第六课 中世纪基督教的高度 公元1074-1294
Lesson 6: The Height of Middle-Aged Christianity, 1074-1294
I.World conditions 世界形势
A.In Europe 在欧洲
Tribes become kingdoms – Nations began to emerge from the warfare and chaos. They established kings and organized nations.
Education – Learning advanced in schools that monasteries organized. In the 1200’s monk scholars organized institutions of higher Christian learning, called universities.
B.In Eastern countries 在东方诸国
a. The Seljuk Turks became the dominant force in the Muslim world
b.The Mongols controlled much of China and Russia.
The Holy Land
a. Many Christians would take religious trips to visit places Jesus knew.
b. Control by hostile Moslems prevented visits.
C.In China 在中国
Between the 900s and 1200s there is no recorded history of Christianity in China. That doesn’t mean it didn’t exist in secret.
Nestorian missionaries returned when the Mongols conquered China and established the Yuan dynasty (1271-1368).
a. Mongol rulers like Kublai Khan were happy to tolerate Christian and Buddhist religions.
b. Marco Polo often reports finding groups of Christians.
c.Missionaries used trade routes, like the Silk Road, as settlements.
d. They also worked on the southeast coast of China in cities like Zhenjiang (Chinkiang) with seven monasteries and Hangzhou.
Roman Catholic missionaries arrived in China at the end of the 1200s. They had bishops in Beijing and Zaitan (Quanzhou), along with other places.
II.The Pope’s power increases in Europe. 在欧洲，教皇的权力增大
A.The beginnings in early Christianity 始于基督教早期
The bishop of Rome fought to have Christians recognize him as the head of Christians in Europe.
When European rulers were weak, the Pope became the most powerful political leader there.
Popes were corrupt from wealth, power, and sexual sin.
B.Things changed when Pope Hildebrandt was in charge. 当教皇希尔德布兰特掌权时事情有了变化。
In 1073 he was elected pope. His pope name was Gregory VII, and he claimed unprecedented power for his position.
Choosing the pope – Hildebrandt wanted to reform the church
a. For centuries emperors controlled the pope.
b. Hildebrandt established of the College of Cardinals to select new popes.
Pope Hildebrandt had goals.
a. free the church from control of politicians and rulers;
b. end the practice of letting government officials sell church leadership positions to the highest bidder. The pope wanted to make the money from these bids;
c. make the Catholic pope the most powerful ruler in Europe;
d. his contest with Henry IV at Canossa in 1077 for control
i. Henry IV was Holy Roman Emperor of Germany.
ii. Pope Gregory excommunicated Henry for being disloyal. This means Henry’s subjects didn’t have to obey him.
iii. Henry showed up at a castle (Canossa) the pope was visiting in the mountains of Italy in January, 1077 to beg for forgiveness.
iv. Henry dressed in rags and stood barefoot in the snow for three days before Gregory forgave him.
Pope Hildebrandt had weapons.
i. The church refused a person “the grace” that person needed for salvation.
ii. After the bishop read the solemn sentence of excommunication, a bell rang as for a funeral, a book was closed, and a candle was put out. All this pictured that the guilty person was cut off from God and His church.
iii.If the person entered a church during the service, people kicked him out, or the service stopped.
iv. People under excommunication couldn’t be judges, jurors, witnesses, or attorneys. That person had no legal status.
v.After death, they received no Christian burial. If someone happened to bury an excommunicated person’s body in a Christian cemetery, they dug up the body and destroyed it.
i. Excommunication was aimed at individuals. The interdict fell on whole nations.
ii.It suspended all public worship in this country.
iii. That country had no access to the sacraments, except for baptism and last rites.
iv. Gregory VII threatened to use and actually did use the interdict 85 times against uncooperative countries during his 12 years as pope.
The popes got what they worked so hard for. Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) said that popes “are the mediators between God and humans. The pope is less than God, but greater than humans. He is the judge of every person, but no one can judge him.” Popes forced kings in England and France to obey them.
教皇们的努力终于有了成果。教皇 依诺森三世（公元1198-1216）曾说，教皇“是神和人之间的中介。教皇低于 上帝，但是高于普通人。是每个人的审判者，但是没人能审判他。”教皇迫使英格兰和法国的国王顺从他。
III.The condition of Christianity in Europe – only southern Spain and eastern and southern Russia were not Christian. Muslims controlled southern Spain. 欧洲的基督教形势——只有西班牙南部和俄罗斯东部及南部是没有基督徒的。西班牙南部被穆斯林统治着。
A.The Crusades (1096-1291) 十字军东征（公元1096-1291）
The reasons for the Crusades
a. Pilgrimages to the Holy Land were very popular for European Christians.
b. Muslims controlled the Holy Land.
c. The pope wanted to control warring European nobles. So he turned them into security guards in the Holy Land for a religious cause.
i. The word crusade comes from “carrying the cross.” On the way to the Holy Land the crusader wore the cross symbol on his chest. One the way home he wore it on his back.
ii.The pope offered complete escape from purgatory to anyone who helped war against the Islamic enemy.
The results of the Crusades – victory in first crusade; all others failed. Holy Land remained in Muslim control
a. There were six crusades in all, including the Children’s Crusade (1212).
b. There were war atrocities on both sides. The crimes of “Christian” crusaders are the most disgraceful.
i. They led horrible attacks against Jews.
ii.Even fellow Christians were not exempt from rape and looting.
iii.Crusaders sawed open dead Muslim bodies to search for gold. Sometimes they cooked and cannibalized them, bragging that Muslims tasted “tasted better than spiced peacock.”
十字军锯开死去的穆斯林的身体寻找黄金。有时候 也会 烹煮并食用人肉，夸口说穆斯林尝起来“味道比用香料调制的孔雀肉好吃”
B. The impact of monks 修道士的影响
a. Bernard of Clarivaux (1090-1153) was the head monk at a monastery in France. He was the most influential church leader of his time.
b. Dominic (1170-1221) was a monk from Spain. He believed he could best convert heretics by going to them as a poor man, “barefoot and begging.” The Dominicans were the monks who followed his example. They taught people mainly in population centers.
c. Frances was a monk from Assisi, Italy (1182-1226). His followers, Franciscan monks, devoted themselves to helping poor people.
The results of their work –
a. Priests were disregarding the needs of their people. These monks took special care of people the priests ignored.
b. Eventually, the passion for God’s work cooled. Different vices attracted them.
C.Christian beliefs 基督徒信仰
Christianity had become a religion of fear. They pictured God as the creator and Jesus as the judge.
Superstition – stories of saints; fear of priests
Worship life – Church leaders pictured sacraments as our tickets to heaven.
a. The mass was the main feature of Christian worship.
b. There were no sermons or Bible study.
c. People put Mary and saints as high as God.
d. They believed that the priest was in charge of whether they went to heaven or not.