恩典国际圣经学院

第一课:基督教的影响
Lesson 1: Influences on Christians

Someone wise once said, “People who don’t learn from the mistakes of the past will make the same mistakes themselves.” The history of Christianity after Jesus went back to heaven tells what Christians as individuals and groups have done. There are a lot of important lessons for us today. Christian history has influenced us. We can learn it and benefit from it, or we can ignore it and hurt ourselves. With the help of God’s Word and wisdom we pray we learn and benefit.

曾有智者说:“不从历史的错误中汲取教训的人将犯同样的错误。”耶稣升天后的基督教历史告诉我们基督教中的个人和团体所做的事情。我们今天也能从中得到很重要的教训。基督教历史影响着我们。我们可以选择学习并从中获益,或者因忽视这些历史而受伤害。我们祈祷上帝的话语和智慧帮助我们从中学习并获益。

I. The world of the first centuries 初世纪时的世界

A. Ethnic influences 种族影响

  1. Greek culture - Alexander the Great; Greeks colonize countries around the Mediterranean ocean; Greek learning and sophistication; Greek language

    希腊文化——亚历山大大帝;地中海沿岸的希腊殖民国家;希腊学习法和诡辩法;希腊语。

  2. Roman control - rule over most of Western world; pax Romana; strong government

    罗马统治——罗马统治着西方世界的大部分区域;罗马和平时期;强硬的政府

  3. Jewish religion - scattered over Asia, Europe, and ; may have been 7% of the total population of the Empire; grouped together in major cities; strong Old Testament moral teaching

    犹太人的宗教——遍布亚洲、欧洲和非洲;信仰犹太人宗教的人数可能达到了整个罗马帝国总人数的7%;聚集在主要的城市;强有力的旧约道德教导。

B. Societal influences 社会影响

  1. Religion - old Roman and Greek god beliefs were dying; people were searching for answers to problems of life; Roman introduction of worship of the state and emperor

    宗教——古老的罗马和希腊诸神信仰慢慢消亡;人们寻求生命问题的解答;罗马兴起国家崇拜和皇帝崇拜。

  2. Greek philosophy produced no new thoughts; philosophy gave no comfort for guilt of sin and reality of death; Epicureans and Stoics dominated

    希腊哲学没有创造出新的观念;哲学不能缓解罪恶和死亡的事实;伊壁鸠鲁派、斯多噶派占主导地位。

  3. Morality - upper classes corrupt; a lot of sexual sin in most levels of society; poor family life and unity

    道德——上流阶层腐败堕落;大部分社会阶层都存在着性犯罪;糟糕的家庭生活和家庭团结。

II. History of Christians from the Bible 圣经中的基督教历史

A. The mission work of Paul and the other apostles 保罗及其他使徒的传教

– Acts (of the Apostles?)

——使徒行传

B. Lives of the apostles 使徒的生活

most accounts from the writings of the early Christian leaders

大部分来自早期基督徒领袖的著作

  1. Peter - married; worked among Jews in ; wrote two letters that we have in the Bible; he and his wife executed by Roman Emperor Nero in 68 A.D., nailed to a cross upside down

    彼得——已婚;在以色列的犹太人中传教;圣经中收录了他写的两封书信;公元68年,彼得和他妻子受罗马皇帝尼禄迫害,被头朝下钉上了十字架。

  2. Andrew - Peter’s brother; worked in , , and ; crucified on a cross in the shape of an X

    安德烈——彼得的兄弟;在俄罗斯、希腊、土耳其传教;最后被钉上了X形状的十字架。

  3. John - one of the leading apostles ( with Peter and James); later worked at Ephesus (Turkey); wrote several New Testament books; Roman Emperor forced him to move away in 95 to the island of Patmos off the coast of Turkey; returned to Ephesus where he died a natural death at an old age

    约翰——主要的使徒之一,(主要使徒还包括彼得和雅各);后来在土耳其以弗所传教;著有好几部新约书卷;在他90岁的时候,罗马皇帝把他强制流放到土耳其海岸边的拔摩岛;最后回到了以弗所并在那里寿终正寝。

  4. Philip - worked in and died in as a martyr

    腓力——在乌克兰传教,最后在土耳其殉道。

  5. Bartholomew (Nathanael) - worked in ; died by stoning and then crucified like Peter

    巴塞洛缪(拿但业)——在东印度传教;被扔石头并像彼得一样被钉上十字架而亡。

  6. James the brother of John - worked in and ; died under Herod in 44 A.D. by beheading

    约翰的兄弟雅各——在耶路撒冷和犹大地区传教;公元44年希律王统治时期被砍头。

  7. Thomas - worked in Arabia and later in ; executed and was buried there; Christians from were called “Thomas Christians”

    多玛——先在阿拉伯,随后在印度传教;在印度被迫害并埋葬;印度的基督徒被称为“多玛基督徒”

  8. Matthew - worked in Judea; wrote one of the gospels; later worked in; killed with a spear by a tribal leader

    马太——在犹大传教;著有四福音中的一部;后来在埃塞俄比亚传教;被一个部落首领用长矛刺中而亡。

  9. James son of Alphaeus - killed by Jews who threw him off the , then beat him to death with a club

    亚勒腓的儿子雅各——被犹太人扔出神殿,随后被乱棍打死。

  10. Thaddaeus or Judas - worked in where he was martyred

    达太或犹大——在波斯传教并殉道。

  11. Simon the Patriot - worked in and ; during the reign of Trajan died a martyr’s death

    爱国者西蒙——在埃及和波斯传教;在图拉真统治时期殉道。

  12. Judas Iscariot - took his own life

    加略人犹大——自杀。

  13. Paul - famous missionary; wrote many New Testament Bible books; died in under Emperor Nero in 66 A.D.

    保罗——著名的传道家;著有新约圣经的很多书卷;公元66年死于尼禄皇帝统治下的罗马。

C. Increase of Christianity 基督教扩张

  1. Among Jewish people (maybe 7% of the ’s population) and non-Jewish people

    基督教在犹太人(罗马帝国总人数的7%)和非犹太人中传播。

  2. Christianity is very popular among poor people and slaves

    基督教在穷人阶层和奴隶阶层非常受欢迎。

D. Enemies hunt down Christians 敌人追捕基督徒

  1. The book of Acts tells us about many times Jews and non-Jews punished Christians to stop their message.

    使徒行传多次提到犹太人和非犹太人惩罚基督徒,阻止他们传教。

  2. Under Nero in 54-68 A.D. - Paul and Peter killed

    公元54-68尼禄统治期间,保罗和彼得被杀害。

  3. Under Domitian in 96 A.D. – John

    公元96多米提安皇帝统治期间,约翰(被流放)

  4. Decius in 249-251 - the most severe狄希阿斯(201-251,罗马皇帝

    公元249-251狄希阿斯皇帝统治,最严酷的……

  5. Diocletian and successors in 303-313 – a lot of Christians faced execution if they did not swear allegiance to the Emperor as a god戴克里先,古罗马皇帝

    公元303-313 戴克里先和其继任者统治期间,如果基督徒不宣誓承认皇帝为上帝,就面临着迫害。

E. Worship practices 敬拜仪式

  1. In earliest days they used three Old Testament Bible sections to study and Psalm from the Old Testament as hymns and prayers.

    基督教发展早期,基督徒用旧约圣经中的三个部分来进行经文的学习,并使用旧约中的诗篇作为赞美诗和祷告的内容。

  2. Later they were able to get copies of letters from apostles to read and study along with copies of the gospels. These they copied and passed along to nearby groups of Christians.

    随后,他们可以获得使徒所著书信的副本,并福音书的副本来阅读和学习。他们复制这些资料并传给附近的基督教团体。

  3. House churches

    家庭教会。

III. Early threats to Bible truths 圣经真理的早期威胁

A. The Jewish compromising Christians 犹太人向基督徒妥协

  1. Stress obeying God’s rules for living as the way to insure God’s love

    强调将顺服神对基督徒生活的规条当做确保获得神的爱的方法。

  2. Galatians and Hebrews were God’s responses to protect Bible truth

    加拉太书和希伯来书是上帝对保护圣经真理的回应。

B. Gnostics 诺斯替教

  1. Related to Greek mystical beliefs

    与希腊神秘主义信仰有关

  2. Stressed the need for a getting psychic information

    强调获取心灵指引的需要。

  3. John’s gospel written against them

    约翰福音反驳了这些观点。

Christian History After Jesus
第一课:基督教的影响
Lesson 1: Influences on Christians
第二课:早期基督教 公元100-313
Lesson 2: Ancient Christianity 100 – 313 A.D
第三课 早期基督教 公元313-590年
Lesson 3: Ancient Christianity 313 – 590 A.D.
第四课 中世纪早期的基督教 公元590-1073年
Lesson 4: Early Middle-Aged Christianity 590 – 1073 A.D.
第五课 中世纪早期的基督教 II 公元590-1073年
Lesson 5: Early Middle-Aged Christianity II 590 – 1073 A.D.
第六课 中世纪基督教的高度 公元1074-1294
Lesson 6: The Height of Middle-Aged Christianity, 1074-1294
第七课:中世纪衰落,新生,公元1294-1517
Lesson 7: Middle-Aged Decay, Then New Life, 1294-1517
第八课:宗教改革时期,第一部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 8: The Reformation Age, part 1: 1517 – 1648
第九课:宗教改革时期 ,第二部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 9: The Reformation Age, part 2: 1517 – 1648
第十课:基督教: 1648年至现代
Lesson 10: Christianity: 1648-Modern times
第一课:基督教的影响
Lesson 1: Influences on Christians