恩典国际圣经学院

第十课:基督教: 1648年至现代
Lesson 10: Christianity: 1648-Modern times

I. World development 世界的发展—

Respect for science and human reason replaced the Christian faith as the cornerstone of Western culture. Many Protestants met this crisis of faith, They didn’t go back to the Bible for reassurance, they let their feelings give them confidence. Many Christians came to see that government support was no longer essential for Christianity’s surviva

对科学和人类理性的尊重作为西方文化的基础代替了基督教信仰。许多新教徒遭遇这个信仰危机,他们没有回到圣经中找确据,而是凭着感觉产生信心。许多基督徒开始明白政府的支持对基督教的存在不再是至关重要的。

A. Christianity in China 中国的基督教

  1. The third great missionary push into China was a Catholic effort in the 1500s and 1600s.

    15世纪和16世纪,基督教第三次传入中国是通过天主教的努力。

    a. It failed when the Catholic officials ban attempts to insert Chinese customs and language into the service.

    当天主教禁止在敬拜中采用中国的传统和语言时,传教以失败告终。

    b. This resulted in the Chinese government persecuting Christians as agents of a foreign power.

    这导致中国政府将基督徒当作外国势力的间谍而加以迫害。

  2. The last remnants of those underground Christians disappeared around 1750.

    大约1750年,最后剩余的这些地下基督徒也消失了。

  3. The fourth great missionary push into China was from Protestants and Catholics in the 1800s.

    18世纪,新教和天主教第四次大规模的传教进入中国。

  4. The Communists took over in 1949 and seemed to totally destroy Chinese Christianity.

    1949年中国共产党执政,似乎完全摧毁了中国基督教信仰。

  5. Since then, Christianity in China has increased.

    从那以后,基督教在中国得以扩展。

    a. In 1949, there were about 5 million Christians in China.

    1949年,中国大约有5百万基督徒。

    b. Today there are between 50 and 90 million Christians in China.

    今天,中国基督徒人数在5千万至9千万之间。

    c. Even the lower figure would give China one of the world’s largest Christian populations.

    即使较低的数字都使中国成为世界上基督徒人数最多的国家之一。

  6. A Back to Jerusalem effort from China aims to send thousands of Chinese missionaries across central Asia into the Middle East.

    从中国传回耶路撒冷的使命旨在差派数千名中国传教士穿过中亚到中东宣教。

    a. Asian missionaries are planning to re-evangelize what is now the Muslim world.

    亚洲传教士正计划向现今的穆斯林世界再传福音。

    b. They will, in effect, use the Silk Road as a highway for Christian missions.

    他们实际上使用丝绸之路作为基督教宣教的途径。

B. Christianity in Europe 欧洲的基督教

  1. Disagreements over doctrine and Christian living caused divisions and persecutions.

    教义和信仰生活上的分歧导致纷争和迫害。

    a. France was Europe most populous country with 25,000,000 people. The American revolution in the 1770s inspired the French revolution.

    法国是欧洲人口最大的国家,有2500万人。17世纪70年代的美国革命鼓舞了法国革命。

    b. In 1854 the Pope made it official that Mary had been conceived without original sin.

    1854年 ,教皇公开宣布圣灵感孕的马利亚没有原罪。

    c. In 1870 came the doctrine of papal infallibility.

    1870年 颁布教皇无误论。

    i. Hymns appeared that addressed, not God, but the pope.

    赞美诗不是颂赞神,而是教皇。

    ii. Some called the pope “the vice-God of humanity.”

    有些人称呼教皇“上帝在人世间的代表”

    d. In 1850 Darwin published “The Origin of Species,” publicizing evolution.

    1850年,达尔文出版“物种起源”,宣传进化论。

    e. More and more American seminary and college professors studied to receive doctor’s degrees from famous European universities. Attacking the legitimacy of the Bible had become fashionable.

    越来越多的美国中等学院和大学教授通过学习获得欧洲著名大学的高等学历。攻击圣经的正确性已经成为时尚。

    i. They taught that Moses didn’t write the first five Bible books.

    他们教导摩西没有写圣经开始的五卷书。

    ii. They taught that Jesus was a somewhat deluded visionary and not God’s Son in the flesh.

    他们教导耶稣只是一个骗人的空想家,不是神道成肉身的儿子。

    iii. They couldn’t defend a God who ordered Israel’s armies to kill their enemies to the last woman and child or who sent bears to eat young people who made fun of a prophet.

    他们无法解释为什么神命令以色列的军队杀光仇敌直到最后一个妇女和孩童,以及为什么这位神让熊吃掉取笑一个先知的年轻人。

    iv. “A God without wrath brought people without sin into a kingdom without judgment through a Christ without a Cross.”

    理查德 .尼布尔(H. Richard Niebuhr)说过,“一个没有愤怒的上帝,通过一个没有上十字架的基督,将没有罪的人类带到一个没有审判的天国”

  2. Some European governments designed a hybrid national church that contained elements of Lutheran and Reformed teachings.

    某些欧洲政府设立了包含路德宗的和改革宗教导混杂的国家教会。

    a. Governments then forced their citizens to join and support this national church

    政府强迫他们的市民参与和支持国家教会

    b. This denied people freedom to worship in churches that matched their beliefs.

    这否定了人们按照自己的信仰在教会敬拜的自由。

    c. Eventually, these government-supported churches led people to lose interest in Christianity.

    最终,这些国立教会导致人们失去对基督教的兴趣。

  3. Immigration

    移民状况

    a. Soon after 1492 large numbers began coming to America.

    1492年以后,大量移民很快开始涌入美国。

    b. European Christians developed mission support groups to serve people living in America and to reach out to other foreign countries.

    欧洲基督徒形成宣教团队为居住在美国的人服事,并向其他国家宣教。

  4. Rationalism – In 1700’s scholars began to explain Bible teachings using only their logic or common sense.

    理性主义— 17世纪的学者开始只用他们的逻辑或常识解释圣经的教导。

    a. The most famous scientist of this time was Isaac Newton. His law of gravity changed public thinking.

    当时最著名的科学家是牛顿。他的地心引力改变了公众的思想。

    b. The new theory from intellectuals was that people don’t sin. People are capable of amazing feats of intelligence. Common sense will solve our problems, not God’s grace. If the Bible taught something unreasonable, intellectuals dismissed that teaching.

    知识分子的新理论认为人们不犯罪。人们具有成就伟业的智能。常识可以解决我们的问题,而不是靠神的恩典。如果圣经教导某些非理性的东西,知识分子就驳斥这个教导。

    c. More and more people felt only disgust at the burning or drowning of an elderly woman accused of witchcraft or heresy. They remembered thousands and thousands of victims of Christianity’s intolerance.

    越来越多的人对烧死或溺死被指控行巫术或异端的老妇人的刑罚感到厌恶。他们想起因基督教的不宽容导致成千上万的受害者。

    d. Religious prejudice seemed a far greater threat than atheism. So a thirst for tolerance and truths common to all people spread.

    宗教偏见似乎比无神论的威胁更大。因此大众对宽容和真理的需要如饥似渴。

    e. This eroded Christian teaching and faith in Europe.

    这在欧洲损害了基督教的教导和信仰。

    f. In the end the intellectuals’ arguments failed. They couldn’t explain the evils and disasters of life.

    知识分子的争论以失败告终。他们无法解释生命中的邪恶和灾难。

  5. France had a political revolution. Germany had an intellectual revolution. England gave birth to a industrial revolution.

    法国经历一场政治革命。德国经历知识革命。英国产生了工业革命。

    a. An early attack on capitalist competition was socialism. It believed that people naturally loved each other and that they could live together happily.

    资本主义竞争很早受到社会主义的攻击。社会主义认为人们天生彼此相爱,他们可以幸福地生活在一起。

    i. Karl Marx (1818-1883) was socialism’s voice.

    卡尔马克思(1818-1883)发出社会主义的呼声。

    ii. His book “Das Kapital” is one of the most influential modern books.

    他的书 “资本论”是最有影响力的现代书籍之一。

    b. The 20th century replaced the great world religions with three post-Christian ideologies: nationalism, communism, and individualism.

    20世纪,民族主义,共产主义和个人主义 这三大后基督教意识形态代替最流行的世界宗教。

    i. Each of these took on the character of a religious faith.

    这三种都采纳了宗教信仰的特点。

    ii. Each makes ultimate demands – patriotism, class struggle, or secular humanism. Enter Hilter (right-wing), Lenin, and Stalin (left-wing).

    每一种都产生根本的要求——爱国主义,阶级斗争,世俗人文主义。希特勒(右翼),列宁和斯大林(左翼)

  6. Wars – There were religious wars, wars within countries, and wars against other countries. This went on in Europe for centuries.

    战争— 有宗教战争,国家的内战,与其他国家的外战。这在欧洲持续几个世纪。

  7. Ecumenism, or ecu-mania, is one of the hallmarks of 20th century Christianity.

    泛基督教主义是20世纪基督教的特征。

  8. Vatican II (1962-1965) was the first Catholic council to update or modernize Catholics.

    梵蒂岗第二次大公会议(1962-1965)是更新或使天主教现代化的第一次天主教议会。

C. Third Word Christians emerged as the great new fact of the age. 第三世界的基督徒作为时代的新现象出现。

II. Early American Christianity 美国早期基督教

A. Beginnings 开始

  1. French Calvinists immigrated to South Carolina in 1562, to Florida in 1564;

    1562年,法国加尔文信徒移民到南卡罗莱纳州。1564年移民到佛罗里达州。

  2. Roman Catholics immigrated to Florida in 1565, to the Southwest in 1598;

    1565年,罗马天主教徒移民到佛罗里达州,1598年移民到西南部。

  3. Puritans immigrated to New England in 1620;

    1620年,清教徒移民到新英格兰。

  4. Church of England immigrated to Virginia in 1607;

    1607年,英格兰教会移民到维吉尼亚。

  5. Dutch Reformed immigrated to New York in 1628;

    1628年,荷兰改革宗信徒移民到纽约。

  6. Lutherans immigrated to Georgia in 1733

    1733年,路德宗信徒移民到佐治亚州。

B. In American immigrant colonies 美国移民殖民地

  1. There was either religious persecution or toleration among the settlers.

    在移民中间存在宗教迫害或宗教自由。

  2. Churches had to fund their own outreach efforts and ministers’ salaries. Christianity received no government support, no government protection. Christians were on their own.

    教会不得不为自己的宣教事工和牧师的工资提供经费。基督教得不到政府的支持和保护。基督徒得依靠自己。

  3. Many settlers launched church schools and colleges (Harvard in 1636).

    许多移民建立教会学校和大学(哈佛1636年)

C.Religious life 宗教生活

  1. First generation serious Christians faded in later generations.

    第一代敬虔的基督徒在后来几代中逐渐消失。

  2. Christians organized revivals in 1734 and continued over the next 100 years to awaken religious life (Jonathan Edwards, George Whitefield, John Wesley).

    基督徒在1734年组织复兴运动,并持续了超过100年,为了唤起宗教的觉醒(乔纳森·爱德华兹,乔治·怀特菲尔德,约翰 卫斯理)。

  3. Henry Muhlenberg organized the Lutheran churches in Pennsylvania.

    亨利·瑞米伦贝格在宾夕法尼亚州建立路德教会。

D. New religious bodies 新的宗教团体

  1. “Disciples” (of Christ) in early 1800’s in protest of creeds.

    18世纪早期,基督门徒派反对信经。

  2. Non-Christian groups (Mormons, Jehovah Witnesses, Christian Science) began in the Northeast in the early 1800’s.

    18世纪初期,非基督徒组织(摩门教,耶和华见证会,基督教科学)在东北地区开始成立。

  3. Unitarians grew out of Congregational Church members who rejected the Bible’s teaching of human sin and that Jesus is 100% God.

    惟一神教派产生于公理会中那些拒绝接受人的原罪和耶稣是100%真神的圣经教导的信徒。

E. Problems - lack of pastors; religious indifference 问题—— 缺少牧师,宗教冷漠

III. Stability for American Christianity 美国基督教的稳定

A. Growth 发展

  1. Methodists and Baptists carry out mission work among settlers on the American frontier;

    卫理公会信徒和浸信会信徒对在美国边境的移民进行宣教事工。

  2. Christian church groups grew because of continuing immigration.

    基督教教会团体因为不断涌入的移民得以发展。

  3. Christian churches provided a social life for a society without radio or TV.

    基督教教会为没有广播和电视的社会提供了社会生活。

B.Unity and division 合一与分裂

  1. Efforts to draw groups of churches together into new denominations or synods were common.

    将教会群体集中形成新的教派或宗会的情况较为普遍。

  2. Issues of war, slavery, social questions divided some church bodies.

    战争,奴隶制,社会问题使某些教会团体分裂。

IV. Lutheran Christianity 路德教派

A. Large numbers of European Lutherans come to America. 欧洲大批路德宗信徒来到美国。

  1. Religious wars in Germany forced many to look for a new land and home.

    德国的宗教战争迫使很多人寻找新的家园。

  2. Forced membership in national churches in the 1830’s pushed serious Lutherans to look for religious freedom.

    18世纪30年代,国家教会的逼迫者迫使虔诚的路德宗信徒寻找宗教自由。

B. The first Lutherans 第一个路德会

  1. Among Dutch settlers in Albany (1623) and New Amsterdam (1625);

    1623年荷兰移民在奥尔巴尼成立第一个路德会,1625年在新阿姆斯特丹成立路德会。

  2. Swedish Lutherans settled in Delaware (1638) and spread to Pennsylvania within a few years;

    1638 瑞典路德宗在特拉华州建立路德会,在几年内扩展到宾夕法尼亚州。

  3. Lutherans came with William Penn to settle near Philadelphia in 1682;

    1682年威廉佩恩带领路德会在费城建立教会。

  4. other Lutheran settlements stretched from Maryland to Georgia;

    其他路德会从马里兰扩展到佐治亚州。

C. Henry Muehlenberg – Lutheran Church organizer 亨利 缪伦伯格—— 路德宗教会组织者

  1. served for 45 years from New York to Georgia;

    从纽约到佐治亚州服事45年。

  2. by 1787 there were 25 pastors in the middle colonies and 5,000 members, with another 75,000 Lutherans in Pennsylvania;

    到了1787年,中部殖民地有25个牧师和5000信徒,在宾夕法尼亚州另有75000路德宗信徒。

  3. organized the first synod, the clergy association of Pennsylvania;

    成立了第一个宗会,宾夕法尼亚州的牧师协会。

D. Formation of Synods (Lutheran church bodies) 宗会的形成(路德宗教会团体)

  1. The first synods were regional. Pastors and congregations from their own state organized to support each other.

    第一个宗会是区域性的。来自各州的牧师和会众组织起来彼此支持。

  2. Lutheran Church in America

    在美国的路德宗教会

    a. began in 1820 as the General Synod of the Lutheran Church;

    开始于1820年,成为路德宗教会的总宗会。

    b. From its beginnings it was not careful about doctrine or Christian living. It was more interested in attracting people.

    最初对于教义或基督徒的信仰生活并不在意。而对吸引人们参与更感兴趣。

    c. Many pastors and members were members of non-Christian religious groups.

    许多牧师和会员是非基督徒宗教组织的会员。

    d. It merged with other synods in 1918 to form the United Lutheran Church in America.

    1918年与其他宗会合并,在美国形成联合路德宗教会。

    e. It merged with other synods in 1962 to form the LCA, a church body not responsive to Bible truth.

    1962年和其他宗会合并,形成LCA,一个对圣经真理没有反应的教会团体。

  3. American Lutheran Church

    美国路德宗教会

    a. It grew out of many different Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and German synods which had begun in the Midwest in the 1800’s and early 1900’s.

    产生许多不同的丹麦,瑞典,挪威和德国宗会,18世纪和19世纪早期已经开始于美国中西部。

    b. It formed in 1961 with merger of different synods. 1961年形成,并吸收不同的宗会。

    c. This is also a church body not responsive to Bible truth.

    这也是一个对圣经真理没有回应的教会团体。

    Note: LCA (Lutheran Church in America )and ALC (American Lutheran Church)merged in 1988 to form the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. No seminary in the ELCA (Evangelical Lutheran Church in America)teaches the virgin birth of Christ, the miracles of the Bible, or the physical resurrection of Jesus as historical fact.ical fact.

    注释:LCA (全美路德宗)和 ALC(美国路德会)在1988年合并,成为美国福音派路德宗教会。没有一个ELCA(美国福音信义会)的神学院教导基督为童女所生,也不教导圣经的神迹,不把耶稣身体复活当作历史事实。。

  4. Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod

    路德宗教会——密苏里州宗会

    a. It began in 1839 with Saxon immigration to the St. Louis area.

    随着撒克逊人移民到圣路易斯地区,开始于1839年。

    b. C.F.W. Walter became the leader in 1841;

    C.F.W.沃尔特在1841年成为领袖。

    c. This church body formed in 1847 to be fully responsive to Bible truth.

    1817年教会团体成立,完全响应圣经的真理。

    d. It quickly grew to cover large area in central U.S.

    很快发展,遍及美国中部的大部分地区。

    e. It led formation of the Synodical Conference in 1870.

    1870年宗会会议形成。

  5. Wisconsin Synod

    威斯康辛州宗会

    a.began in 1850 with three pastors in the Milwaukee area;

    1850年,在密尔沃基地区从三个牧师开始。

    b. Its early years lacked commitment to all the Bible’s teachings.

    早期缺乏对圣经教导的执着。

    c. Critical shortage of pastors in early years led to formation of Northwestern College in 1863.

    早期严重缺乏牧师,导致1863年成立美国西北部大学。

    d. joined the Synodical Conference in 1870;

    1870年参加宗会会议。

    e. merged with Michigan and Minnesota Synods;

    与密歇根州和明尼苏达州宗会合并。

    f. led in confessional Lutheran position by a number of faithful pastors;

    许多忠诚的牧师引入符合圣经的路德宗教导。

    until about 1960 largely located in the Midwest only;

    直到大约1960年,大部分坐落于美国中西部。

    g. questions on the position of fellowship and the inspiration and the explanation of the Bible in LC-MS(Lutheran Church Mission Synod). brought the WELS (Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod)to leave the Synodical Conference in 1961

    LC-MS(美国密苏里州路德会)对于团契的教导,圣灵的默示以及圣经的解释问题使WELS(维斯康辛州路德会)在1961年离开宗会会议。

Christian History After Jesus
第一课:基督教的影响
Lesson 1: Influences on Christians
第二课:早期基督教 公元100-313
Lesson 2: Ancient Christianity 100 – 313 A.D
第三课 早期基督教 公元313-590年
Lesson 3: Ancient Christianity 313 – 590 A.D.
第四课 中世纪早期的基督教 公元590-1073年
Lesson 4: Early Middle-Aged Christianity 590 – 1073 A.D.
第五课 中世纪早期的基督教 II 公元590-1073年
Lesson 5: Early Middle-Aged Christianity II 590 – 1073 A.D.
第六课 中世纪基督教的高度 公元1074-1294
Lesson 6: The Height of Middle-Aged Christianity, 1074-1294
第七课:中世纪衰落,新生,公元1294-1517
Lesson 7: Middle-Aged Decay, Then New Life, 1294-1517
第八课:宗教改革时期,第一部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 8: The Reformation Age, part 1: 1517 – 1648
第九课:宗教改革时期 ,第二部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 9: The Reformation Age, part 2: 1517 – 1648
第十课:基督教: 1648年至现代
Lesson 10: Christianity: 1648-Modern times
第十课:基督教: 1648年至现代
Lesson 10: Christianity: 1648-Modern times