恩典国际圣经学院

第七课:中世纪衰落,新生,公元1294-1517
Lesson 7: Middle-Aged Decay, Then New Life, 1294-1517

I.World conditions 世界形势

A.In Europe 在欧洲

  1. From the 1200s on, France, England, Spain, and Germany developed as strong, independent countries. More and more people were getting used to the idea that they were English or French, or whatever country they were from.

    从公元1200年代开始,法国,英格兰,西班牙和德国发展成强大、独立的国家。越来越多的人开始意识到自己是英国人或法国人,或其他国家的人。

  2. European Christians no longer accepted interference from the pope in any of their country’s political affairs.

    欧洲基督徒不再接受教皇对他们国家政治事务的干涉。

B.In Asia 在亚洲

  1. Between 1200 and 1500, by one estimate, the number of Asian Christians fell, from 21 million to 3.4 million.

    公元1200-1500年期间,有预估说亚洲基督徒的数量从2100万减少到340万。

  2. In the same years, the percentage of the world’s Christians living in Africa and Asia combined fell from 34% to just 6%.

    同期,世界上居住在非洲和亚洲的基督徒的百分比从34%下降到只有6%。

  3. There was also a dramatic drop in Chinese Christianity.

    中国的基督徒数量也急剧下降。

    a. In 1368, the patriotic Ming dynasty took over the country from the Mongols.

    1368年,明朝从蒙古人手中夺取了统治权。

    b. The new dynasty cracked down on foreign religious bodies, especially those the defeated Mongols had permitted.

    新的王朝取缔了所有的国外宗教体系,尤其是战败的蒙古人承认的那些宗教。

    c. Christian visibility vanished. Most of the Catholic clergy at that time simply vanished without a trace. For almost 200 years, China lacked an obvious Christian presence.

    基督徒很少见到了。那时期大部分天主教牧师们消失得无影无踪。近200年间,中国没有明显的基督徒存在的痕迹。

II.Failures in the church 教会的失败

A.More and more people criticized the pope’s worldliness and life of luxury. They began to ask how the pope could be the foundation of Christian society on earth. 越来越多的人开始批评教皇的世俗和奢华的生活,他们开始质问,这样的教皇怎么能成为这世界上基督徒社会的基石呢。

  1. Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1303) wore a crown that contained 48 rubies, 72 sapphires, 45 emeralds, and 66 large pearls.

    教皇波尼法爵八世(1294-1303)头戴的皇冠有48颗红宝石,72颗蓝宝石,45颗绿宝石和66颗珍珠。

  2. Boniface wrote an official decree that said, “Every human being needs to obey the Pope.”

    波尼法爵曾写过官方的命令,说“每个人都要服从教皇”。

  3. The pope made a lot of money selling indulgences to people. These indulgences guaranteed less time in purgatory to the purchasers. Popes used the income from these sales for building projects and waging war.

    教皇因卖赎罪券给人而赚了很多钱。这些赎罪券保证买的人能在炼狱里呆的时间短一些。教皇用这些收入大兴土木,投入战争。

  4. Dante, the great Italian writer who authored The Divine Comedy, reserved a place in hell for Boniface.

    意大利伟大作家但丁著有《神曲》,其中为波尼法爵在地狱预留了一个位置。

  5. Roderigo Borgia, Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503), was probably the most corrupt and evil pope. He committed adultery with many women, had numerous children, murdered people, bribed others. He was hungry for money and power.

    罗德利哥 博尔吉亚,即教皇亚历山大六世(1492-1503)可能是最堕落、最邪恶的一位教皇。他与很多女人通奸,有无数孩子,谋杀、受贿,无恶不作。渴求金钱和权力。

B.Christian priests did what their leader did. They enjoyed the lifestyle of the rich and famous, particularly high ranking priests. 基督教祭司们也在行他们的领头人所行之事。他们享受富有、有名望的生活,尤其是那些高阶祭司。

  1. Catholic leaders became incredibly wealthy. Most people lived in total poverty.

    天主教首领变得非常富有,但同时社会上大部分人穷困潦倒。

    a. Many priests held two or more positions of leadership in the church.

    很多祭司在教会拥有两个或更多个领导职位。

    b. They collected payment from each of them, but neglected their responsibilities.

    他们彼此敛财,但却忽视了自己的职责。

  2. Sexual sin was normal at all levels of Catholic leadership.

    性犯罪在天主教所有的领导阶层都很常见。

  3. Most monks were famous for adultery, lechery, gluttony, drunkenness, greed, and other noticeable sins.

    大多数修道士因通奸、好色、暴食、酗酒、贪婪和其他显著的罪行而臭名昭著。

C.Unbiblical, unchristian beliefs in the Catholic church – Church leaders never spoke about what Jesus had done to rescue humanity. 天主教会非圣经、非基督教的信仰——教会领袖从来不说关于耶稣为拯救人类而做的事情。

  1. Leaders turned the sacraments into religious things people do to save themselves.

    教会领导者们把圣礼转变成宗教事务,人们做之后会拯救自己。

  2. Leaders taught people to pray to Mary and the saints.

    教会领导者们教导人们向玛利亚和其他圣徒祷告。

  3. Superstition, instead of Bible truth, controlled people’s lives.

    迷信思想取代了圣经真理,控制着人们的生活。

D.Neglect of the people 忽视百姓

  1. Bishops failed to prioritize leading people to Jesus and saving souls.

    主教并不能带领百姓走向耶稣,也不能拯救灵魂。

  2. Priests did little more than lead church services in Latin.

    祭司们在教堂除了用拉丁文侍奉外什么也没做。

  3. Average people never heard explanations of what the Bible taught.

    普通人从没听过对圣经教导的解说。

  4. European population was growing, but Catholic leaders were in the dark and kept their people in the dark.

    欧洲的人口在增长,但是天主教领导者们还处于愚昧无知的状态,也使百姓们处于蒙昧中。

III.Many groups organized protests against the Catholic church. 很多团体组织起来对抗天主教会

A.The Cathari (Pure Ones) were from Albi, France. That’s why they got the name Albigenses. They caused the most trouble for the Catholic church. 清洁派(清洁者们)来自法国阿尔比。这也是阿比尔教派得名的由来。正是他们给天主教制造了大部分麻烦。

  1. They influenced the 12th and 13th centuries, particularly in southeastern France.

    他们在12、13世纪颇具影响力,尤其是在法国的东南部。

  2. They claimed having a human body is evil. Only people’s spirits are good. This was what the Gnostics taught long before them.

    他们宣称拥有人类的身体就是邪恶。只有人的灵魂是好的。这也是诺斯替教派在很久之前的教导。

  3. They taught Jesus had no human body and didn’t die on a cross.

    他们教导说耶稣没有道成肉身,也没有死在十字架上。

  4. They taught the way to holiness comes by escaping your body, even by suicide.

    他们教导说通往圣洁的道路就是要通过自杀,从身体中逃离出来。

  5. They believed you should punish your body by refusing meat, possessions, marriage and sex.

    他们相信应通过拒绝肉食、财产、婚姻和性来惩罚身体。

  6. They rejected not only popes and bishops, but basic Christianity.

    他们不仅反对教皇和主教们,也反对基本的基督教。

  7. Catholic leaders designed the Inquisition to hunt these heretics down.

    天主教领导者们设立了宗教法庭去追捕这些异端分子。

    a. Catholic leaders used torture and secret trials to punish heretics.

    天主教领导者们用酷刑和秘密逮捕惩罚异端。

    b. People they accused had to prove they were innocent.

    被他们起诉的人当证明自己的清白。

    c. The people they found guilty they turned over to community leaders to burn alive tied to a post.

    凡是他们认为有罪的人,就会被转给社区领导然后被绑在柱子上烧死。

B.Peter Waldo (1140-1218) started out as a rich businessman in France. 彼得·瓦勒度(1140-1218) 起先是法国的一个富有的商人。

  1. He emphasized that being a Christian meant saying “no” to society’s priorities.

    他强调作为一个基督徒就意味着对社会特权说“不”。

    a. He gave always everything he had to help poor people.

    他把自己所有的财产都拿出来帮助穷人。

    b. He refused normal married life.

    拒绝正常的婚姻生活。

  2. His supporters told people to sacrifice everything in this life for the sake of earning God’s blessings in the next life (Matthew 19:21).

    他的支持者们告诉人们要放弃此生的所有以获取上帝在来世的祝福。(马太福音19:21)

    a. They wanted the Catholic church, especially its leaders, to go back to the simple life of Jesus and the apostles.

    他们想要天主教会,尤其是教会的领导者们回归耶稣和使徒的简朴生活。

    b. The Catholic church decreed that whoever believed this way was going to hell.

    天主教会颁布命令说所有相信这些的人都将下地狱。

C. John Wyclif was born around 1330 in England. 约翰·威克里夫于1330年左右出生在英国。

  1. He got a doctor’s degree from Oxford and taught there.

    他获得了牛津大学的博士学位,之后在那里教书。

  2. He was also a priest at Lutterworth.

    他也是卢特沃斯的一名牧师。

    a. He denied the pope’s right to get wealthier from collecting taxes from European countries.

    他否认教皇有权力从欧洲的国家收税来变得越来越富有。

    b. He called the pope the Antichrist (2 Thessalonians 2:3-11), and said Jesus is the head of the church (Ephesians 5:23).

    他称教皇为反基督者(帖撒罗尼迦后书2:3-11),称耶稣是教会的首领。(以弗所书5:23)

    c. He denied the Catholic teaching that priests have the supernatural ability to transform the bread and wine into Jesus’ body and blood.

    他否认天主教的教导说祭司们有把面包和红酒变成耶稣的身体和血的超能力。

    d. He stressed that from the Bible Jesus teaches what we should believe. He taught that neither the pope nor church “experts” are the final authorities.

    他强调圣经中耶稣教导的才是我们应该相信的,教导说不管是教皇还是教会的“专家”都不是最终的权威。

  3. He translated the Bible into English

    他把圣经翻译成英语

    a.He sent barefoot supporters with no money or luggage to spread the news about Jesus to people Catholic churches had neglected.

    他派遣支持者们到处向人们传播那些被天主教会忽视的关于耶稣的信息,这些支持者们光着脚,没有钱,也没有行李。

    b. They spread tracts, sermons, and copied parts of the Bible.

    他们散发福音单页,布道集还有复制的部分圣经。

  4. Catholic leaders hunted down Wyclif’s supporters and forced them to take back what they taught from the Bible.

    天主教会领导者们追捕威克里夫的支持者们,强迫他们收回他们教导的从圣经而来的信息。

  5. Wyclif died peacefully in 1384 at his home in Lutterworth.

    威克里夫于1384年在他的家乡卢特沃斯安详过世。

D.John Hus lived in Bohemia (1373-1415) 约翰.胡斯居住在波西米亚(1373-1415)

  1. He lectured at the University of Prague

    他在布拉格大学讲课。

  2. He was a priest and Bible teacher. He started a back-to-the-Bible society.

    他是一名牧师和圣经教师,开创了回归圣经的社会。

  3. He attacked the pope’s habit of selling Christians indulgences and refusing people the wine in the Lord’s Supper.

    他攻击教皇那种给基督徒出卖赎罪券的习惯和拒绝人们在圣餐上喝酒的规定。

  4. He said Catholic leaders should be people who have given away all they own. They should live a humble life. They should help people in churches and be examples of Christian goodness.

    他说天主教会领导者应该成为那种把所有财产都捐出去的人,应该过一种谦卑的生活,应该在教会帮助人,作为基督教善行的典范。

    a. He and Wyclif believed that Jesus told the truth, but that the pope teaches only wrong things. Hus and Wyclif taught that Jesus lived in poverty, but that the pope wants to be the richest man. They reminded people that Jesus refused political power, but that is what the pope wants the most.

    他和威克里夫都相信耶稣教导的真理,但是教皇教导的都是错误的东西。胡斯和威克里夫都教导说耶稣安于贫困,但教皇却想成为最富有的人。他们提醒人们说耶稣拒绝了政治权力,但教皇却最想要政治权力。

    b. Hus said that the pope rides a horse, but that Jesus walked barefoot, that Jesus washed His students’ feet, but the pope wants people to kiss his feet.

    胡斯说教皇骑着马,而耶稣却光脚走路,耶稣为门徒洗脚,但教皇却想要让人亲吻他的脚。

  5. The Catholic church excommunicated Hus in 1412.

    天主教会于1412年把胡斯逐出教会。

  6. Hus asked for another trial in front of a more respected group of church judges.

    胡斯要求在另一组更受人尊敬的教会法官面前受审。

  7. The Council (church convention of experts and church leaders) at Constance, Germany in 1414 declared him guilty of heresy, threw him in prison for 8 months.

    1414年德国康斯坦茨议会(教会专家和领导者的会议)宣布他犯了异端的罪,把他关在监狱8个月。

  8. They tied him up to a pole and burned him alive in 1415.

    1415年胡斯被绑在柱子上活活烧死。

E.Several Councils (Constance and Basel) attempted to change the way the Catholic church did its business. They resulted in failure. 康斯坦茨和巴塞尔的几次议会试图改变天主教会的行事方式,最终失败了。

IV.Popes begin to lose their power. 教皇开始失去权力。

A.Boniface VIII (check part II, at the beginning of this lesson) 波尼法爵八世(参考本课讲义开头第二部分)

  1. In 1294 he tried to take control of England from King Edward I and from France’s king King Philip the Fair.

    1294年他试图从英格兰国王爱德华一世和法国国王腓力手中夺取控制权。

  2. He later excommunicated Philip who then arrested the pope for a few days.

    随后他把腓力逐出教会,而腓力之后逮捕了教皇关了几天。

B.Babylonian Captivity - from 1305-1377 教皇的“巴比伦之囚” 1305-1377

  1. King Philip from France made sure the next pope was from France. This pope never spent any time in Rome.

    法国国王腓力确保下一位教皇来自法国,这位教皇从未在罗马待过。

    a. For the next 72 years, the next six popes were French.

    接下来的72年,随后的六位教皇都是法国人。

    b. None of them ever even visited Rome, just like when ancient Jews lived in Iraq for over 70 years.

    他们都没有去过罗马,就像古代犹太人在伊拉克住了七十年。

    c. These popes lived in Avignon, France, very close to the French king.

    这些教皇住在法国阿维尼翁,与法国国王离得很近。

    i. Avignon used to be a little town on the Rhone River.

    阿维尼翁曾经是罗纳河边的一座小城镇。

    ii. When the popes moved there, it grew to 80,000 people with all the pope’s officials and his state-of-the-art palace.

    当教皇们搬到阿维尼翁时,教皇的官员们和行宫中的人增加至8万人。

  2. In 1377 the elderly Pope Gregory XI came back to live in Rome. He died within a year.

    1377年,老教皇格里高利六世回归罗马,一年内逝世。

C.Multiple popes competed for control at the same time 同一时期有好几位教皇在为控制权展开争夺

  1. For 39 years two competing popes fought to overpower the other.

    有两位教皇整整斗争了39年。

  2. One lived in Rome, the other in Avignon.

    一位住在罗马,另一位住在阿维尼翁。

  3. In 1409 a third man was elected pope. The other two popes wouldn’t step down. Three popes at a time are too many by almost anyone’s standards.

    1409年,第三位教皇被选出。但另外两位教皇并没有退位,不管以谁的标准来说,同时有三位教皇都太多了。

  4. This sort of behavior set the stage for the Protestant Reformation.

    这种行为为新教改革准备了舞台。

V.New Life 新生

A. A wave of learning 学习的浪潮

  1. Scholars became interested in classical Greek and Roman life and literature.

    学者们开始对古希腊和罗马的生活及文学感兴趣。

  2. Intellectuals began to study of the Bible in Greek.

    知识分子们开始学习希腊语圣经。

  3. New Bible research raised many questions about life in the church.

    新的圣经研究提出了很多关于教会生活的问题。

B. Invention of the printing press. 印刷机的发明

  1. Guttenberg was the inventor in 1450.

    加顿伯格1450年发明了印刷机。

  2. This was one of the greatest inventions of all time. No more copying unaffordable books.

    这是有史以来最伟大的发明之一,从此再没有昂贵的复制书了。

Christian History After Jesus
第一课:基督教的影响
Lesson 1: Influences on Christians
第二课:早期基督教 公元100-313
Lesson 2: Ancient Christianity 100 – 313 A.D
第三课 早期基督教 公元313-590年
Lesson 3: Ancient Christianity 313 – 590 A.D.
第四课 中世纪早期的基督教 公元590-1073年
Lesson 4: Early Middle-Aged Christianity 590 – 1073 A.D.
第五课 中世纪早期的基督教 II 公元590-1073年
Lesson 5: Early Middle-Aged Christianity II 590 – 1073 A.D.
第六课 中世纪基督教的高度 公元1074-1294
Lesson 6: The Height of Middle-Aged Christianity, 1074-1294
第七课:中世纪衰落,新生,公元1294-1517
Lesson 7: Middle-Aged Decay, Then New Life, 1294-1517
第八课:宗教改革时期,第一部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 8: The Reformation Age, part 1: 1517 – 1648
第九课:宗教改革时期 ,第二部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 9: The Reformation Age, part 2: 1517 – 1648
第十课:基督教: 1648年至现代
Lesson 10: Christianity: 1648-Modern times
第七课:中世纪衰落,新生,公元1294-1517
Lesson 7: Middle-Aged Decay, Then New Life, 1294-1517