恩典国际圣经学院

第二课:早期基督教 公元100-313
Lesson 2: Ancient Christianity 100 – 313 A.D

I. Influences of society 社会影响

A. The Roman world 罗马帝国

  1. The Roman Empire was greatest from 98-117 A.D. It ruled from England to North Africa, the southern border of Germany to Iran. It was just too much area for one government to rule.

    公元98-117是罗马帝国最强盛的时期。统治着从英格兰到北非,德国南境到伊朗的广大区域。对一个政府来说统治的区域过于广阔了。

  2. Slavery - In Rome the ratio was 1:3 slave to free. In the Empire it was 1:5. When the Empire had 50-60 million people, there may have been 10-12 million slaves. Owner could treat slaves harshly. One Roman writer said slaves “were in a much worse state than cattle.” Slavery was temporary.

    奴隶制——在罗马,奴隶和自由公民的比例是1:3。整个罗马帝国奴隶和自由公民的比例是1:5.如果说罗马帝国的人口是五千万到六千万,那么其中就有一千万到一千两百万的奴隶。奴隶主对待奴隶非常残酷。有个罗马的作家说奴隶“处境比牲畜还不如。”奴隶制是暂时的。

  3. Family - among ruling and wealthy class divorce and sexual sin was destroying the families. Among slaves there was no family life.

    家庭——在统治阶层和富人阶层,家庭被离婚和性犯罪破坏。而奴隶是没有家庭生活可言的。

  4. Barbarians - German tribes began to put pressure on the empire’s borders and threaten invasion.

    巴巴利亚人——德意志民族给罗马帝国的边境施加了很多压力,并威胁要入侵。

  5. Edict of Toleration - after severe persecutions, the Roman Emperor gave Christians freedom from execution in 311 A.D. Edict of Milan in 313 allowed freedom of religion and Christianity.

    容忍宣言(米兰赦令)——在严酷的迫害之后,罗马皇帝于公元311年赦免基督徒,给予他们自由。公元313年实行的米兰宣言允许宗教自由,允许基督教发展。

B. Influences on Christians对基督徒的影响

  1. Growth – Christianity spread to all areas of the Middle East, North Africa, Spain and France. There were many strong congregations in Turkey. All New Testament books were written by 100. Church leaders were quoting from them. The first complete list of Bible books, as we have them today, came around this time.

    发展——基督教遍布了中东、北非、西班牙和法国的所有区域。土耳其有非常盛大的集会。到公元100年所有的新约书卷全部撰写完成,教会领袖一直引用其中的话语。第一本完整的圣经在这个时期出现也就是我们现在用的圣经。

  2. Christian identity – Jesus had the greatest appeal among slave. Rich and poor people were Christians together. Government leaders and the soldiers who guarded the Emperor even became believers.

    基督徒身份——耶稣在奴隶阶层中吸引了最多的信徒。富人和穷人同为基督徒。就连政府官员和守卫帝国的士兵也成为了信徒。

  3. Leaders and spreaders of the faith - Greek philosophy influenced leaders’ explanations of the Bible

    信仰的领导者和传播者——希腊哲学影响了教会领导者对圣经的解释。

    a. Apostolic Fathers - students of the apostles. 使徒教父——使徒的学生。

    • Clement of Rome, had studied under Paul and Peter. He became the main leader of Christians in Rome from 92-101. He wrote a famous letter to Corinth.
    • 罗马的革利免师从于保罗和彼得。在公元92-101年成为了罗马基督徒的主要领导者。他给哥林多教会写过一篇著名的书信。
    • Polycarp was the apostle John’s student. Enemies of Jesus tied him up to a post and burned him alive in Rome when he was 86. Christians looked to him as a leader in teaching and understanding the teachings of the apostles.
    • 坡旅甲是使徒约翰的学生。在他86岁的时候耶稣的敌人把他绑在罗马的一个柱子上活活烧死。基督徒把他看做信仰的教导领袖,懂得使徒的教导。

    b. Apologists – wrote books defending the Bible’s teachings against the bad publicity Christianity suffered during persecutions. These were people like Justin Martyr (100-165); Tertullian (160-230). Origen (185-254) was a teacher and writer of Bible explanations.

    宗教护教士——写书捍卫圣经的教导,对抗那些在宗教迫害期间出版的关于基督教的不良宣传内容。这些人中有游斯丁(100-165),特图良(160-230)。其中奥利金教导和写作关于圣经的解释。

II. Life among Christians 基督徒的生活

A. The good things 好的方面

  1. Commitment – During persecutions sometimes 75% of Christian groups had given in to the pressure to leave Christianity. Now that Christianity was legal, what should Christians who stayed faithful do when those people came back?

    保证——在宗教迫害期间,有段时期有75%的基督教团体屈于压力而离开了教会。现在这个时期基督教是合法的,那么之前离开教会的人回来后,那些一直忠诚于教会的基督徒该怎么做呢?

  2. Example - Even non-Christians noticed the love Christians showed each other and outsiders, John 15:12.

    榜样——就连不是基督徒的人也注意到了基督徒彼此相爱且爱世人。约翰福音15:12.

  3. Worship - by the 150s almost all Christian groups got together early Sunday mornings. They used prayers, hymns, Bible section readings and explanations, Lord’s Supper. By 200 Christians had a formal outline that they used when they worshipped. The first half of worship time was open to anyone. Only those who’d studied and committed to Bible truths could stay for the Communion part of service time, which was later.

    敬拜——到了公元150年代,几乎所有的基督徒团体都在周日清晨聚会。他们会祷告、唱诗、读圣经、解读圣经,并举行圣餐礼拜。到了公元200年,基督徒在做礼拜的时候已经有了正式敬拜的框架。任何人都可以参加礼拜的前半部分,只有那些要学习并致力于圣经真理的人可以留下来参加礼拜的后半部分,即圣餐服侍部分。

  4. Creeds – public statements of the main Christian truths, Matthew 28:19,20. Early in Christianity’s history Christians used these statements when they gathered for group baptisms. Christians were using the Apostles’ Creed in Rome before 150 A.D.

    信经——主要基督教真理的公开声明。马太福音28:19,20在基督教历史的早期,基督徒在集体受洗的时候使用这些教义。公元150年之前,罗马的基督徒一直使用《使徒信经》。

  5. Unity – Christians formed a unified system of group leadership. There were bishops, presbyters (this is where the word “priest” comes from), deacons. They had a unified statement of what they believed, the creed. They all accepted the same New Testament books as the Bible. They started using the word “catholic” (universal) to describe everyone who believed Bible truth. Anyone who believed things the Bible did not teach were “heretics.” There were four main international Christian leaders. They headed Christian groups in the Roman Empire’s four biggest cities: Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem.

    合一——基督徒建立了统一的团体领导系统。包括主教,长老(“牧师”这个词就来源于“长老”),执事。他们也有信仰及教义的统一陈述,都接受同样的新约为圣经,并开始使用“大公教会”(普遍来讲)这个词来描述所有相信圣经真理的人。任何相信圣经中没有教导的事情的人被称为“异教徒”。有四个主要的国际基督徒领导者,他们统领着罗马帝国四个最大城市的基督徒团体:罗马、亚历山大港、安提阿及耶路撒冷。

B. The bad things 不好的方面

  1. Beginnings of monks living alone in deserted places (asceticism). This is where the word “hermit” came from. They believed that when a Christian gives up rights like sex, food, money, and the comforts of life, this would earn special privileges from God. They went to extremes. Some ate nothing but grass. Others lived in trees. Still others refused to wash.

    修道士开始在荒凉的地方独自生活。(苦修主义)“隐士”这个词即来源于此。他们相信,当一个基督徒放弃了诸如性、食物、金钱和舒适生活等权利,这个世界就能从上帝那里赢得特权。他们走了极端,有些人除了草,不吃其他东西;有些人住在树林里;有些人拒绝洗澡。

  2. Legalism - stress on rules for a higher level of Christian living. Monks started living together in groups or monasteries. They organized prayer services seven times a day through the night. They picked special days when to go without food. They gave away all their money and possessions to poor people. They devoted themselves to studying and copying the Bible. By the 400s practically every Christian leader was either a monk or had a close connection to a monk lifestyle.

    守法主义——强调为基督徒生活更上一层的律法。修道士开始群居于修道院。他们每天组织其次祷告侍奉,挑选特殊的日子禁食,把所有的金钱和所有物捐给穷人。致力于学习及传抄圣经。到了公元400年代,实际上每个基督徒领袖不是修道士就是以接近修道士生活方式来生活的人。

  3. Different levels of Christianity – “requirements of the gospel” were for regular Christians to obey. “Advice of the gospel” was for people who wanted a higher level of holiness. They became monks obedient to special, harder rules, I Timothy 4:1-3.

    基督教的不同层次——“福音要求”是为普通的教徒去遵守的。“福音建议”是让那些追求更高层次圣洁的人去遵守;他们成为修道士,遵守特别的、更加严苛的规定。提摩太前书4:1-3.

  4. Lord’s Supper – By the 200s leaders were giving a different emphasis to Holy Communion. They taught it was more about the message we send God than the message God is sending us. They believed going to the Sacrament could earn God’s blessing for the participant and even people the participant prayed for.

    圣餐——到了公元200年代,基督教领袖们更加强调圣餐礼。他们教导说圣餐礼更多是我们向神传递的消息而不是神向我们传递的消息。他们相信参加圣餐能使参与者们甚至参与者们为之祷告的人赢得神的保佑。

  5. Christian leaders higher than average Christians – Christian leaders used the ignorance of normal Christians to make whatever rules they wanted. People viewed church leaders as better Christians than average believers.

    基督教领袖高于普通基督徒——基督教领袖利用普通基督徒的无知来制定他们想要的规定。人们认为教会领袖跟一般信徒相比,是更好的基督徒。

  6. Priests had special privileges – People believed only the priest could make the Sacrament of Holy Communion official.

    神父有特权——人们相信只有神父能使圣餐礼成为正式的。

  7. International Christian leaders compete – The highest Christian leaders in the biggest cities around the Mediterranean ocean fought for highest honors.

    国际上的基督教领袖相互竞争——地中海沿岸那些最大城市的基督教领袖彼此争夺最高荣誉。

C. Threats to Bible truth. 圣经真理的威胁

  1. Gnostics – By 200 the Gnostic group used Greek philosophy to claim special “knowledge” outside the Bible. They were physics who believed in special, essential information from “spirit guides.” They denied God created the universe. They denied Jesus ever had a body. They told people that whatever you want to do with your body is OK.

    诺斯替教——到了公元200年,诺斯替教利用希腊哲学宣扬圣经外的特殊“知识”。他们是物理学家,相信“圣灵引导”的特殊、重要的信息。否认上帝创造宇宙,否认耶稣基督拥有过肉体。告诉人们无论如何对待自己的身体都可以。

  2. Supporters of Marcian (100-160) taught that the Old Testament God was different from the New Testament God. They taught the Old Testament God was evil because he created the world, man, and sin. Marcion believed the Old Testament God was evil because he used the Jews to kill so many other people. Another God of love sent Jesus. Marcion got rid of Matthew, Mark, Acts, Hebrews, 1^st^ and 2^nd^ Timothy and Titus. They refused to use wine in Holy Communion and taught that sex and marriage were giving in to your evil urges. Marcion’s wrong teachings forced Christians to list all the official Bible books.

    马奇亚(公元100-160)的支持者们教导说旧约中的上帝与新约中的上帝不同。旧约中的上帝是邪恶的,因为他创造了世界、人和罪。马吉安相信旧约中的上帝是邪恶的,因为他利用犹太人屠杀了很多其他种族的人。派遣耶稣的是另一个充满爱的上帝。马吉安摒弃了马太福音、马可福音、使徒行传、希伯来书,提摩太前后书和提多书。拒绝在圣餐礼上喝红酒,并教导人说性和婚姻是屈服于人的罪恶冲动。马吉安的错误教条迫使基督徒列出了官方的圣经书卷目录。

  3. Supporters of Montanus – He lived before 200 A.D. in Turkey. He predicted that Jesus would shortly return to set up a worldwide kingdom. He said Christians should have higher standards and better self-discipline. He taught that he and two ladies were getting messages directly from God for people. They would go into a trance so the Holy Spirit could use their voices to communicate with them. This also forced Christians to organize and formally accept the New Testament Bible books.

    孟他努的支持者们——孟他努生活在公元200年前的土耳其。他曾预言说耶稣会很快再次降临,建立一个世界性的国家。他说基督徒应该有更高的标准,更好的自律。教导人们说他和两个女士直接从上帝那里领受消息给人们。他们能进入一种精神恍惚的状态,如此一来圣灵就能用他们的声音来与他们交流。这种教导同样迫使基督徒组织并正式接受新约圣经的书卷。

Christian History After Jesus
第一课:基督教的影响
Lesson 1: Influences on Christians
第二课:早期基督教 公元100-313
Lesson 2: Ancient Christianity 100 – 313 A.D
第三课 早期基督教 公元313-590年
Lesson 3: Ancient Christianity 313 – 590 A.D.
第四课 中世纪早期的基督教 公元590-1073年
Lesson 4: Early Middle-Aged Christianity 590 – 1073 A.D.
第五课 中世纪早期的基督教 II 公元590-1073年
Lesson 5: Early Middle-Aged Christianity II 590 – 1073 A.D.
第六课 中世纪基督教的高度 公元1074-1294
Lesson 6: The Height of Middle-Aged Christianity, 1074-1294
第七课:中世纪衰落,新生,公元1294-1517
Lesson 7: Middle-Aged Decay, Then New Life, 1294-1517
第八课:宗教改革时期,第一部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 8: The Reformation Age, part 1: 1517 – 1648
第九课:宗教改革时期 ,第二部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 9: The Reformation Age, part 2: 1517 – 1648
第十课:基督教: 1648年至现代
Lesson 10: Christianity: 1648-Modern times
第二课:早期基督教 公元100-313
Lesson 2: Ancient Christianity 100 – 313 A.D