第九课：宗教改革时期 ，第二部分：1517 – 1648
Lesson 9: The Reformation Age, part 2: 1517 – 1648
I. Additional Reformation developments 其他改革发展
A. Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) – He lived at the same time as Luther. 茨温利(1484-1531)—— 和路德生活在同时代。
He was born in eastern Switzerland,
He got university training at Vienna and Basel. There he studied the Greek and Hebrew of the Bible.
He became a priest at Glarus, Einsiedeln, and finally the Great Minster Church at Zurich, Switzerland.
His contact with Luther’s writings in 1519 gave him more reason to believe he should not trust the Catholic church.
He encouraged Zurich city leaders to break with the pope in 1522.
He taught that all believers are priests, the Bible is God’s final word. He rejected the mass, considered Jesus’ body and blood to be only a symbol in the Lord’s Supper, and made major changes in the worship service.
a. Luther would allow whatever the Bible did not forbid.
b. Zwingli rejected whatever the Bible did not command.
Zwingli influenced Switzerland and southern Germany.
a. He gave us the first Anabaptist congregation.
b. Anabaptist means re-baptizing people who’d been baptized as babies but hadn’t made a decision to commit to Jesus.
In 1529 the Catholic church proclaimed Anabaptist beliefs a heresy punishable by death.
During the Reformation years between 4,000-5,000 Anabaptists were executed by fire, water, and sword.
B. Anabaptists began as Christian groups that were separate from state churches. 再洗礼派开始成为与国家教会分离的基督教团体。
Membership was voluntary, not mandatory.
They believed that only people who had a conversion experience were real Christians.
They rejected infant baptism and told adults baptized as babies to be re-baptized.
Some claimed special gifts from the Spirit and rejected the need for the Bible,
Mennonites, Amish and Baptists come from them.
C. John Calvin (1509-1564) – almost 25 years younger than Luther. 约翰加尔文(1509-1564)——大约 比路德年轻25岁。
He was born in France to a prosperous family.
While a scholar in Paris in 1533, he declared himself a Protestant.
In 1536 published his first edition of the “Institutes,” his detailed study of all the Bible teachings.
The city of Geneva, Switzerland in 1536 and again in 1541 asked him to become the main city administrator. They wanted him to reform the city and make it a model of Christianity. He accepted the offer.
He stressed religious education on all levels;
He formed an Academy in Geneva that trained many religious leaders from other countries.
D. Summary of Calvin’s teachings 加尔文教义概要
He gave Christian living a higher priority than God’s verdict of “not guilty”.
He believed that Christians should make their community and country a Christian kingdom with laws that reflected what the Bible taught. He believed this would make society and the church better.
a. Calvin prepared for all citizens of Geneva a public statement of Christian beliefs. Anyone who wanted Geneva citizenship had to accept this document.
b. He planned a program of ongoing Christian education that was mandatory for all Geneva citizens.
c. The penalty for nonconformity was disqualification from the Lord’s Supper and excommunication from church and heaven.
d. Punishable offenses ranged from absences in public worship to drinking anything with alcohol in it, dancing, gambling, and adultery.
e. It was the most strenuous program of moral discipline among Protestants.
f. After two years the city leaders made Calvin leave Geneva.
g. After three years, they invited him back, but he faced banishment many times over the years in Geneva.
He emphasized that Baptism and the Lord’s Supper are about the message we send God about being obedient Christians. He taught that is more important than the message He communicates to us in the sacraments.
His belief in double predestination was the foundation for the way He believed people should understand everything the Bible teaches. He taught that before creation God made of list of who would go to heaven. He taught that God selected the rest to suffer hell forever.
RememberT U L I P 记住单词郁金香
T otal Depravity 完全败坏
U nconditional, two-pronged election 无条件，双向选择
L imited atonement 有限救赎
I rrestible grace 不可抗拒的恩典
P erseverance of the saints 圣徒永蒙保守
E. Differences between Luther and Calvin 路德与加尔文之间的区别
Luther was a peasant, monk, and university professor. Calvin was a scholar and lawyer who took political and religious leadership of a large population center in Europe.
Look at portraits of the two men as they got older.
a. Luther’s face became rounder and fatter. In his eyes and mouth you can see a kind of confidence and peace that came from emphasizing what Jesus did for us.
b. Calvin’s face became thinner and narrower. In his eyes and mouth you can see discipline and determination. He emphasized what people should do for Jesus. Calvin’s life was about demanding a lot from himself and other people.
F.Jacob Arminius 雅各布斯·阿民念
James (Jacob) Arminius (1560-1609) was a professor of theology at Leiden, Holland. At first he was a strict disciple of Calvin.
雅各布斯·阿民念(1560-1609) 是一个荷兰莱顿的神学教授。 一开始他是一个严格的加尔文门徒。
He came to believe people have the ability to accept or reject what Jesus did for them.
Arminius’ teaching encourages people to look inside themselves to be sure God has saved you. It teaches you to look at how you feel about God, not how He feels about you. This can only rob sinners of God’s comfort.
|Luther’s teaching||Calvin’s teaching||Arminius’ teaching|
|1.People are born with no capability for good.||1.People are born with no capability for good.||1.People are born with a capability for good.|
|2.God preselected and predestined the people who will one day be in heaven. This is the opposite of what they deserve.||2.God preselected and predestined the people who will one day be in heaven. He did the same thing for those who will go to hell.||2.God preselected and predestined the people who He knew would end up becoming believers.|
|3.Jesus earned a verdict from God of “not guilty” for all the people in the world, regardless of whether they would believe.||3.Jesus earned a verdict from God of “not guilty” only for the people He preselected and predestined to be in heaven one day.||3.Jesus earned a verdict from God of “not guilty” only for the people He knew would become believers.|
|4.God uses the news about Jesus to reach the unsaved and help them depend on Jesus.||4.Conversion is immediate and irresistible.||4.Conversion involves you making a decision to invite Jesus into your heart and make Him the Lord of your life. You have the ability to refuse Jesus’ gift.|
|5.The Bible warns us that we can lose our faith. God also says that when we get to heaven, it is only because He helped keep us depending on Him. We need both law and gospel because we have an evil nature and a holy nature that the Holy Spirit gave us when He made us believers.||5.Once God saved you, you will always stay a believer and get to heaven. You will never reject Jesus. “Once saved, always saved.”||5.It is possible for you to turn away from Jesus once the Holy Spirit has made you a believer in Jesus. You can never be sure of where you stand with God.|
II. The Reformation in Europe 欧洲的宗教改革
A. France 法国
France officially condemns Luther’s views right away.
Francis I (1538) was the first French king to persecute any Christians who refused to stay loyal to the Catholic Church.
By 1559 influential leaders from the ruling class converted to Calvin’s views. The Huguenots or French Calvinists threatened to take over the leadership of the country.
War began in 1562 against the Huguenots.
The St. Bartholomew massacre in 1572 hunted down and killed thousands of these Calvinist nobles.
Final toleration in the edict of Nantes in 1598.
B. Netherlands 尼德兰
Calvinism replaced early Lutheran influence.
Philip II of Spain tried to crush all dissent. Calvinist ministers were among the earliest freedom fighters or perhaps guerrilla warriors for religious liberty.
William of Orange (the Silent) led Protestants who gained victory in 1609. Today’s national anthem for the Netherlands was written for William’s followers.
Dutch Reformed Church established.
Dutch church really stressed double predestination.
The teachings of Arminius got their start in the Holland because of the double election controversy.
C. Scotland 苏格兰
John Knox first brought Protestant influence to Scotland in 1546. He was a restless activist who tried to point England in the direction of Calvinism. later in 1559 following study under Calvin;
He made Scotland the most devoutly Calvinist country in the world. This started the Presbyterian Church and its form of church government.
D. England 英格兰
In the early years England rejected Reformation belief.
Henry VIII broke with Rome to form the Church of England (Anglican church) which looked very Catholic, but didn’t bow to the Pope.
Edward VI (1547-1553, Protestant), Mary Tudor (1553-1558, Catholic), and finally Elizabeth I (1558-1603, Protestant) established the Church of England as a middle-of-the-road protestant denomination.
爱德华六世(1547-1553,新教)，玛丽·都铎(1553-1558, 天主教),最后伊丽莎白一世(1558-1603, 新教)建立了英国国教会作为走中间路线的新教教派。
Puritans arose as a party that wanted greater reform and change.
From the Church of England came the Baptists, Methodists, and Congregationalists.
III. The Counter-Reformation 反宗教改革情形
A. Roman Catholic reform 罗马天主教改革
Many Catholics saw a need to change the way Catholic leaders led. They also saw a need for change in doctrine and practice, and to remove corruption of the clergy.
Actual reform efforts failed.
a. Instead, the Roman Inquisition began. It tarnished Christianity almost as much the Crusades.
b. The Vatican published the Index of prohibited books and threatened damnation for any Catholic that read them.
i. All books from the Protestant Reformers were on this list. So were Protestant Bibles.
ii. For a long time just owning one of these books in Spain was punishable by death.
iii. The Index was around until 1959. Pope Paul VI finally abolished it.
The Council of Trent (1546-1563) put Catholic doctrine into writing.
This limited the spread of Protestant beliefs to roughly the northern third of Europe. It has stayed that way today.
B. Jesuits 耶稣会
Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) founded this new group of monks, the Society of Jesus in 1540. They promised the Pope they would go wherever he wanted to send them, “whether to the Muslims or the New World or to the Lutherans or to the others, be they infidel or faithful.”
They wanted to help the Catholic church expand and fight its enemies.
Their preachers talked a lot about the torments of hell. They developed many fine educational institutions and influenced Catholic rulers.
Francis Xavier, a Jesuit leader, organized mission work to India, Japan, China.
IV. Christianity spreads. 1500-1650 are the years of discovery. 基督教传播。1500-1650是探索的年代
V. Europeans planted colonies in the Americas and found new trade routes to the wealth of the Far East. 欧洲人在美洲开拓殖民地，发现了新的通往远东财富的贸易之路。
A. Roman Catholics might calls this time the years of global expansion. 罗马天主教称这个年代为全球扩张年。
To avoid rivalry between Portugal and Spain, the pope drew a line on the map from the North Pole to the South Pole, just west of the Azores, a series of nine islands in the North Atlantic just west of Spain. Everything west of the line, he said, belonged to Spain. Everything east of the line belonged to Portugal. That’s why Brazil speaks Portuguese, while the rest of Latin America speaks Spanish.
a. Spanish business ships brought Catholic monks and missionaries all over Latin America.
b. Portuguese explorers ferried missionaries to Africa and Asia.
c. Jesuit missionaries were a big part of this.
Dominicans and Franciscans traveled with explorers to the New World.
a. Spanish explorers were used to fighting Muslims in Spain. Because they were loyal Catholics, they turned their business trips to the New World into crusades.
i. They made slaves of the natives, who had to work in mines and plantations.
ii. In 1531 one Catholic bishop in Mexico wrote that they had destroyed more than 500 temples and 20,000 idols.
b. Between 1524 and 1531 Catholic missionaries baptized more than 1,000,000 Mexicans. These mass baptisms led to ignorance, magic, and superstition among the converts. Mission work was often very superficial as far as real knowledge of the Christian faith.
Portuguese explorers and missionaries faced a different problem in the East.
a. They met highly developed civilizations and ancient religions far stronger than those of the Incans and Aztecs.
b. They tried to work with the customs of the people of India, Japan, and China.
c. Jesuit missionaries taught indigenous peoples the creed, the Lord’s Prayer, the Ten Commandments, and the Rosary. Then they could be baptized.
d. In Japan Jesuits established a new town as home for Christian converts. They called it Nagasaki. By 1600 there were 300,000 converts, hundreds of churches, and two Christian colleges.
e. In China the Ming dynasty considered Chinese the givers of culture, not the receivers. Jesuit missionaries used clocks to win the Emperor’s favor. By around 1650 there were almost 270,000 Christians in China.
B. Protestants 新教
Influence of English church spread in their new territories.
Persecutions, religious intolerance, and war (Thirty Years’ War, 1618-1648) led a lot of Christians to start a new life in America.
In many ways Protestant Christians were not as active in spreading beliefs.