恩典国际圣经学院

第九课:宗教改革时期 ,第二部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 9: The Reformation Age, part 2: 1517 – 1648

I. Additional Reformation developments 其他改革发展

A. Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) – He lived at the same time as Luther. 茨温利(1484-1531)—— 和路德生活在同时代。

  1. He was born in eastern Switzerland,

    出生于瑞士的东部。

  2. He got university training at Vienna and Basel. There he studied the Greek and Hebrew of the Bible.

    他在维也纳和巴塞尔的大学受教育。他在那里学习希腊文和希伯来文圣经。

  3. He became a priest at Glarus, Einsiedeln, and finally the Great Minster Church at Zurich, Switzerland.

    他在格拉鲁斯,艾因西德伦当牧师,最后在瑞士苏黎世的格罗斯大教堂担任牧师。

  4. His contact with Luther’s writings in 1519 gave him more reason to believe he should not trust the Catholic church.

    1519年他接触路德的著作,使他有更多的理由相信不应该相信天主教。

  5. He encouraged Zurich city leaders to break with the pope in 1522.

    1522年他鼓励苏黎世的市领导和教皇断交。

  6. He taught that all believers are priests, the Bible is God’s final word. He rejected the mass, considered Jesus’ body and blood to be only a symbol in the Lord’s Supper, and made major changes in the worship service.

    他教导所有信徒皆祭司,圣经是神的最终话语。他拒绝弥撒,认为在圣餐中耶稣的身体和宝血仅仅是个象征,在敬拜仪式中发生重要的改变。

    a. Luther would allow whatever the Bible did not forbid.

    路德允许任何圣经不予禁止的事情。

    b. Zwingli rejected whatever the Bible did not command.

    茨温利拒绝任何圣经没有命令的事情。

    Zwingli influenced Switzerland and southern Germany.

    茨温利影响了瑞士和德国的南方。

    a. He gave us the first Anabaptist congregation.

    他带给我们第一个再洗礼派教会。

    b. Anabaptist means re-baptizing people who’d been baptized as babies but hadn’t made a decision to commit to Jesus.

    再洗礼派的意思是给受过婴儿洗但没有决心委身耶稣的人再次洗礼。

  7. In 1529 the Catholic church proclaimed Anabaptist beliefs a heresy punishable by death.

    1529年天主教宣布再洗礼派的信念是异端,应该处以死刑。

  8. During the Reformation years between 4,000-5,000 Anabaptists were executed by fire, water, and sword.

    在宗教改革年代,4,000-5,000 个再洗礼派信徒被处以火刑,水刑和被剑杀死。

B. Anabaptists began as Christian groups that were separate from state churches. 再洗礼派开始成为与国家教会分离的基督教团体。

  1. Membership was voluntary, not mandatory.

    会员身份是自愿的,不是强制的。

  2. They believed that only people who had a conversion experience were real Christians.

    他们相信只有有重生经历的人才是真正的基督徒。

  3. They rejected infant baptism and told adults baptized as babies to be re-baptized.

    他们拒绝婴儿施洗,教导受婴儿洗的成人再次受洗。

  4. Some claimed special gifts from the Spirit and rejected the need for the Bible,

    有些人要求从圣灵来的特别恩赐但拒绝对圣经的需要。

  5. Mennonites, Amish and Baptists come from them.

    门诺派教徒,阿曼门诺派,和浸信会都来自于他们。

C. John Calvin (1509-1564) – almost 25 years younger than Luther. 约翰加尔文(1509-1564)——大约 比路德年轻25岁。

  1. He was born in France to a prosperous family.

    他出生于法国一个富裕的家庭。

  2. While a scholar in Paris in 1533, he declared himself a Protestant.

    1533年在巴黎当学者的时候,他声称自己是个新教教徒。

  3. In 1536 published his first edition of the “Institutes,” his detailed study of all the Bible teachings.

    1536年发行他的首版“基督教要义”,这是他对于所有圣经教导的详细研究。

  4. The city of Geneva, Switzerland in 1536 and again in 1541 asked him to become the main city administrator. They wanted him to reform the city and make it a model of Christianity. He accepted the offer.

    1536年和1541年瑞士,日内瓦市邀请他当重要的市政管理者。他们要他改造城市,使其成为一个基督教的典范城市。他接受了这个供职。

  5. He stressed religious education on all levels;

    他在各个层面加强宗教教育。

  6. He formed an Academy in Geneva that trained many religious leaders from other countries.

    他在日内瓦成立了学院,培养许多来自其他国家的宗教领袖。

D. Summary of Calvin’s teachings 加尔文教义概要

  1. He gave Christian living a higher priority than God’s verdict of “not guilty”.

    他把基督徒成圣的生活的重要性放在神因耶稣宣告我们 “无罪”的称义之前。

  2. He believed that Christians should make their community and country a Christian kingdom with laws that reflected what the Bible taught. He believed this would make society and the church better.

    他相信基督徒应该用反应圣经教导的律法使他们的社区或国家成为一个基督的国度。他相信这会使社会和教会更好。

    a. Calvin prepared for all citizens of Geneva a public statement of Christian beliefs. Anyone who wanted Geneva citizenship had to accept this document.

    加尔文为所有日内瓦公民准备了一份公开的基督教信仰声明。任何想要日内瓦公民权的人不得不接受这个公文的声明。

    b. He planned a program of ongoing Christian education that was mandatory for all Geneva citizens.

    他计划一个继续基督教教育的措施,强制要求所有日内瓦公民接受。

    c. The penalty for nonconformity was disqualification from the Lord’s Supper and excommunication from church and heaven.

    对于违反者的惩罚是取消领圣餐的资格,并逐出教会,无法进天国。

    d. Punishable offenses ranged from absences in public worship to drinking anything with alcohol in it, dancing, gambling, and adultery.

    应该受到惩罚的罪行从缺席公共敬拜到饮用任何带酒精的饮料,跳舞,赌博,和淫乱。

    e. It was the most strenuous program of moral discipline among Protestants.

    这是新教信徒中道德规范最激烈的措施。

    f. After two years the city leaders made Calvin leave Geneva.

    两年后,市政领导迫使加尔文离开日内瓦。

    g. After three years, they invited him back, but he faced banishment many times over the years in Geneva.

    三年后,他们邀请他回来,但他在日内瓦多年来很多次被驱逐。

  3. He emphasized that Baptism and the Lord’s Supper are about the message we send God about being obedient Christians. He taught that is more important than the message He communicates to us in the sacraments.

    他强调洗礼和圣餐是我们向神传达信息说明我们是顺服的基督徒。他教导这比神在圣礼中与我们交通的信息更重要。

  4. His belief in double predestination was the foundation for the way He believed people should understand everything the Bible teaches. He taught that before creation God made of list of who would go to heaven. He taught that God selected the rest to suffer hell forever.

    他认为他的双重预定论是人理解圣经的所有教导的基本途径。他教导创世之前,神已列出谁将进入天国的名单。他教导神选择其余的人在地狱永远受煎熬。

  5. RememberT U L I P 记住单词郁金香

    T otal Depravity 完全败坏

    U nconditional, two-pronged election 无条件,双向选择

    L imited atonement 有限救赎

    I rrestible grace 不可抗拒的恩典

    P erseverance of the saints 圣徒永蒙保守

E. Differences between Luther and Calvin 路德与加尔文之间的区别

  1. Luther was a peasant, monk, and university professor. Calvin was a scholar and lawyer who took political and religious leadership of a large population center in Europe.

    路德出生于农民,是一个修道士,大学教授。加尔文是一个学者,律师,并在人口众多的欧洲中心地区担任政治和宗教领袖职位。

  2. Look at portraits of the two men as they got older.

    观察两人年老时的肖像。

    a. Luther’s face became rounder and fatter. In his eyes and mouth you can see a kind of confidence and peace that came from emphasizing what Jesus did for us.

    路德的脸变得越发富态。从他的眼睛和嘴巴看出自信和平安,这来自于他强调耶稣为我们成就的一切的果效。

    b. Calvin’s face became thinner and narrower. In his eyes and mouth you can see discipline and determination. He emphasized what people should do for Jesus. Calvin’s life was about demanding a lot from himself and other people.

    加尔文的脸变得日趋瘦长。从他的眼睛和嘴巴上看出自律和决心。他强调人应该为耶稣做的事情。加尔文的一生旨在严格要求自己和他人。

F.Jacob Arminius 雅各布斯·阿民念

  1. James (Jacob) Arminius (1560-1609) was a professor of theology at Leiden, Holland. At first he was a strict disciple of Calvin.

    雅各布斯·阿民念(1560-1609) 是一个荷兰莱顿的神学教授。 一开始他是一个严格的加尔文门徒。

  2. He came to believe people have the ability to accept or reject what Jesus did for them.

    他开始相信人有能力接受或拒绝耶稣为他们所做的。

  3. Arminius’ teaching encourages people to look inside themselves to be sure God has saved you. It teaches you to look at how you feel about God, not how He feels about you. This can only rob sinners of God’s comfort.

    阿民念的教导鼓励人内观自己从而确信神已经拯救你。他教导你审视自己对神的感觉,而不是神对你的看法。这只会剥夺神对罪人的安慰。

Luther’s teaching Calvin’s teaching Arminius’ teaching
路德的教导 加尔文的教导 阿民念的教导
1.People are born with no capability for good. 1.People are born with no capability for good. 1.People are born with a capability for good.
人生来没有良善 人生来没有良善 人生来能够行善
2.God preselected and predestined the people who will one day be in heaven. This is the opposite of what they deserve. 2.God preselected and predestined the people who will one day be in heaven. He did the same thing for those who will go to hell. 2.God preselected and predestined the people who He knew would end up becoming believers.
神预先拣选和预定那些有一天将进天国的人。这是他们不配得的。 神预先拣选和预定那些人有一天将进天国。同样神预先拣选和预定哪些人有一天将下地狱。 神预先拣选和预定那些他知道将最终成为信徒的人。
3.Jesus earned a verdict from God of “not guilty” for all the people in the world, regardless of whether they would believe. 3.Jesus earned a verdict from God of “not guilty” only for the people He preselected and predestined to be in heaven one day. 3.Jesus earned a verdict from God of “not guilty” only for the people He knew would become believers.
耶稣为所有世人挣得神“无罪”的判决,不论他们是否相信。 耶稣只为他预先拣选和预定有一天进天国的人挣得神“无罪”的判决。 耶稣只为他知道将成为信徒的人挣得神“无罪”的判决。
4.God uses the news about Jesus to reach the unsaved and help them depend on Jesus. 4.Conversion is immediate and irresistible. 4.Conversion involves you making a decision to invite Jesus into your heart and make Him the Lord of your life. You have the ability to refuse Jesus’ gift.
神使用耶稣的福音信息感动未得救的人并帮助他们信靠耶稣。 信仰转变是即刻的,不可抗拒的。 信仰转变涉及到你做决定邀请耶稣进入你的心,让他做你生命的主。你有能力拒绝耶稣的礼物。
5.The Bible warns us that we can lose our faith. God also says that when we get to heaven, it is only because He helped keep us depending on Him. We need both law and gospel because we have an evil nature and a holy nature that the Holy Spirit gave us when He made us believers. 5.Once God saved you, you will always stay a believer and get to heaven. You will never reject Jesus. “Once saved, always saved.” 5.It is possible for you to turn away from Jesus once the Holy Spirit has made you a believer in Jesus. You can never be sure of where you stand with God.
圣经警告我们可能会失去信心。神也说到我们去天国只是因为他帮助我们持守信靠他。我们既需要律法也需要福音,因为我们既有罪性也有圣灵在使我们相信神时赐给我们的圣洁性情。 一旦神拯救你,你将永远是一个信徒,会去天国。你永不会拒绝耶稣。“一次得救,永远得救。” 一旦圣灵使你相信耶稣,成为信徒,你有可能再拒绝耶稣。你永远无法确信你与神是否一致。

II. The Reformation in Europe 欧洲的宗教改革

A. France 法国

  1. France officially condemns Luther’s views right away.

    法国立即正式谴责路德的观点。

  2. Francis I (1538) was the first French king to persecute any Christians who refused to stay loyal to the Catholic Church.

    弗朗西斯一世(1538)是 第一个对任何拒绝效忠天主教的基督徒进行迫害的法国国王。

  3. By 1559 influential leaders from the ruling class converted to Calvin’s views. The Huguenots or French Calvinists threatened to take over the leadership of the country.

    1559年统治阶层的有影响力的领袖转而相信加尔文的观点。胡格诺派或法国加尔文主义者威胁要接替国家的领导权。

  4. War began in 1562 against the Huguenots.

    1562年反对胡格诺派的战争开始。

  5. The St. Bartholomew massacre in 1572 hunted down and killed thousands of these Calvinist nobles.

    1572年圣巴多罗买节惨案追捕并杀害成千的加尔文贵族。

  6. Final toleration in the edict of Nantes in 1598.

    1598年南特赦令宣布最终信仰自由。

B. Netherlands 尼德兰

  1. Calvinism replaced early Lutheran influence.

    加尔文主义代替早期路德宗的影响。

  2. Philip II of Spain tried to crush all dissent. Calvinist ministers were among the earliest freedom fighters or perhaps guerrilla warriors for religious liberty.

    西班牙国王腓力二世试图镇压所有不信奉国教的人。加尔文主义的牧师是其中为了信仰自由而战的最早的自由战士或者说是游击队战士。

  3. William of Orange (the Silent) led Protestants who gained victory in 1609. Today’s national anthem for the Netherlands was written for William’s followers.

    1609年奥兰治威廉带领新教信徒获得胜利。今天尼德兰国际歌就是为威廉的跟随者而写。

  4. Dutch Reformed Church established.

    荷兰改革宗教会成立。

  5. Dutch church really stressed double predestination.

    荷兰教会非常强调双重预定论。

  6. The teachings of Arminius got their start in the Holland because of the double election controversy.

    因为双重拣选的论战,阿民念的教导在荷兰开始。

C. Scotland 苏格兰

  1. John Knox first brought Protestant influence to Scotland in 1546. He was a restless activist who tried to point England in the direction of Calvinism. later in 1559 following study under Calvin;

    1546年约翰·诺克斯使新教对苏格兰产生影响。他是一个忙碌不息,企图指引英国朝着加尔文主义方向的积极分子。1559年他跟随加尔文学习。

  2. He made Scotland the most devoutly Calvinist country in the world. This started the Presbyterian Church and its form of church government.

    他使苏格兰成为世界上最虔诚的加尔文主义国家。长老会和长老会形式的教会政府开始建立。

D. England 英格兰

  1. In the early years England rejected Reformation belief.

    英格兰早期拒绝信仰改革。

  2. Henry VIII broke with Rome to form the Church of England (Anglican church) which looked very Catholic, but didn’t bow to the Pope.

    亨利8世与罗马天主教分裂成立英格兰教会(圣公会)看似天主教形式,但不向教皇屈膝。

  3. Edward VI (1547-1553, Protestant), Mary Tudor (1553-1558, Catholic), and finally Elizabeth I (1558-1603, Protestant) established the Church of England as a middle-of-the-road protestant denomination.

    爱德华六世(1547-1553,新教),玛丽·都铎(1553-1558, 天主教),最后伊丽莎白一世(1558-1603, 新教)建立了英国国教会作为走中间路线的新教教派。

  4. Puritans arose as a party that wanted greater reform and change.

    清教徒成为一派兴起,想要更大的改革和变化。

  5. From the Church of England came the Baptists, Methodists, and Congregationalists.

    从英国国教会产生浸信会,卫理公会和公理会。

III. The Counter-Reformation 反宗教改革情形

A. Roman Catholic reform 罗马天主教改革

  1. Many Catholics saw a need to change the way Catholic leaders led. They also saw a need for change in doctrine and practice, and to remove corruption of the clergy.

    许多天主教看见需要改变天主教领袖领导的方式。他们也看见需要改变教义和惯例,铲除神职人员的腐败。

  2. Actual reform efforts failed.

    实际的改革努力失败。

    a. Instead, the Roman Inquisition began. It tarnished Christianity almost as much the Crusades.

    相反,罗马宗教裁判所开始。如同十字军东征一样败坏了基督教的名声。

    b. The Vatican published the Index of prohibited books and threatened damnation for any Catholic that read them.

    梵蒂冈出版了禁书的目录,并威胁对任何读禁书的天主教徒 予以定罪。

    i. All books from the Protestant Reformers were on this list. So were Protestant Bibles.

    所有新教改革家的书都在名单上。新教圣经也在其中。

    ii. For a long time just owning one of these books in Spain was punishable by death.

    在很长时间里,在西班牙仅拥有其中一本书都要处以死刑。

    iii. The Index was around until 1959. Pope Paul VI finally abolished it.

    直到1559年这个禁书目录不再被禁。教皇保罗六世最终废除目录。

  3. The Council of Trent (1546-1563) put Catholic doctrine into writing.

    天特会议(1546-1563)将天主教教义撰写成文。

  4. This limited the spread of Protestant beliefs to roughly the northern third of Europe. It has stayed that way today.

    这将新教信仰的传播限制大致在欧洲三分之一地区,主要在北方。至今保存现状。

B. Jesuits 耶稣会

  1. Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) founded this new group of monks, the Society of Jesus in 1540. They promised the Pope they would go wherever he wanted to send them, “whether to the Muslims or the New World or to the Lutherans or to the others, be they infidel or faithful.”

    罗耀拉,圣依纳爵(1491-1556)1540年成立了新的一群修道士团体,耶稣会。他们向教皇许诺奉命差遣。 “无论去穆斯林中间或是新大陆或是到路德宗信徒中间或是其他地方,不管他们是非信徒还是信徒。”

  2. They wanted to help the Catholic church expand and fight its enemies.

    他们想帮助天主教教会扩张,与他们的敌人争战。

  3. Their preachers talked a lot about the torments of hell. They developed many fine educational institutions and influenced Catholic rulers.

    他们的会士大谈地狱的煎熬。他们建立了很多优秀的教育学校并培养了有影响的天主教领导人。

  4. Francis Xavier, a Jesuit leader, organized mission work to India, Japan, China.

    沙勿略,一个耶稣会领袖,组织了到印度,日本,中国的传教工作。

IV. Christianity spreads. 1500-1650 are the years of discovery. 基督教传播。1500-1650是探索的年代

V. Europeans planted colonies in the Americas and found new trade routes to the wealth of the Far East. 欧洲人在美洲开拓殖民地,发现了新的通往远东财富的贸易之路。

A. Roman Catholics might calls this time the years of global expansion. 罗马天主教称这个年代为全球扩张年。

  1. To avoid rivalry between Portugal and Spain, the pope drew a line on the map from the North Pole to the South Pole, just west of the Azores, a series of nine islands in the North Atlantic just west of Spain. Everything west of the line, he said, belonged to Spain. Everything east of the line belonged to Portugal. That’s why Brazil speaks Portuguese, while the rest of Latin America speaks Spanish.

    为了避免葡萄牙和西班牙之间的竞争,教皇在从北极到南极的地图上画了一条线,这条线正好在西班牙西边的亚述尔群岛,北大西洋的一系列的9个岛屿的西边。他说这条线西边的所有邻域属于西班牙。这条线东边的所有邻域属于葡萄牙。这就是为什么巴西人说葡萄牙语,而拉丁美洲其余部分的人说西班牙语。

    a. Spanish business ships brought Catholic monks and missionaries all over Latin America.

    西班牙贸易船只把天主教修道士和传教士带到整个拉丁美洲。

    b. Portuguese explorers ferried missionaries to Africa and Asia.

    葡萄牙探索家把传教士送往非洲和亚洲。

    c. Jesuit missionaries were a big part of this.

    耶稣会会士占其中很大部分。

  2. Dominicans and Franciscans traveled with explorers to the New World.

    道明会和方济各会跟着探险家到了新大陆。

    a. Spanish explorers were used to fighting Muslims in Spain. Because they were loyal Catholics, they turned their business trips to the New World into crusades.

    西班牙探险家一贯与在西班牙的穆斯林争战。因为他们效忠天主教,他们将驶往新大陆的贸易之旅变成十字军东征。

    i. They made slaves of the natives, who had to work in mines and plantations.

    他们将土著人当作奴隶,他们必须在矿上和种植园干活。

    ii. In 1531 one Catholic bishop in Mexico wrote that they had destroyed more than 500 temples and 20,000 idols.

    1531年 墨西哥的天主教的主教记录他们已经毁掉超过500间寺庙和20000个偶像。

    b. Between 1524 and 1531 Catholic missionaries baptized more than 1,000,000 Mexicans. These mass baptisms led to ignorance, magic, and superstition among the converts. Mission work was often very superficial as far as real knowledge of the Christian faith.

    在1524年和1531年间天主教传教士为超过1,000,000 墨西哥人施洗。这些弥撒洗礼把归信的人引入无知,巫术和迷信的歧途。就真正的基督教信仰知识而言,这些传教工作经常是很肤浅的。

  3. Portuguese explorers and missionaries faced a different problem in the East.

    葡萄牙探险者和传教士在东方遇到不同的问题。

    a. They met highly developed civilizations and ancient religions far stronger than those of the Incans and Aztecs.

    他们遇到比阿兹特克和印加文明更强大的高度发展的文明和古代宗教。

    b. They tried to work with the customs of the people of India, Japan, and China.

    他们试图和印度,日本和中国的风俗习惯配合。

    c. Jesuit missionaries taught indigenous peoples the creed, the Lord’s Prayer, the Ten Commandments, and the Rosary. Then they could be baptized.

    耶稣会会士教导本土人信经,圣餐,十诫和玫瑰经。然后他们可以受洗。

    d. In Japan Jesuits established a new town as home for Christian converts. They called it Nagasaki. By 1600 there were 300,000 converts, hundreds of churches, and two Christian colleges.

    在日本,耶稣会为基督徒建立了一个新城镇作为他们的家。他们称为长崎。到1600年有300,000人归信,那里有上几百所教会,还有两个基督教大学。

    e. In China the Ming dynasty considered Chinese the givers of culture, not the receivers. Jesuit missionaries used clocks to win the Emperor’s favor. By around 1650 there were almost 270,000 Christians in China.

    在中国,明朝的皇帝认为中国人拥有先进的文明并不需要接受文明。耶稣会会士用西洋钟赢得皇帝的欢心。到大约1650年,中国有近270,000 基督徒。

B. Protestants 新教

  1. Influence of English church spread in their new territories.

    英国教会的影响波及新邻域。

  2. Persecutions, religious intolerance, and war (Thirty Years’ War, 1618-1648) led a lot of Christians to start a new life in America.

    逼迫,宗教排斥,战争(30年战争,1618-1648) 导致大量基督徒到美国开始新生活。

  3. In many ways Protestant Christians were not as active in spreading beliefs.

    新教基督徒在很多方面对传播信仰不积极。

Christian History After Jesus
第一课:基督教的影响
Lesson 1: Influences on Christians
第二课:早期基督教 公元100-313
Lesson 2: Ancient Christianity 100 – 313 A.D
第三课 早期基督教 公元313-590年
Lesson 3: Ancient Christianity 313 – 590 A.D.
第四课 中世纪早期的基督教 公元590-1073年
Lesson 4: Early Middle-Aged Christianity 590 – 1073 A.D.
第五课 中世纪早期的基督教 II 公元590-1073年
Lesson 5: Early Middle-Aged Christianity II 590 – 1073 A.D.
第六课 中世纪基督教的高度 公元1074-1294
Lesson 6: The Height of Middle-Aged Christianity, 1074-1294
第七课:中世纪衰落,新生,公元1294-1517
Lesson 7: Middle-Aged Decay, Then New Life, 1294-1517
第八课:宗教改革时期,第一部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 8: The Reformation Age, part 1: 1517 – 1648
第九课:宗教改革时期 ,第二部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 9: The Reformation Age, part 2: 1517 – 1648
第十课:基督教: 1648年至现代
Lesson 10: Christianity: 1648-Modern times
第九课:宗教改革时期 ,第二部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 9: The Reformation Age, part 2: 1517 – 1648