恩典国际圣经学院

第三课 早期基督教 公元313-590年
Lesson 3: Ancient Christianity 313 – 590 A.D.

I. World conditions 世界概况

A. The Roman Empire 罗马帝国

  1. Control of Europe of Europe kept getting weaker – It was hard to take care of all the countries around the Mediterranean ocean. There was also the constant threat of invasion from warlike European peoples. Emperor Constantine moved the Empire’s international headquarters from to in 326. Sometimes there was one ruler for Europe and another for , Africa, and the .

    统治着逐渐衰落中的欧洲-完全掌控地中海沿岸的国家是很困难的。加之欧洲人民不断挑起的战争也是一个持续的被入侵的威胁。康斯坦丁大帝于公元326年把帝国的国际中心从罗马迁到了君士坦丁堡。有时候欧洲有一位统治者,而土耳其、非洲和中东有另一位统治者。

  2. Religion – Constantine and later Emperors made Christianity the official religion of the Empire. They outlawed heathen religions, which fell out of fashion and began to disappear.

    宗教——康斯坦丁大帝及后来的皇帝们使基督教成为帝国的国教。取缔了外邦人的宗教,那些宗教渐渐不合时宜,开始消失。

  3. Civilization – Learning and culture continued to disappear in Europe, but prosper especially in Asia and . The Eastern countries prospered while became poor.

    文明——学习和文化继续在欧洲消失,但是却在亚洲和非洲开始发展。东方的国家文化开始繁荣发展的时候,欧洲文化却在衰落。

B. Invasion from barbarian peoples 野蛮人入侵

– Who were these invaders who threatened ? German people with names like the Visigoths, the Burgundians and Franks, the Angles and Saxons took over large areas of Europe from the .

——这些入侵者也曾威胁过罗马。来自德国的一些种族如西哥特人,勃艮第人和法兰克人,央格鲁和撒克逊人从罗马帝国手中夺取了欧洲大片的区域。

II. Conditions for Christianity 基督教的情况

A. In the Roman Empire 在罗马帝国

  1. No more persecution – The Roman Emperors from faraway Constantinople (modern , ancient ) gave Christians freedom to worship as they wanted. Emperor Constantine gave huge amounts of money and land to the church. He even financed massive church construction projects.

    不再有宗教迫害——来自遥远的康斯坦丁堡(现代的伊斯坦布尔,古代的拜占庭)的罗马皇帝们给基督徒自由,让他们可以如愿敬拜。康斯坦丁大帝赐给教会大量的钱财和土地,甚至为大的教堂建设项目提供资金。

  2. Government involvement - in 325 organized a convention of all Christians at Nicea to settle an argument about what the Bible taught about the Triune God and who Jesus is. In 380 Emperor Theodosius made a law that everyone in the Empire must become Christian.

    政府介入——公元325年,康斯坦丁组织所有在尼斯的基督徒召开一场会议,讨论圣经中教导的三位一体的神以及耶稣是什么人。公元380年狄奥多西皇帝制定法律,规定帝国的所有人必须成为基督徒。

B. Outside the Empire 罗马帝国之外

  1. Missionary outreach in – Christians sent many missionaries to spread Christianity to German tribes. St. Patrick in 433 carried brought news about Jesus to . Monks from carried the gospel to and .

    传教士们扩展到欧洲——基督徒派遣很多传教士向德国的民族传播基督教。圣帕特里克在公元433年把耶稣基督的信息传到了爱尔兰。爱尔兰的修道士们把福音传到了苏格兰和英格兰。

  2. Missionary outreach to – Merv (Merw) is the ancient name of one of the world’s most famous ancient cities. It was in what’s now the country of . It was an oasis in the desert. It was a commercial center on the . 200,000 people lived there in 1100 A.D., making it (for a little while) one of the largest cities on the planet. It was an ideal headquarters for missionary trips to as far away as .

    传教士们扩展到中国——梅尔夫(梅尔)是世界上最著名的古代城市之一的名字,在今天的土库曼斯坦。这个城市处于沙漠中的绿洲,是丝绸之路上一个商业中心。公元1100年,有二十万人居住于此,使得梅尔夫曾经一度成为世界上最大的城市之一。因此,对那些想要到遥远的中国去的传教士来说,梅尔夫是个理想的差遣总部。

    a. , after all, already had more people than all of . We’re not sure when the first Christians got to . But already in 550 Christian missionary monks were smuggling silkworms from Serinda () to . The Bible book of Acts concentrates on Christianity’s spread to the west. Greater missionary work was going on to the east, travelling the Silk Road all the way to and the .

    毕竟,中国的人口多于全欧洲。我们不确定第一批基督徒何时到达中国。不过在公元550年,基督徒传教士已经开始从(中国)走私蚕到土耳其了。使徒行传主要集中记叙基督教在西方的传播。而更伟大的传教工作在东方进行着,从丝绸之路一路到达中国和太平洋。

    b. The earliest formal mission work in , that we know of, was around 636. Christian monks brought the news about Jesus to the Chinese imperial capital of Ch’ang-an (Xian). Christianity lasted over 200 years there. They arrived in the early days of the new Tang dynasty. The Emperor, Taizong, was surprisingly open to all kinds of foreign influences. He permitted Christianity in his kingdom.

    我们所知的最早、最正式的在中国的传教是在公元636年左右。基督教传教士把关于耶稣的消息带到了中国的首都长安(西安)。基督教在那里持续发展了200多年。传教士在初唐时期到达中国,当时的皇帝唐太宗对所有国外的影响持令人惊异的开放的态度。他允许基督教在他的国土发展。

    c. Monasteries spread across . They used local building styles. You can still see what’s left of one in , in a pagoda built in the 600s. It’s called a Daqin (Tachin or Syrian) monastery.

    景教寺遍布中国,使用当地的建筑风格。时至今日,仍然可以看到陕西省遗留的建筑,修建在公元600年代的大秦寺塔,称为大秦修道院(大秦或叙利亚)

    d. By the 700s Chinese Christians had their own national leader, Bishop Adam. He translated parts of the Bible into Chinese.

    到了公元700年代,中国的基督徒有了自己的国家基督教领袖,亚当主教。他把部分圣经翻译成了中文。

  3. Ambitious mission work carried Christianity to all parts of and ,, and by the 500’s.

    到了公元500年代,雄心勃勃的传教工作已经将基督教传到了伊拉克和伊朗的所有地区,以及阿拉伯、印度和埃塞俄比亚。

    • The Eastern headquarters for missionary work was in Selucia, part of modern-day . It was at the center of the world’s trade and communication highways. It was midway between civilizations the looked to the Atlantic, as well as those that faced the .

    • 基督教在东方的传教中心在塞琉西亚,属于现代伊拉克的一部分。当时塞琉西亚是世界贸易交流交通干线的中心。位于能遥望大西及面对太平洋的文明的的中间。

III. Organized Christianity develops. 有组织的基督教发展

A. Powerful influences on Christians 对基督徒的强有力的影响

  1. Converts – Government decree forced many former heathens to become Christian. A lot of them brought non-Christian beliefs and attitudes with them. Christians could not or did not teach heathen converts enough of the Bible’s teachings. Non-Christian practices of worshipping local gods fit right in with the worship of saints and Mary.

    转变——政府发布命令强制以前的异教徒成为基督徒,这些人中有很多有非基督教信仰及态度。基督徒无法通过圣经的教导使异教徒完全转变,实际上,非基督徒一边敬拜圣徒和玛利亚,一边敬拜当地的神明,并且两者相安无事。

  2. Monk lifestyle – Monks put the Christian emphasis on what you did for God. They refused marriage, food, money, and the comforts of life to impress God. This led more and more people to look for peace with God by becoming monks. In the East being a monk meant living by yourself. In it meant living with other monks.

    修道士的生活方式——修道士使基督徒强调你为上帝做的事情。他们以拒绝婚姻、食物、金钱及舒适生活的方式来使上帝印象深刻。这种方式使得越来越多的人通过成为修道士来寻求与神的和平。在东方,成为修道士意味着你要独自生活;在欧洲,意味着与其他修道士一起生活。

  3. Monks brought progress – Monks were the main missionaries for Christianity. Their commitment to God was an example other Christians needed. Monks encouraged worship and prayer. Monks took care of poor and needy people in society. They kept education alive in their culture. This was because of Benedict, one of the leaders in organizing a monk lifestyle. Famous leaders like Augustine gave monks positive publicity.

    修道士带来的进步——对基督徒来说,修道士是主要的传教士。他们对上帝的承诺使得他们成为其他基督徒的典范。修道士鼓励敬拜和祷告,他们照顾穷人及社会上有需要的人;进行文化教育。这些是由于其中的一个修道士领袖班尼迪克建立了一种修道士的生活模式。著名的领袖如奥古斯丁也使得修道士有了正面的公众影响。

  4. Influential leaders – 有影响的领导者

    • Origen (185-254) – this third century “religious fanatic” gave up his job, slept on the floor, ate no meat, drank no wine, fasted twice a week, owned no shoes, and reportedly castrated himself for the faith. He was also the most prolific scholar of his age (with hundreds of works to his credit), a first-rate Christian philosopher, and a profound student of the Bible.

    • 奥利金(公元185-254)——这位第三世纪“宗教狂热者”放弃了工作,睡在地板上,没有肉吃,没有酒喝,每周禁食两次,没有鞋穿,而且据说为了信仰进行了自宫。他同样也是他那个时代一个非常有才华的学者(他的名下有上百种著作),一流的基督教哲学家,同样也是学习圣经很资深的学徒。

    • Athanasius from (293-373) was the main leader for Bible truth at the international convention of Christians in Nicea in 325. Authorities banished him five times for defending the truth of the Bible.

    • 从亚历山大来的亚大纳西(公元293-373)是公元325年在尼斯的基督教国际会议上圣经真理的一位主要领袖。社会上的权威人士曾五次因为他维护圣经真理而驱逐他。

    • Jerome (340-420) started an important monastery in Bethlehem and there translated the Bible into Latin (Vulgate). It was the Catholic church’s official Bible until recently.

    • 杰罗姆(公元340-420)在伯利恒建立了一个重要的修道院,在那里将圣经翻译成拉丁文(拉丁文圣经)。这本圣经成为天主教会的官方圣经,一直使用到最近。

    • Ambrose (340-397) was a bishop of Milan. He used the threat of excommunication to get a Roman Emperor to repent about abusive policies for which he was responsible.

    • 安波罗修(公元340-420年)是米兰的一位主教,他用“逐出教会”威胁一位罗马皇帝为他自己制定的严酷的政策进行忏悔。

    • Augustine (354-430) was the bishop of Hippo in North Africa. He was the main defender of the Bible teaching about salvation by grace against the followers of Pelagius.

    • 奥古斯丁(公元354-430年)是北非希波的主教。他是圣经教导中救赎恩典的主要捍卫者,与贝拉基的追随者们作斗争。

  5. Development of the position of Pope – Rome was a natural center of importance for European Christians. People had treated the Bishop of Rome as Head Judge for international differences of opinion. After the Empire’s headquarters moved to Turkey, the Bishop of Rome claimed Peter was the first bishop of Rome. Leo I (440-461) claimed universal authority over all other bishops.

    教皇权位的发展——对欧洲的基督徒来说,罗马有着天然重要的地位。人们把罗马主教看做国际异见的首席法官。在罗马帝国的重心移到土耳其后,罗马主教宣称彼得为第一位罗马主教。利奥一世(公元440-461)宣称他拥有超越其他所有主教的权威。

B. Arguments in the church 教会内的争端

  1. Arianism – Arius was the bishop of Alexandria in Egypt. He started teaching:

    阿里乌斯教——阿里乌是埃及亚历山大城的主教,他开始教导:

    a. that Jesus was not eternal God but was the first created being who then created the universe,

    耶稣不是永恒的神,但他是被创造出来的第一位存有,随后他创造了宇宙。

    b. Jesus was not 100% God,

    耶稣不是完全的神

    c. Jesus wore a human body and achieved moral excellence.

    Note: Jehovah’s Witnesses and Mormons believe many of these things today.

    耶稣生而为人且达到了道德的至境。

    注意:时至今日,耶和华见证会和摩门教徒们还相信很多这样的教导。

  2. Pelagianism – Pelagian introduced dangerous teachings (360-420). He was a solitary monk from Britain who moved to North Africa from Rome. He put a lot of his teachings into writing. He believed:

    贝拉基主义——贝拉基引入了危险的教条(公元360-420)。他是来自英国的一位独居的修道士,后来从罗马搬到了北非。他把自己的很多教导化诸笔端,他相信:

    a. People have the natural ability to be and do good.

    人天生就有成为善人且行善的能力。

    b. There are no such things as urges and instincts to sin that Adam and Eve passed down to all their descendants.

    亚当和夏娃并没有把犯罪的倾向和本能传给他们的子孙。

    c. He believed it is possible for people not to sin. He believed some people have lived without sin.

    他相信人不犯罪是可能的,相信很多人是无罪地在生活。

    d. People do not need the Holy Spirit or His Law and Gospel to lead them to Jesus.

    人不需要圣灵或律法或福音来带领他们来到耶稣面前。

  3. Nestorianism – Nestorius (died - 451) was the bishop of Constantinople. He believed:

    涅斯多留主义——涅斯多留(公元451年去世)是康斯坦丁堡的主教,他相信:

    a. That Jesus was not 100% God and 100% human at the same time

    耶稣不同时是百分百的上帝和百分百的人。

    b. That, when Jesus became human, God adopted Him as God’s Son.

    当耶稣基督化身为人,上帝收养他作为神的儿子。

C. Methods Christians used to decide what was right in doctrinalquestions 基督徒决定教义问题对错的方法

  1. They summoned Christian leaders to international conventions (church councils)

    召集基督徒领袖参加国际会议(教会议会)

    a. The first leader to do this was the Roman Emperor Constantine in 326 at Nicea.

    第一次召集国际会议的是罗马皇帝康斯坦丁,于公元326年在尼斯举行。

    b. Other famous international conventions – Council of Constantinople (381); Council of Ephesus (431); Council of Chalcedon (451)

    其他著名的国际会议——康斯坦丁堡会议(公元381年);以弗所会议(公元431年);迦克墩会议(公元451年)

    c. Ongoing problems - influence of Greek philosophy and questions about who Jesus really is in the Eastern church.

    持续存在的问题——希腊哲学关于耶稣到底是谁的问题在东方教会的影响。

  2. They put together an official list of the Bible books and made unified doctrinal statements.

    罗列了官方的圣经书卷目录,制定了统一的教义阐述。

    a. Canon of the Bible – This is the official list of Bible books. Augustine put the full list of New Testament books together in 367. He did it to combat the Montanists who claimed what they received from God in trances was also God’s Word.

    正典圣经——这是官方的圣经书卷目录。奥古斯丁于公元367年列出了完整的新约书卷目录,他这么做是为了反对孟他努派教徒,他们宣称在迷思时候得到的上帝的指示也属于神的话语。

    b. Ecumenical creeds – This means public statements about God that all Christians agree are correct: Apostles’ Creed (about 150); Nicene Creed (325); Athanasian Creed (around 500)

    三大公信经——意味着所有基督徒都同意的关于上帝的公开声明是正确的;使徒信经(公元150年左右);尼西亚信经(公元325年);亚他那修信经(公元500年左右)

Christian History After Jesus
第一课:基督教的影响
Lesson 1: Influences on Christians
第二课:早期基督教 公元100-313
Lesson 2: Ancient Christianity 100 – 313 A.D
第三课 早期基督教 公元313-590年
Lesson 3: Ancient Christianity 313 – 590 A.D.
第四课 中世纪早期的基督教 公元590-1073年
Lesson 4: Early Middle-Aged Christianity 590 – 1073 A.D.
第五课 中世纪早期的基督教 II 公元590-1073年
Lesson 5: Early Middle-Aged Christianity II 590 – 1073 A.D.
第六课 中世纪基督教的高度 公元1074-1294
Lesson 6: The Height of Middle-Aged Christianity, 1074-1294
第七课:中世纪衰落,新生,公元1294-1517
Lesson 7: Middle-Aged Decay, Then New Life, 1294-1517
第八课:宗教改革时期,第一部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 8: The Reformation Age, part 1: 1517 – 1648
第九课:宗教改革时期 ,第二部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 9: The Reformation Age, part 2: 1517 – 1648
第十课:基督教: 1648年至现代
Lesson 10: Christianity: 1648-Modern times
第三课 早期基督教 公元313-590年
Lesson 3: Ancient Christianity 313 – 590 A.D.