言3:5-6—— 你 要 专 心 仰 赖 耶 和 华 , 不 可 倚 靠 自 己 的 聪 明 , 6在 你 一 切 所 行 的 事 上 都 要 认 定 他 , 他 必 指 引 你 的 路 。

It’s been said that anxiety is a perceived, irrational, intense fear of unknown, everyday events. Explain how the Proverbs 3 reading offers insight as to how a believer might deal with anxiety.

据说焦虑是感观的,非理性的,对未知的日常生活的强烈恐惧。请解释箴言3章对于信徒处理焦虑的问题如何提供见解。

Some Mindful Questions … 7 思考问题… 7
  1. When do you find yourself afraid?

    你什么时候发现自己害怕?

  2. What causes you the most anxiety?

    什么使你最焦虑 ?

  3. When do those feelings go away??

    这些感觉什么时候消失?

  4. Do you find you are more anxious at different times?

    你发现自己在不同时刻会更焦虑吗?

  5. How long have you felt this way?

    你这样感觉有多久了?

  6. How would your life be different if this anxiety went away?

    如果焦虑消失,你的生活会有什么不同?

Now, it’s Your Turn … 8 现在,实例练习…8

Choose one of the case studies provided. Apply the concepts we’ve learned in this lesson to the vignette:

请从提供的案例研究中选择一个,将本课所学的理念加以应用:

  • Steve is a handsome man in his mid-40’s. As a child, he was always considered shy. He developed social anxiety as he grew into his teen years. He would often feel overwhelmed with dread whenever he was is a social gathering. Steve has always been afraid that he’d say or do something to embarrass himself in front of others.

  • 史蒂夫是位45岁的英俊男人。小时候,他总是被认为很害羞。到了青少年时他发展成社交焦虑症。每当在社交聚会上,他常常感到惊慌失措。史蒂夫总是害怕他在别人面前的言行令自己尴尬。

  • Stephanie is a 29 year old divorced mother with two children. She was divorced a year ago after her husband decided to leave her for a co-worker. Soon after the divorce, Stephanie started having a lot of headaches. She also began to experience headaches, was irritable, and found herself losing her temper at the children frequently. Recently, she began to have shortness of breath, heart palpitations, and a tingling sensation in her hands.

  • 史蒂芬妮是位29岁,离异带着两个孩子的妈妈。她在丈夫决定为了一个同事离开她后一年前离婚。离婚后不久,史蒂芬妮开始遇到很多令她头疼的事。她也开始经历头疼,易怒,发现自己对孩子发脾气。最近,她开始呼吸短促,心悸,手发麻。

1)What are the symptoms of anxiety that you suspect?

你觉得焦虑的特征是什么?

2)How would you help these individuals focus on external surroundings rather than internal feelings?

你怎样帮助这些辅导对象去专注于外部环境而不是内心感觉?

3)What steps would you suggest to help these people face their fears?

你建议采取什么步骤帮助他们面对恐惧?

4)Why is patience so important when dealing with anxiety disorders?

为什么耐心对于处理焦虑失调症非常重要?

5)What is the difference between phobia and fear?

恐惧和害怕有什么区别?

References:

Corsini, R.J., Wedding, D. (2008) Current Psychotherapies 8th ed. Belmont, CA Thomas Higher Education.

National Institute of Mental Health. (2016). NIMH Mental Health Information: Anxiety Disorder. Retrieved

August, 2016 from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxiety-disorders/index.shtml#part_145333

Christian-Counseling-Part 1
基督徒心理辅导 大纲
Christian Counseling Catalog
第一课 上瘾
lesson 1 Addictions
第二课 抑郁症
lesson 2 Depression
第三课 焦虑
lesson 3 Anxiety
第四课 妒忌和羡慕
lesson 4 Jealousy and Envy
第五课 生气的解决方案
lesson 5 Anger Resolution
第六课 愧疚和羞耻
lesson 6 Guilt and Shame
第七课 悲痛和损失
lesson 7 Grief and Loss
第八课 自尊
lesson 8 Self Esteem
第三课 焦虑
lesson 3 Anxiety