恩典国际圣经学院

第六课 中世纪基督教的高度 公元1074-1294
Lesson 6: The Height of Middle-Aged Christianity, 1074-1294

I.World conditions 世界形势

A.In Europe 在欧洲

  1. Tribes become kingdoms – Nations began to emerge from the warfare and chaos. They established kings and organized nations.

    部族成为国家——从战火和混乱中,国家初具雏形。有了国王和有组织的国家。

  2. Education – Learning advanced in schools that monasteries organized. In the 1200’s monk scholars organized institutions of higher Christian learning, called universities.

    教育——修道院建立的学校中有了高等学习。在公元1200年代,修道士学者们建立了基督徒更高等的学习机构,称为大学。

B.In Eastern countries 在东方诸国

  1. Invasions –

    入侵——

    a. The Seljuk Turks became the dominant force in the Muslim world

    塞尔柱土耳其人称霸穆斯林国家。

    b.The Mongols controlled much of China and Russia.

    蒙古人控制了中国和俄罗斯的很多区域。

  2. The Holy Land

    圣地

    a. Many Christians would take religious trips to visit places Jesus knew.

    很多基督徒会进行朝圣之旅,拜访耶稣知道的地方。

    b. Control by hostile Moslems prevented visits.

    被敌对的穆斯林教徒控制的地方拒绝来访者。

C.In China 在中国

  1. Between the 900s and 1200s there is no recorded history of Christianity in China. That doesn’t mean it didn’t exist in secret.

    在公元900-1200年间,没有关于中国基督徒的历史记录。但这并不是说基督徒没有在中国秘密地存在。

  2. Nestorian missionaries returned when the Mongols conquered China and established the Yuan dynasty (1271-1368).

    当蒙古人统治中国,建立元朝时(1271-1368),基督教传教士回归了中国。

    a. Mongol rulers like Kublai Khan were happy to tolerate Christian and Buddhist religions.

    蒙古统治者像忽必烈汗乐意认可基督教和佛教。

    b. Marco Polo often reports finding groups of Christians.

    马可波罗常常报告说发现了基督徒团契。

    c.Missionaries used trade routes, like the Silk Road, as settlements.

    传教士利用商路,如丝绸之路这样的地方作为定居点。

    d. They also worked on the southeast coast of China in cities like Zhenjiang (Chinkiang) with seven monasteries and Hangzhou.

    传教士们也在中国东南沿海的城市传教,如镇江有7所修道院,还有杭州也有。

  3. Roman Catholic missionaries arrived in China at the end of the 1200s. They had bishops in Beijing and Zaitan (Quanzhou), along with other places.

    罗马天主教传教士于公元1200年代末到达中国,他们在北京和广州及其他很多地方都有主教。

II.The Pope’s power increases in Europe. 在欧洲,教皇的权力增大

A.The beginnings in early Christianity 始于基督教早期

  1. The bishop of Rome fought to have Christians recognize him as the head of Christians in Europe.

    罗马主教为让基督徒承认他是欧洲基督教的首领而斗争。

  2. When European rulers were weak, the Pope became the most powerful political leader there.

    欧洲统治者们变得衰弱的时候,教皇成为了那里最有权力的政治领袖。

  3. Popes were corrupt from wealth, power, and sexual sin.

    教皇在财富、权力、性犯罪方面都在堕落。

B.Things changed when Pope Hildebrandt was in charge. 当教皇希尔德布兰特掌权时事情有了变化。

  1. In 1073 he was elected pope. His pope name was Gregory VII, and he claimed unprecedented power for his position.

    1073年,他被选举为教皇,他的教皇称号是格雷高里七世,他宣称他的教皇之位是空前的。

  2. Choosing the pope – Hildebrandt wanted to reform the church

    选择教皇——希尔德布兰特想要重新整顿教会。

    a. For centuries emperors controlled the pope.

    几世纪以来,皇帝们控制着教皇。

    b. Hildebrandt established of the College of Cardinals to select new popes.

    希尔德布兰特成立了枢机主教团来选举教皇。

  3. Pope Hildebrandt had goals.

    教皇希尔德布兰特的目标:

    a. free the church from control of politicians and rulers;

    把教会从政治家和掌权者手中释放出来

    b. end the practice of letting government officials sell church leadership positions to the highest bidder. The pope wanted to make the money from these bids;

    终止允许政府官员把教会领袖职位卖给出价最高者的举动。教皇想要从这些出价者手中赚钱。

    c. make the Catholic pope the most powerful ruler in Europe;

    使天主教教皇成为欧洲最有权势的统治者。

    d. his contest with Henry IV at Canossa in 1077 for control

    他与亨利四世1077年在卡诺萨展开了争夺统治权的斗争。

    i. Henry IV was Holy Roman Emperor of Germany.

    亨利四世是德国的神圣罗马皇帝

    ii. Pope Gregory excommunicated Henry for being disloyal. This means Henry’s subjects didn’t have to obey him.

    格雷高里教皇因为亨利的不忠把他驱逐出教会。这就意味着亨利的臣属们不用服从他。

    iii. Henry showed up at a castle (Canossa) the pope was visiting in the mountains of Italy in January, 1077 to beg for forgiveness.

    1077年1月教皇正在意大利的山中,亨利出现在了卡诺撒的一个城堡里,乞求教皇的宽恕。

    iv. Henry dressed in rags and stood barefoot in the snow for three days before Gregory forgave him.

    教皇宽恕他之前,亨利衣衫褴褛,光着脚在雪地中站了三天。

  4. Pope Hildebrandt had weapons.

    教皇希尔德布兰特的武器

    a. Excommunication

    逐出教会

    i. The church refused a person “the grace” that person needed for salvation.

    教会拒绝给予一个需要救赎的人“恩典”。

    ii. After the bishop read the solemn sentence of excommunication, a bell rang as for a funeral, a book was closed, and a candle was put out. All this pictured that the guilty person was cut off from God and His church.

    在主教读完肃穆的逐出教会的条文后,丧钟鸣响,书卷合上,蜡烛吹灭。这正是一个罪人被切断与神和教会的联系时候的画面。

    iii.If the person entered a church during the service, people kicked him out, or the service stopped.

    如果一个人在礼拜中间进入教会,人们会把他踢出去,或者礼拜侍奉会停止。

    iv. People under excommunication couldn’t be judges, jurors, witnesses, or attorneys. That person had no legal status.

    被逐出教会的人不能出任法官、陪审员、证人或者律师。

    v.After death, they received no Christian burial. If someone happened to bury an excommunicated person’s body in a Christian cemetery, they dug up the body and destroyed it.

    死后也得不到基督徒的葬礼。如果有人不小心把被逐出教会的人埋入基督徒的墓地,他们会把尸体挖出来毁掉。

    b. Interdict

    停止教权(圣事活动)的禁令

    i. Excommunication was aimed at individuals. The interdict fell on whole nations.

    驱逐出教会是针对个人的,禁令是针对整个国家的。

    ii.It suspended all public worship in this country.

    禁令会终止整个国家的公开崇拜。

    iii. That country had no access to the sacraments, except for baptism and last rites.

    被禁令的国家除了洗礼和临终祈祷外,不得进行其他圣礼。

    iv. Gregory VII threatened to use and actually did use the interdict 85 times against uncooperative countries during his 12 years as pope.

    格雷高利七世威胁说要采取,实际上也真的采取过85次禁令政策,来反对那些在他出任教皇12年期间不合作的国家。

  5. The popes got what they worked so hard for. Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) said that popes “are the mediators between God and humans. The pope is less than God, but greater than humans. He is the judge of every person, but no one can judge him.” Popes forced kings in England and France to obey them.

    教皇们的努力终于有了成果。教皇 依诺森三世(公元1198-1216)曾说,教皇“是神和人之间的中介。教皇低于 上帝,但是高于普通人。是每个人的审判者,但是没人能审判他。”教皇迫使英格兰和法国的国王顺从他。

III.The condition of Christianity in Europe – only southern Spain and eastern and southern Russia were not Christian. Muslims controlled southern Spain. 欧洲的基督教形势——只有西班牙南部和俄罗斯东部及南部是没有基督徒的。西班牙南部被穆斯林统治着。

A.The Crusades (1096-1291) 十字军东征(公元1096-1291)

  1. The reasons for the Crusades

    十字军东征的原因

    a. Pilgrimages to the Holy Land were very popular for European Christians.

    对欧洲的基督徒来说,去圣地朝圣变得非常流行。

    b. Muslims controlled the Holy Land.

    穆斯林控制着圣地。

    c. The pope wanted to control warring European nobles. So he turned them into security guards in the Holy Land for a religious cause.

    教皇想要控制征战的欧洲贵族们,因此他以一个宗教缘由使这些人转而去护卫圣地的安全。

    i. The word crusade comes from “carrying the cross.” On the way to the Holy Land the crusader wore the cross symbol on his chest. One the way home he wore it on his back.

    “十字军”这个词来源于“背负十字架”。在前往圣地的路上,十字军把十字架的标志挂在胸前,回去的路上背在身后。

    ii.The pope offered complete escape from purgatory to anyone who helped war against the Islamic enemy.

    任何在战争中帮助抵抗伊斯兰敌军的人,教皇使他们从炼狱完全逃脱。

  2. The results of the Crusades – victory in first crusade; all others failed. Holy Land remained in Muslim control

    十字军东征的结果——第一次东征胜利了,其他东征都失败了。圣地还是处于穆斯林的控制中。

    a. There were six crusades in all, including the Children’s Crusade (1212).

    一共有六次东征,包括1212年的儿童十字军。

    b. There were war atrocities on both sides. The crimes of “Christian” crusaders are the most disgraceful.

    对战双方都有战争暴行。“基督教”十字军的罪行反而是最可耻的。

    i. They led horrible attacks against Jews.

    这些暴行导致了对犹太人的袭击。

    ii.Even fellow Christians were not exempt from rape and looting.

    甚至其他基督徒也免不了被强奸及抢劫的暴行。

    iii.Crusaders sawed open dead Muslim bodies to search for gold. Sometimes they cooked and cannibalized them, bragging that Muslims tasted “tasted better than spiced peacock.”

    十字军锯开死去的穆斯林的身体寻找黄金。有时候 也会 烹煮并食用人肉,夸口说穆斯林尝起来“味道比用香料调制的孔雀肉好吃”

B. The impact of monks 修道士的影响

  1. Influential monks

    有影响力的修道士

    a. Bernard of Clarivaux (1090-1153) was the head monk at a monastery in France. He was the most influential church leader of his time.

    克莱夫的伯纳德(1090-1153)是法国修道院修士们的首领。在他的时代是最有影响力的教会领袖。

    b. Dominic (1170-1221) was a monk from Spain. He believed he could best convert heretics by going to them as a poor man, “barefoot and begging.” The Dominicans were the monks who followed his example. They taught people mainly in population centers.

    多米尼克(1170-1221)是来自西班牙的修道士。他相信他通过扮演穷人“光脚乞讨”接近而最好地转变异教徒。道明会信徒是追随他榜样的修道士们,他们主要在人口集中区教导人。

    c. Frances was a monk from Assisi, Italy (1182-1226). His followers, Franciscan monks, devoted themselves to helping poor people.

    方济是来自意大利阿西西的修道士(1182-1226).他的追随者们称为方济会修士,致力于帮助穷人。

  2. The results of their work –

    他们工作的成果——

    a. Priests were disregarding the needs of their people. These monks took special care of people the priests ignored.

    由于祭司们忽视人们的需求,这些修道士们特别照料那些被祭司们忽视的人。

    b. Eventually, the passion for God’s work cooled. Different vices attracted them.

    最终,为上帝工作的激情冷却了,他们沾染了不同的恶习。

C.Christian beliefs 基督徒信仰

  1. Christianity had become a religion of fear. They pictured God as the creator and Jesus as the judge.

    基督教变成了一个恐惧的宗教。他们把上帝描画成创造者,而耶稣是审判者。

  2. Superstition – stories of saints; fear of priests

    迷信——圣徒的故事;对祭司的恐惧。

  3. Worship life – Church leaders pictured sacraments as our tickets to heaven.

    敬拜生活——教会领袖把圣礼视为我们进入天堂的门票。

    a. The mass was the main feature of Christian worship.

    团体聚会是基督徒敬拜的主要特点。

    b. There were no sermons or Bible study.

    没有布道或是圣经学习。

    c. People put Mary and saints as high as God.

    人们把玛利亚和圣徒们看得跟上帝一样高。

    d. They believed that the priest was in charge of whether they went to heaven or not.

    他们相信祭司掌控他们是否能上天堂。

Christian History After Jesus
第一课:基督教的影响
Lesson 1: Influences on Christians
第二课:早期基督教 公元100-313
Lesson 2: Ancient Christianity 100 – 313 A.D
第三课 早期基督教 公元313-590年
Lesson 3: Ancient Christianity 313 – 590 A.D.
第四课 中世纪早期的基督教 公元590-1073年
Lesson 4: Early Middle-Aged Christianity 590 – 1073 A.D.
第五课 中世纪早期的基督教 II 公元590-1073年
Lesson 5: Early Middle-Aged Christianity II 590 – 1073 A.D.
第六课 中世纪基督教的高度 公元1074-1294
Lesson 6: The Height of Middle-Aged Christianity, 1074-1294
第七课:中世纪衰落,新生,公元1294-1517
Lesson 7: Middle-Aged Decay, Then New Life, 1294-1517
第八课:宗教改革时期,第一部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 8: The Reformation Age, part 1: 1517 – 1648
第九课:宗教改革时期 ,第二部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 9: The Reformation Age, part 2: 1517 – 1648
第十课:基督教: 1648年至现代
Lesson 10: Christianity: 1648-Modern times
第六课 中世纪基督教的高度 公元1074-1294
Lesson 6: The Height of Middle-Aged Christianity, 1074-1294