恩典国际圣经学院

第五课 中世纪早期的基督教 II 公元590-1073年
Lesson 5: Early Middle-Aged Christianity II 590 – 1073 A.D.

I.World conditions 世界形势

A.Muslim influence – 穆斯林的影响——

  1. Wherever Islam ruled, they ordered Christians to pay tribute.

    无论伊斯兰教在哪里处于统治地位,他们都命令基督徒进贡。

  2. They refuse to allow Christians to build new churches.

    他们拒绝基督徒建立新教堂。

  3. Sometimes there were ruthless efforts to overpower Christians.

    时有残酷镇压基督徒的事件。

  4. Christian parents may be ordered to give up their children to serve in Islamic armies

    他们可能命令基督徒的父母抛弃孩子,让他们进入伊斯兰教军队。

B. Among European Christians 欧洲的基督徒中

  1. Muslim conquests deprived Christian groups of large numbers.

    穆斯林征服并夺取基督教团体大量成员。

  2. Mission work in the immediate area ceased.

    传教工作立时停止。

  3. There was some outreach to India, China, and Russia that continued.

    很多基督徒延展到了印度、中国、俄罗斯并持续发展

    a. Europe, including Russia, had about 40 million people.

    欧洲,包括俄罗斯有着四千万人口。

    b. Europe had between 25-30 million Christians.

    欧洲有2500-3000万的

    c. Asia had 17-20 million Christians, with another 5 million in Africa.

    亚洲有1700万-2000万的基督徒,非洲有500万。

C. In China, enemies almost got rid of all Christianity on at least two occasions, once in the 900s and then again in the 1300s. 在中国,至少有两次,教会的敌对者几乎除掉了所有的基督教。这两次事件一次在公元900年代,一次发生在公元1300年代。

  1. Each time missionaries had to start all over again.

    每一次传教工作都需要完全从头开始。

  2. God kept little groups of Christians safe through long years of persecution. Around 1300, Marco Polo reported groups of Christians in China for over 700 years.

    在漫长的受迫害的年代中,上帝始终保护着一小部分基督徒的安全。在公元1300年代左右,马可波罗报告在中国有持续了超过700年的基督徒团契。

  3. In 1605, Catholic missionary Matteo Ricci reported that in central China a considerable group of Christians had been in existence for 500 years and that there were important traces of them in many places.

    公元1605年,天主教传教利玛窦士报告说 ,在中国中部,有个相当大的基督徒团体已经存在了超过500年,在很多地方都有他们的重要的踪迹。

II.Life for Christians in Europe 欧洲基督徒的生活

A.The people 人群

  1. Mass conversion is the method that made Europe’s pagan peoples Christian

    群体信主是 将欧洲异教徒转变成基督徒的方式。

    a. Missionary monks removed barbarian magic from power by calling down superior firepower.

    传教士通过祈求更高超异能的方式除去了野蛮人的魔法。

    i. Famous British missionary Winfrid (Boniface) marched into hostile non-Christian Germany in 729. He went to the sacred forest of Thor, the god of thunder. A massive oak tree was the symbol of Thor’s presence. The story says that after Boniface sliced it once with an ax, a mighty wind from God toppled the tree.

    著名的英国传教士圣波尼法爵于公元729年长驱直入敌对的非基督教的德国。他进入了雷神索尔的圣林。那里有一棵雄伟的橡树,是索尔存在的标志。有故事说在圣波尼法爵把那棵树用斧头劈了一下后,一阵的剧烈的从上帝而来的劲风吹倒了那棵树。

    ii. The rumor about one missionary monk among England’s warlike tribes was that he could make tails grow on the backs of people who didn’t listen to him.

    有个关于传教士在英格兰好战民族中的谣言,说是他能让那些不听他的话的人长出尾巴来。

  2. Spiritual condition – New German Christians controlled Europe at this time). Murder and adultery were facts of life, even after conversion.

    灵性状态 - 德国新入教的基督徒们在这个时候控制了欧洲。尽管他们已从异教徒转变成了基督徒,但谋杀和通奸的事实仍然发生。

    a. They thought of Jesus as a glorified warlord. The Frank tribe especially admired Peter because he used to sword to slice off the ear of the high priest’s servant to protect Jesus.

    他们认为耶稣是个荣耀的战神。弗兰克部落尤其尊崇彼得,因为他曾为了保护耶稣用剑把大祭司仆人的耳朵砍下来了。

    b. New German Christians brought their superstitions with them into Christianity. Saint worship took the spotlight off Jesus.

    新加入的德国基督徒把他们之前的迷信信仰带入了基督教中。圣徒崇拜取代了对耶稣的崇拜。

    i. They believed St. Anthony took care of pigs.

    他们相信圣安东尼是猪的保护神。

    ii. They believed St. Gaul looked after hens.

    相信圣高卢是母鸡的保护神。

    iii. They believed St. Apollonia, whose jaw was broken in the persecution, cured toothaches.

    相信下颌骨在迫害中被打碎的圣阿波罗尼娅能治愈牙痛。

    iv. They believed St. Genevieve cured fevers.

    相信圣日内维耶治愈发烧。

    v. They believed St. Blaise was responsible for sore throats.

    相信圣布雷斯掌管咽喉炎。

    c. People believed that doing Christian things was the way to heaven. Christians kept and worshiped historical artifacts that once belonged to a saint, martyr, or Christian leader (relics).

    人们相信做那些基督徒当做的事就能上天堂。基督徒收藏及崇拜曾那些历史上曾属于圣人、殉道者或是基督徒领袖的物件(遗物)。

B.The priests 祭司们

  1. Government control – rulers sold church leadership assignments to the highest bidder. Rulers also donated property to monasteries in exchange for loyalty oaths and military service.

    政府控制——当权者们把教会首领的职位出卖给那些出价最高的人。他们向修道院捐钱,来换取修士们表忠心的誓言和服军役。

  2. Corruption – a lot of priests were runaway slaves or criminals with no education or training.

    腐败——很多祭司是逃跑的奴隶或者罪犯,没受过教育和祭司培训。

    a. Priests were drunk and in it for the money they could make. Many of them were married or had women living with them. This also became the way monks lived. Supervising priests were the worst.

    祭司们醉心于赚到的钱,很多人有婚姻或者与女人同居。这同样成为了修道士生活的方式,那些掌权牧师们是最糟糕的。

    b. The Position of Pope – This became a political contest for control. Christians bought, sold, or got to be pope as a favor. For a while a family of infamous women controlled who would be pope. Many popes lived alcoholics, adulterers, even murderers.

    教皇的权位——成为了争夺控制权的政治地位。基督徒们随心所欲买卖教皇之位。有一段时间,有个声名狼藉的家庭的妇女控制着谁做教皇的权利。很多教皇酗酒、通奸,甚至谋杀。

C.A fresh start 崭新的开始

  1. Positive change in Christianity

    基督教正面的改变

    a. Church leaders decided to elect a monk named Gregory as Pope in 590.

    教会领袖们于公元590年决定选举修道士格雷戈里为教皇。

    i. He refused the position, hid in the woods, and was dragged back to Rome to take the position.

    他拒绝了教皇之位,隐藏在树林里,被强行拖回罗马出任教皇。

    ii. He took the job seriously and became one of the most famous of the Christian church leaders from long ago.

    他工作极为认真,成为有史以来最有名的基督教领袖。

    iii.He called himself “the servant of the servants of God.”

    他称自己为“上帝仆人的仆人”

    iv. He emphasized belief that dead saints had extra good works that were on deposit in heaven for you to buy.

    他强调这样的信条,就是死去的圣人们有额外的善行存在天堂,让在世的人可以去买。

    v. He also encouraged collection and worship of remains of saints and martyrs – locks of hair, finger nails, toes, pieces of cloths. Gregory taught these possessed great powers, including that of self-defense.

    他也鼓励收集和崇拜圣人和殉道者们的遗物,比如头发、指甲、脚趾、衣服的碎片等。格雷戈里教导说这些物品拥有强大的能量,包括自我防卫的力量。

    b. the monastery at Cluny in France encouraged positive changes for monks in monasteries all over by spread in Europe.

    法国克卢尼市的修道院鼓励修士们做出积极的改变,这种正面的改变影响了整个欧洲。

    i. They eliminated the practice of buying supervisory positions among Christians.

    他们废除了基督徒中间买卖教会领导职位的行为。

    ii. They demanded priests, monks and nuns behave sexually.

    他们要求祭司、修道士和修女清心寡欲。

    iii. Popes Leo IX (1049-1054) and Hildebrand, Gregory VII (1073-1085) supported these positive changes.

    教皇利奥九世(公元1049-1054)和希尔德布兰德,教皇格雷高里七世(公元1073-1085)支持这些正向的改变。

Christian History After Jesus
第一课:基督教的影响
Lesson 1: Influences on Christians
第二课:早期基督教 公元100-313
Lesson 2: Ancient Christianity 100 – 313 A.D
第三课 早期基督教 公元313-590年
Lesson 3: Ancient Christianity 313 – 590 A.D.
第四课 中世纪早期的基督教 公元590-1073年
Lesson 4: Early Middle-Aged Christianity 590 – 1073 A.D.
第五课 中世纪早期的基督教 II 公元590-1073年
Lesson 5: Early Middle-Aged Christianity II 590 – 1073 A.D.
第六课 中世纪基督教的高度 公元1074-1294
Lesson 6: The Height of Middle-Aged Christianity, 1074-1294
第七课:中世纪衰落,新生,公元1294-1517
Lesson 7: Middle-Aged Decay, Then New Life, 1294-1517
第八课:宗教改革时期,第一部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 8: The Reformation Age, part 1: 1517 – 1648
第九课:宗教改革时期 ,第二部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 9: The Reformation Age, part 2: 1517 – 1648
第十课:基督教: 1648年至现代
Lesson 10: Christianity: 1648-Modern times
第五课 中世纪早期的基督教 II 公元590-1073年
Lesson 5: Early Middle-Aged Christianity II 590 – 1073 A.D.