恩典国际圣经学院

第四课 中世纪早期的基督教 公元590-1073年
Lesson 4: Early Middle-Aged Christianity 590 – 1073 A.D.

I.World conditions 世界概况

A.Europe’s Dark Ages 欧洲的黑暗时期

  1. Conquests by German tribes - rule in western Europe, northern and central Italy, England, France, and Germany resulted in lawlessness with no orderly government; fall of society

    德国人征服欧洲—统治了西欧、意大利北部及中部、英格兰、法国及德国,导致了这些地区无法律、无有序政府以及社会的崩坏的结果。

  2. Norse invasions - Viking pirates raided towns along the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts

    挪威人入侵—维京海盗突袭大西洋及地中海沿岸的城镇。

  3. Government - no stable, lasting government during much of this period until 962

    政府—在这个时期直到公元962年的大部分时间都没有稳定、持久的政府。

  4. Empire restored - under Charlemagne (ruled 768-814) and Otto I (crowned 962)

    帝国复兴—在查理曼大帝(公元768-814年统治)及奥托一世(公元962年加冕)时帝国复兴。

B. Moslems rule Eastern countries 穆斯林统治东欧国家

  1. Beginnings – Muhammad founded Islam (570-632); in Arabia

    起源——穆罕默德在阿拉伯半岛建立伊斯兰教(公元570-632)

  2. Spread – By end of Muhammad’s life Islam spread across most of Arabia. By 732 it spread across north Africa to Spain and the battle of Tours in France. Islam took over most of the East, completely by 1453.

    传播——在穆罕默德去世的时候,伊斯兰教已经传播到了阿拉伯半岛的大部分地区。到了公元732年,伊斯兰教从北非传到了西班牙,并通过图尔之战传到了法国。伊斯兰教占领了东欧的大部分,并在公元1453年完全成为这一地区的宗教。

  3. Influence on the church – Islam almost wiped out Christianity in Moslem countries. Christianity in the East was no longer a factor.

    对教会的影响——在穆斯林国家,伊斯兰教几乎横扫基督教,基督教已经不再是东方的要素了。

II.Christian developments 基督教发展

A. Christianity spreads in Europe 基督教在欧洲传播

  1. In England - Angles and Saxons drove Christians to the west; monks from Ireland and Scotland returned in the 7th century; monks from Rome in 597 established religious centers at Canterbury and York; under rule of Rome in 664

    在英国——央格鲁和撒克逊人把基督徒驱赶到西边;来自爱尔兰和苏格兰的修道士们在7世纪时候回归;来自罗马的修道士们于公元597年在坎特伯雷郡和约克郡建立了宗教中心;在公元644年处于罗马的统治之下。

  2. Among Germans - Boniface (680-755) from England to Thuringia

    在德国人中——由卜尼法斯(公元680-755)从英格兰传到德国图林根州

  3. In Scandinavia - Ansgar (801-865) to Denmark and Sweden

    斯堪的纳维亚——由安斯加(公元801-865)传到丹麦和瑞典

  4. Eastern Europe - in 9th century to the Slavic lands; Russian ruler Vladimir forced Christianity on the people in the late 10th century for political reasons

    东欧——九世纪时传到斯拉夫;10世纪晚期,俄罗斯统治者弗拉吉米斯为了政治原因迫使人们接受基督教。

  5. Through monks - monasteries provided education, lessons in agriculture, preserved books, charity, care of the sick

    通过修道士传播——修道院提供教育,农业课程,保存书籍,做慈善,照顾病人。

  6. Methods of growth - people were accepted as soon as they would be baptized; little instruction given once in the church

    发展方式——人们一经受洗就接受了,教会几乎不提供指导。

B. The Pope’s power prospers. 教皇的权力大增

  1. Gregory I “the Great” - a man of noble character, great energy, devotion, ability; strongly believed the apostolic tradition of the Roman bishop; used his position to spread Roman rule by mission efforts

    格雷戈里一世“大教皇”——品格高贵,精神充沛,乐于奉献,有能力,非常相信罗马教皇的试图传统,利用他的教皇之位,通过传教来扩张罗马统治。

  2. Causes - collapse of any other government; people looked to the bishop at time of need; his exercise of spiritual authority made other rule natural

    起因——其他政府的倒台;人民在需要的时候寻求主教;教皇的精神权威的实行使得他制定的其他政策得以自然实施。

  3. Claims for power - “False Decretals” were forgeries of early church accounts giving false claims for the authority of the Roman bishop; written in the 9th century and used by Nicholas I (858-867)

    索取权力——“伪教令集”是早期教会的伪造教令,为给予罗马教皇权威的虚假声明, 编纂于9世纪,为尼古拉斯一世(858-867)所使用。

  4. The church divided - East and West separated first in 867 and later in permanent division in 1054 over authority of the Roman bishop

    教会分裂——东西方教会于公元867年分离,其后于公元1054年在罗马主教的授权下彻底分裂。

III.Islam emerges as an international power 伊斯兰教作为国际势力开始显露

A.The life of Muhammad 穆罕默德生平

  1. Early years - born in 570 at Mecca; parents died when young; at age 15 became a merchant for a wealthy widow, Khadijah, whom he later married

    生平早期——于公元570年出生于麦加;自幼父母双亡。15岁时为一名富有的寡妇海地泽经商,之后与之结婚。

  2. Religious influences - probable contacts with Christians in Syria, no acceptance of central doctrines of Christian faith; idol worship in Arabia was popular (one of the gods called Allah)

    宗教影响——在叙利亚与基督徒有所联系;没有接受核心的基督教信仰教义;偶像崇拜在阿拉伯国家非常盛行(其中的一个神叫做安拉)

  3. His claims - at age 40 a vision of angel Gabriel to be Allah’s messenger; claimed to receive direct revelations in a cave outside Mecca; his revelations later formulated in the Koran by his followers; claimed to be the final prophet

    他的主张——40岁时,从安拉的信使天使加百利那里得到异象,宣称在麦加外的一个洞穴得到了直接的启示;他的启示随后由信徒整理编成《古兰经》;宣称他是最后的先知。

B.Early expansion of Islam 伊斯兰教的早期扩张

  1. During time of Muhammad - began preaching message of Islam after his visions, “There is no god but Allah (the one god), and Muhammad is his prophet”; much hostility at first; forced to flee Mecca in 622 to Medina (the Hegira); support for followers by raiding caravans; in 630 conquered Mecca and forced his beliefs upon the people

    穆罕默德时期——在他的异象后,就开始传播伊斯兰教的信息;“除真主安拉(唯一真神)外别无他神,穆罕默德是他的先知”;一开始树敌甚众,被迫于公元622年从麦加流亡到麦地那(希吉拉);支持追随者抢劫商队,于公元630年占领麦加并把他的信仰强加到人们身上。

  2. Following death - power struggles among relatives resulted in factions of Shiite and Shunni

    随之灭亡——亲戚间的争斗导致伊斯兰教分裂为什叶派及逊尼派。

  3. Conquests - North Africa, Spain, Turkey, Persia, Arabia, Egypt, Palestine, Iraq, Armenia

    征服——北非、西班牙、土耳其、波斯、阿拉伯、埃及、巴勒斯坦、伊拉克及亚美尼亚。

C.Islamic teachings 伊斯兰教义

  1. Koran - holy book of their faith; recorded after Muhammad’s death; used as textbook in Moslem countries

    古兰经——伊斯兰教的圣经;穆罕默德去世后成书;在穆斯林国家被当做教材使用。

  2. The Bible and Christianity - the Bible revered but interpreted on basis of Koran; prophets and Jesus as lesser messengers; rejection of the Trinity; rejection of atonement of Jesus

    对圣经和基督教的看法——圣经当受敬畏,但它是在古兰经的基础上翻译的;先知和耶稣只是少数的传信者;拒绝三位一体;拒绝耶稣赎罪的说法。

  3. Five Pillars of Islam –

    伊斯兰教的五大支柱——

    a. State that Allah is the only God and Mohammad is his prophet;

    声明安拉是唯一真神,穆罕默德是他的先知;

    b. ritual prayer five times daily;

    每天进行五次祷告仪式;

    c. almsgiving of 140 of all possessions;

    乐捐所有财产的40分之一。

    d. fasting during month of Ramadan;

    在斋月期间禁食

    e. pilgrimage to Mecca

    去麦加朝拜

  4. Other laws - rules of life interpreted by the leaders; no priesthood by a presiding elder (imam) who leads prayers; no pork, drinking or gambling; women in strict obedience; belief and practice in racial equality; at times tolerant of other religions; swift punishment for wrongdoers

    其他规定——生活中的律法由领袖来解释;监督长老(阿訇)是带领祷告的,不得任祭司;不准吃猪肉,不准喝酒,不准赌博;女人必须严格顺从;种族平等的信仰和实践;不时忍受其他宗教;做错事的要马上惩罚。

A COMPARISON OF CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM 基督教和伊斯兰教对比

KEY CONCEPTS BIBLICAL CHRISTIANITY ISLAM
主要内容 合乎圣经的基督教 伊斯兰教
Who is God? The only real God is triune: 1+1+1=1. The Father is 100% God. The Son is 100% God. The Holy Spirit is 100% God. There is only one God. God is Allah. There is only one God. Many Muslims think Christians believe in three gods, which means they worship an idol.
谁是上帝? 三位一体的神是独一真神;圣父是百分之百的上帝;圣子是百分之百的神;圣灵是百分之百的神。只有一个上帝。 安拉就是上帝。很多穆斯林认为基督教信仰三位上帝,这就意味着他们在崇拜偶像。
Who is Jesus? Jesus is 100% God.He is God the Son.He has always existed.No one made Him.He became 100% God and 100% human at His conception in Mary.His life and damnation death is the only way to God and escape from hell. He came back to life and is still alive.He will be humanity’s judge on the last day. Jesus (“Isa”) is one of the 124,000 messengers Allah has sent us.Jesus is not God.God is not Jesus.Jesus was born from a virgin, a great miracle worker, and sinless.He didn’t die on a cross.He will have a role when he returns before the last day, maybe turning Christians to Islam.
耶稣是谁? 耶稣是百分之百的神。是上帝之子,是一直存在的。没人造就他,在玛利亚怀孕时他既是完全的神,也是完全的人。他的生命和受咒诅的死亡是唯一通往上帝的道路,也是唯一从地狱逃脱的道路他从死里复活并且仍然活着。在审判日他将审判众人。 耶稣(伊萨)是124000名神的使者之一。安拉派遣他们给我们。上帝不是耶稣。耶稣从童贞女所生,是个伟大奇迹,是无罪地。他不是死于十字架。当他在审判日再次返回时他将在审判日担任一个角色,可能是使基督徒转向伊斯兰教。
Who is the Holy Spirit? The Holy Spirit is God.He is a person, not a force or energy source.He is not the Father or the Son, Jesus.He makes people believers and keeps them part of God’s family. Allah has or is a spirit.Muslim reject the concept of the 1+1+1=1 God.They do not believe there is a person who is God who is the Holy Spirit.
圣灵是谁? 圣灵是上帝。他是三位一体神的一个位格,不是力量和精神来源。不是圣父或圣子耶稣。他使人成为信徒并让人成为上帝家庭的一部分。 安拉有或者就是一个灵。穆斯林拒绝三位一体神的概念。不相信有个人既是上帝又是圣 灵。
How to be saved? Out of God’s love no one deserves He designed a plan to rescue everyone. He sent Jesus to substitute His perfect life and damnation death for every human.Those who reject God’s gift go to hell.God deserves the credit for everyone who depends on Jesus. Humans are basically good, but they can sin.They need Allah’s help.The balance between the good and evil you do determines whether you will go to heaven or hell.The more obedient you are to Allah, the more mercy he will show you.
如何得救? 除了上帝的爱之外无人值得救赎。神制定了计划来拯救所有人。他派遣耶稣以完美的生命和受诅咒的死亡代替每个人受死。凡是拒绝上帝恩典的都将下地狱。凡是依赖耶稣基督的人都应称颂上帝。 人类本质上是善的,但是可以犯罪。需要安拉的帮助。你所行的善与恶之间的平衡状况决定了你是要上天堂还是下地狱。你越顺从安拉,他就会给你越多的仁慈。
What happens after death? The bodies of both believers and non-believers will come back to life at the end. Jesus will take believers to heaven. Those who reject Jesus’ gift will suffer forever in hell. Muslims believe Allah will bring their dead bodies to life again.The punishment of hell is a common theme in the Koran.Islam believes paradise is a garden where Allah will give virgin girls to righteous men.
死后会如何? 信徒和非信徒的身体在死后都会最终复活。耶稣将带信徒升上天堂。拒绝耶稣恩典的将永远在地狱忍受痛苦。 穆斯林相信安拉会让他们起死回生。古兰经中,地狱的惩罚是个永恒的主题。伊斯兰教相信天堂是一个花园,在那里,安拉把童贞女们许配给义人。
Other facts, beliefs, or practices Group worship.No secret ceremonies.Baptism and Communion Voluntary charity and missionary work are important for reaching people with Jesus’ love. Worship is in a mosque.Holy efforts to spread Islam are jihad.Always pray facing Mecca.
其他事实、信条或实践 团体敬拜。没有秘密敬拜仪式。受洗和圣餐,自愿做慈善,传教对把人们带向耶稣的爱是非常重要的。 在清真寺做礼拜。为传播伊斯兰教做出神圣努力就是圣战。永远朝向麦加祷告。
Christian History After Jesus
第一课:基督教的影响
Lesson 1: Influences on Christians
第二课:早期基督教 公元100-313
Lesson 2: Ancient Christianity 100 – 313 A.D
第三课 早期基督教 公元313-590年
Lesson 3: Ancient Christianity 313 – 590 A.D.
第四课 中世纪早期的基督教 公元590-1073年
Lesson 4: Early Middle-Aged Christianity 590 – 1073 A.D.
第五课 中世纪早期的基督教 II 公元590-1073年
Lesson 5: Early Middle-Aged Christianity II 590 – 1073 A.D.
第六课 中世纪基督教的高度 公元1074-1294
Lesson 6: The Height of Middle-Aged Christianity, 1074-1294
第七课:中世纪衰落,新生,公元1294-1517
Lesson 7: Middle-Aged Decay, Then New Life, 1294-1517
第八课:宗教改革时期,第一部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 8: The Reformation Age, part 1: 1517 – 1648
第九课:宗教改革时期 ,第二部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 9: The Reformation Age, part 2: 1517 – 1648
第十课:基督教: 1648年至现代
Lesson 10: Christianity: 1648-Modern times
第四课 中世纪早期的基督教 公元590-1073年
Lesson 4: Early Middle-Aged Christianity 590 – 1073 A.D.