恩典国际圣经学院

第八课:宗教改革时期,第一部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 8: The Reformation Age, part 1: 1517 – 1648

I. Political and social scenery 政治与社会背景

A. In the East 在东方

  1. in 1453 Constantinople fell to the Turks. The entire East remained in Moslem control. Muslims invade Europe.

    1453年君士坦丁堡战败于土耳其。整个东方在穆斯林的控制之下。穆斯林入侵欧洲。

  2. In China

    在中国

    a. Christianity established itself in China on at least 4 occasions. The first three failed.

    在中国,基督教至少建立过4次。头三次都失败了。

    i. The first Nestorian mission operated from the 600s through the 800s.

    公元6世纪年到8世纪景教第一次传播。

    ii. The second Nestorian mission operated in the 1200s and 1300s.

    公元12世纪和公元13世纪景教第二次传播。

    iii. The Roman Catholic mission grew during the 1500s and 1600s.

    公元在15世纪和16世纪罗马天主教传播得以加强 。

  3. The Catholic mission collapsed after 1700.

    1700年以后,天主教传教活动衰落。

    a. The Vatican prohibited Jesuit attempts to accommodate Chinese customs and language in the liturgy.

    梵蒂冈禁止耶稣会在敬拜仪式中采纳中国习俗和语言的做法。

    b. This made the Chinese government persecute Christians as agents of a foreign government.

    这使中国政府迫害基督徒,把他们当作外国政府的间谍。

B. In Europe – Charles V elected to the throne of the Holy Roman Empire in 1519 (Spain, Netherlands, Germany, Austria). Strong rulers in France and England competed for power and challenged the pope. 在欧洲——1519年查尔斯五世登上神圣罗马帝国的宝座(西班牙,尼德兰,德国,奥地利)。法国和英国的强大统治者们为权势竞争并向教皇发出挑战。

C. World events - the Renaissance opened learning and people’s minds to new outlooks. 世界时事—— 文艺复兴开启人们对于新观点的思想和学识的大门。

  1. Invention of the printing press made large numbers of books available.

    印刷机的发明为人们提供了了大量的书籍。

  2. Columbus discovered the New World in 1492.

    1492年哥伦布发现新大陆。

II. Condition of the Roman Catholic Church 罗马天主教教会的情况

A. The Popes 教皇

  1. Julius II (1503-1513), known as the “warrior pope.”

    朱利叶斯二世(1503-1513),以“教皇斗士”著称。

    a. He began St. Peter’s at Rome in 1506.

    1506,他开始建造罗马圣彼得大教堂。

    b. He hired Raphael and Michelangelo to produce works of art.

    他雇佣拉斐尔和米开朗基罗创作艺术作品。

    c. Leo X (1513-1522) raised money to continue work on St. Peter’s through the sale of indulgences.

    利奥十世(1513-1522)通过推销赎罪券集资继续圣彼得大教堂的建造工程。

B. Spiritual life among the people – there was growing resentment against the church because it became powerful and wealthy at the expense of the people. 人们的属灵生命——因为教皇在向人们高额收费的情况下变得强大富有,人们反对教会的愤恨不断上升。

III. The work of Martin Luther 马丁路德的工作

A. Early life 早期生活

  1. Martin Luther was born in 1483 at Eisleben, Saxony, Germany.

    1483年马丁路德出生于德国,萨克森,艾斯莱本。

    a. He was the first child of Hans, a prosperous mine owner, and his wife Margaretta.

    他是汉斯的长子,汉斯是一位富裕的煤矿主,他的妻子叫玛格丽特。

    b. His parents were stern but loving, and very religious.

    他的父母严厉而慈爱,并且非常虔诚。

    c. His father was determined to send his son to school to be a lawyer.

    他的父亲决定送儿子去学校学习成为一名律师。

  2. From a young age Martin Luther wanted to be sure about his relationship with God.

    年轻的时候,马丁路德就想明确他和神的关系。

B. Becoming a monk 成为一个修道士

  1. At age 18 Luther entered the University of Erfurt to become a lawyer.

    18岁路德进入爱尔福特大学学习成为一名律师。

  2. He got caught in a thunderstorm one day in 1505. A bolt of lightning knocked him to the ground. Luther was terrified. He called out to the protecting saint of miners, “St. Anne, save me! I’ll become a monk!”

    1505年的一天,他遭遇一场暴风雨。一道闪电把他击倒在地上。路德非常害怕。他向矿工的保护圣人呼喊说:“圣安娜,救救我,我愿意成为一个修道士!”

  3. Two weeks later he entered the Augustinian monastery at Erfurt and became a serious monk.

    两周后他进入爱尔福特的奥古斯丁修道院成为一名认真的修道士。

C. Life as a monk 修道士的生活

  1. Sometimes he went without food for three days.

    有时他禁食3天。

  2. He slept often without a blanket in freezing winter weather.

    在冰冷的冬天,他经常睡觉不盖一条毯子。

  3. All his self-discipline brought him no spiritual rest or comfort.

    他所有的自律行为没有给他带来灵里的安息或安慰。

  4. His supervisor, Jon Staupitz, talked to Luther about God’s mercy, but Luther blurted out, “I do not love God! I hate him!”

    他的导师约翰·冯·斯道皮茨对路德谈论神的怜悯,但路德脱口而出 “我不爱神!我恨他!”

  5. Staupitz encouraged him to study to become a priest. Luther was ordained a priest in 1507.

    斯道皮茨鼓励他学习成为一名牧师。1507年路德被按立为牧师。

  6. As he served his first Mass, he almost ran in a panic out of the church. He was scared to death of being that close to a holy God.

    当他第一次服事做弥撒时,他几乎惊慌失措跑出教会。他对和圣洁的神如此接近害怕得要死。

  7. His superiors sent him to Rome in 1510 as a messenger.

    1510年他的导师派他作为使者去罗马。

D. As a university professor 作为一名大学教授

  1. He was assigned to Wittenberg University as a professor of theology in 1511.

    1511年他被委任去维腾贝格大学当神学教授。

  2. He earned a doctor of theology degree in 1512.

    1512年他获得神学博士学位。

  3. Luther fixated on God’s high standards, what the Bible calls “God’s righteousness.” He had no idea what the gospel really was.

    路德专注于神至高的标准,圣经称其为“神的义。”他不知道什么是真正的福音。

    a. He became fascinated by Jesus’ words from the cross, “My God, my God, why have You forsaken Me?”

    他被耶稣在十字架上的话吸引,“我的神,我的神,你为什么离弃我?”

    b. He thought, “God turned His back on Jesus? God should turn His back on me. Why did He do it to Jesus?”

    他想,“神拒绝耶稣?神应该拒绝我。为什么神对耶稣这样做?”

    c. The answer had to lie with Jesus’ identity with sinners. He shared people’s separation from God to assume the punishment God demanded of sinners.

    答案在于耶稣的身份与罪人的关系。他为了担当神要求罪人所受的惩罚承受了人与神的分离,。

    Luther lectured on Psalms, Romans, and Galatians.

    路德对诗篇,罗马书和加拉太书进行演讲。

    He also served as preacher at the Castle Church.

    他在城堡教堂当神父。

    1458 He gradually understood that God’s righteousness isn’t just His demand. It’s also His donation. God gives us Jesus’ holiness and helps us depend on Jesus’ life and damnation in our place (Romans 1:17).

    1458年他逐渐明白神的义不仅是他的要求。也是他的馈赠。神赐给我们耶稣的圣洁并帮助我们依靠耶稣的生命和他代替我们被定罪的恩典。(罗马书1:17)。

E. Protest over indulgences 抗议赎罪券

Luther was getting upset about what Catholics taught about relics, pilgrimages, and prayers to saints.He was also upset about the church’s teaching that you simply have to make an appearance at church but not understand what’s going on there.

路德对于天主教教导的圣物,朝圣和对圣徒祷告感到不安。教会教导信徒只需出席教会,而不用明白教会里面在做什么,对此,他也很不安。

  1. The pope had Jon Tetzel selling indulgences in Germany.

    在德国,教皇让约翰特策尔出售赎罪券。

  2. On October 31, 1517, Luther nailed 95 discussion topics to the university’s church doors, which were like a bulletin board.

    1517年10月31号,路德将95条论纲钉在大学教堂的大门上,就像布告栏一样。

  3. These topics got wide distribution in Europe because of the printing press.

    因为有了印刷机,这些论纲在欧洲广泛被发行。

  4. Pope Leo X summoned Luther to Rome. Luther refused.

    教皇利奥十世召路德回罗马。路德拒绝。

  5. The Leipzig debate against Catholic scholar Jon Eck set Luther against the church and the pope.

    莱比锡与天主教学者约翰艾克的辩论 使路德反对天主教教会和教皇 。

  6. Luther published many books to explain to the people of Germany what the Bible taught.

    路德出版很多书籍向德国人民解释圣经的教导。

    a. Only Jesus can rescue us by His life and death.

    只有耶稣能通过他的生命和死亡来拯救我们。

    b. Only the Bible can tell us what to believe and how to live, not the pope or church “experts.”

    只有圣经能告诉我们该相信什么,怎样生活,而不是教皇或教会的“权威”。

    c. There are only two sacraments, Baptism and Holy Communion, not seven.

    只有两个圣礼,圣洗礼和圣餐礼,而不是七个。

    d. He said you don’t need a priest to make the Lord’s Supper official.

    他说你不需要一个神父才能正式发圣餐。

    e. He taught that the Bible explains that every believer is a priest.

    他教导圣经讲明每一个信徒都是祭司。

    f. He taught that church work is not the only holy profession. God uses every profession to serve other people. Even being a mother or a farmer is a holy profession to God.

    他教导教会事工不是唯一神圣的行业。神使用每一个职业来为其他人服事。对神来说甚至当一个母亲或一个农民也可以是神圣的职业。

F. Trial and excommunication 审判和驱逐

  1. Luther refused to respond to the pope’s requests to say his writings were incorrect and unholy.

    路德拒绝回应教皇要他承认自己的著作错误和不圣洁的要求。

  2. In 1520 Pope Leo issued his official statement that Luther was a heretic, headed to hell.

    1520年教皇利奥发表了官方声明斥责路德是个奔向地狱的异端分子。

  3. Luther burned the pope’s document on December 10.

    路德在12月10号烧掉教皇的公文。

  4. Emperor Charles summoned Luther to a judicial gathering in the German city of Worms in 1521.

    1512年查理国王传唤路德到德国沃尔姆斯市的司法会议上接受审判。

  5. Luther stood up to the emperor and experts.

    路德伫立在国王和权威面前。

  6. The Emperor declared Luther an outlaw. Anyone who killed him would not be in trouble.

    国王宣布路德不受法律保护。任何杀害他的人不予制裁。

  7. Friends hid him in the Wartburg castle, where he stayed for nearly a year and translated the whole New Testament into German. Perhaps 200,000 copies sold between 1522 and 1534.

    他的朋友将他藏在瓦特堡,他在那里呆了近一年,将整本新约翻译成德文。从1522年到1534年之间,大约出售了200,000册印刷本。

G. Progress 进展

  1. New reformers, far more radical than Luther, appeared in Luther’s absence. They were turning people away from the Bible and to their own feelings.

    新的改革者,比路德更加激进 ,在路德不在时企图控制局面。 他们领人偏离圣经而依靠自己的感觉。

  2. Luther returned to Wittenberg in 1522 to stabilize the situation.

    1522年路德回到瓦特堡使局面稳定。

  3. He married Catherine von Bora, a former nun, in 1525 and had 6 children.

    他与 曾经是修女的凯瑟琳·冯·波娜结婚,生有六个孩子。

  4. 100,000 peasants died in a revolt in 1525. They believed Luther had given them permission to rebel against their rulers.

    1525年100,000个农民死于叛乱。他们相信路德允许他们反抗统治者。

  5. Luther fixed the church service to emphasize teaching God’s Word. He translated worship services into German and gave the people bread and wine in the Lord’s Supper.

    路德整顿教会敬拜,强调教导神的话语。他把敬拜仪式翻译成德文,在圣餐仪式给人们发饼和葡萄酒。

  6. Luther published the Large and Small Catechisms in 1529.

    1529年, 路德出版了大小教理问答。

  7. Luther had discussions with Zwingli in 1529 over fifteen points of doctrine.

    1529年路德和.茨温利就50多个教义展开激烈辩论。

  8. Augsburg Confession in 1530 gave the official Bible teachings of the Lutheran Church in Germany.

    1530年,奥格斯堡信条给德国路德宗教会提供了正式的圣经教导。

  9. Luther’s teachings spread to Scandinavian countries and other parts of Europe.

    路德的教导在斯堪的纳维亚国家和欧洲的其他部分传播。

H. Accomplishments – He helped people answer four confusing questions: 成就——他帮助人们回答了4个令人困扰的问题:

  1. How can we be sure we’re safe from God’s rage and punishment?

    我们怎样确信我们免受神的义怒和惩罚?

  2. Who should we believe when we have questions about God?

    当我们对神有疑问时,我们应该相信什么?

  3. How can we be sure we are part of God’s family of believers?

    我们怎样确信我们是神信徒家庭中的一员?

  4. What is real Christian living?

    什么是真正的基督徒生活?

I. Death on February 18, 1546, buried in Castle Church in Wittenberg 路德于1546年二月18号去世,被葬在瓦特堡的城堡教堂。

IV. Results of the Lutheran Reformation 路德宗改革结果

A. Christian doctrine 基督教教义

  1. Luther removed from the church the results of years of false teachings and corruption.

    路德使教会摆脱多年的错误教义和腐败。

  2. He reminded people that God’s Word and Sacrament are the way God reaches us, not by religious things we do for Him.

    他提醒人们神的话语和圣礼是神向我们伸手的方法,而不是我们为他做的宗教仪式。

  3. He emphasized the Bible teaching that all believers are God’s ministers.

    他强调所有信徒都是神的牧师的圣经教导。

  4. He got rid of superstition and exposed the worship of the saints and Mary as idol worship.

    他去除迷信并揭露敬拜圣徒和马利亚是偶像敬拜。

B. Education 教育

  1. Luther wrote little Bible teaching manuals for parents to use for teaching their children.

    路德为父母们写了用于教导儿女的圣经教导手册。

  2. He established schools in the churches to train children.

    他在教会建立学校培养孩子们。

C. Worship life 敬拜生活

  1. He introduced worship in the language of the people instead of Latin.

    他引进以人们理解的语言代替拉丁文的敬拜。

  2. He introduced congregational participation by having the group sing hymns and psalms in German.

    他引进通过让诗班合唱德文赞美诗和诗篇使会众参与敬拜。

D. To other lands 到过其他国家

  1. Sweden in 1527

    1527在瑞典

  2. Denmark in 1536

    1536年在丹麦

  3. Norway in 1539

    1539年在挪威

  4. He helped the Bible influence many other Protestant leaders in Europe.

    他帮助在欧洲的新教领袖受到圣经的影响。

Christian History After Jesus
第一课:基督教的影响
Lesson 1: Influences on Christians
第二课:早期基督教 公元100-313
Lesson 2: Ancient Christianity 100 – 313 A.D
第三课 早期基督教 公元313-590年
Lesson 3: Ancient Christianity 313 – 590 A.D.
第四课 中世纪早期的基督教 公元590-1073年
Lesson 4: Early Middle-Aged Christianity 590 – 1073 A.D.
第五课 中世纪早期的基督教 II 公元590-1073年
Lesson 5: Early Middle-Aged Christianity II 590 – 1073 A.D.
第六课 中世纪基督教的高度 公元1074-1294
Lesson 6: The Height of Middle-Aged Christianity, 1074-1294
第七课:中世纪衰落,新生,公元1294-1517
Lesson 7: Middle-Aged Decay, Then New Life, 1294-1517
第八课:宗教改革时期,第一部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 8: The Reformation Age, part 1: 1517 – 1648
第九课:宗教改革时期 ,第二部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 9: The Reformation Age, part 2: 1517 – 1648
第十课:基督教: 1648年至现代
Lesson 10: Christianity: 1648-Modern times
第八课:宗教改革时期,第一部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 8: The Reformation Age, part 1: 1517 – 1648