第五课 中世纪早期的基督教 II 公元590-1073年
Lesson 5: Early Middle-Aged Christianity II 590 – 1073 A.D.
I.World conditions 世界形势
A.Muslim influence – 穆斯林的影响——
Wherever Islam ruled, they ordered Christians to pay tribute.
They refuse to allow Christians to build new churches.
Sometimes there were ruthless efforts to overpower Christians.
Christian parents may be ordered to give up their children to serve in Islamic armies
B. Among European Christians 欧洲的基督徒中
Muslim conquests deprived Christian groups of large numbers.
Mission work in the immediate area ceased.
There was some outreach to India, China, and Russia that continued.
a. Europe, including Russia, had about 40 million people.
b. Europe had between 25-30 million Christians.
c. Asia had 17-20 million Christians, with another 5 million in Africa.
C. In China, enemies almost got rid of all Christianity on at least two occasions, once in the 900s and then again in the 1300s. 在中国，至少有两次，教会的敌对者几乎除掉了所有的基督教。这两次事件一次在公元900年代，一次发生在公元1300年代。
Each time missionaries had to start all over again.
God kept little groups of Christians safe through long years of persecution. Around 1300, Marco Polo reported groups of Christians in China for over 700 years.
In 1605, Catholic missionary Matteo Ricci reported that in central China a considerable group of Christians had been in existence for 500 years and that there were important traces of them in many places.
II.Life for Christians in Europe 欧洲基督徒的生活
A.The people 人群
Mass conversion is the method that made Europe’s pagan peoples Christian
a. Missionary monks removed barbarian magic from power by calling down superior firepower.
i. Famous British missionary Winfrid (Boniface) marched into hostile non-Christian Germany in 729. He went to the sacred forest of Thor, the god of thunder. A massive oak tree was the symbol of Thor’s presence. The story says that after Boniface sliced it once with an ax, a mighty wind from God toppled the tree.
ii. The rumor about one missionary monk among England’s warlike tribes was that he could make tails grow on the backs of people who didn’t listen to him.
Spiritual condition – New German Christians controlled Europe at this time). Murder and adultery were facts of life, even after conversion.
灵性状态 - 德国新入教的基督徒们在这个时候控制了欧洲。尽管他们已从异教徒转变成了基督徒，但谋杀和通奸的事实仍然发生。
a. They thought of Jesus as a glorified warlord. The Frank tribe especially admired Peter because he used to sword to slice off the ear of the high priest’s servant to protect Jesus.
b. New German Christians brought their superstitions with them into Christianity. Saint worship took the spotlight off Jesus.
i. They believed St. Anthony took care of pigs.
ii. They believed St. Gaul looked after hens.
iii. They believed St. Apollonia, whose jaw was broken in the persecution, cured toothaches.
iv. They believed St. Genevieve cured fevers.
v. They believed St. Blaise was responsible for sore throats.
c. People believed that doing Christian things was the way to heaven. Christians kept and worshiped historical artifacts that once belonged to a saint, martyr, or Christian leader (relics).
B.The priests 祭司们
Government control – rulers sold church leadership assignments to the highest bidder. Rulers also donated property to monasteries in exchange for loyalty oaths and military service.
Corruption – a lot of priests were runaway slaves or criminals with no education or training.
a. Priests were drunk and in it for the money they could make. Many of them were married or had women living with them. This also became the way monks lived. Supervising priests were the worst.
b. The Position of Pope – This became a political contest for control. Christians bought, sold, or got to be pope as a favor. For a while a family of infamous women controlled who would be pope. Many popes lived alcoholics, adulterers, even murderers.
C.A fresh start 崭新的开始
Positive change in Christianity
a. Church leaders decided to elect a monk named Gregory as Pope in 590.
i. He refused the position, hid in the woods, and was dragged back to Rome to take the position.
ii. He took the job seriously and became one of the most famous of the Christian church leaders from long ago.
iii.He called himself “the servant of the servants of God.”
iv. He emphasized belief that dead saints had extra good works that were on deposit in heaven for you to buy.
v. He also encouraged collection and worship of remains of saints and martyrs – locks of hair, finger nails, toes, pieces of cloths. Gregory taught these possessed great powers, including that of self-defense.
b. the monastery at Cluny in France encouraged positive changes for monks in monasteries all over by spread in Europe.
i. They eliminated the practice of buying supervisory positions among Christians.
ii. They demanded priests, monks and nuns behave sexually.
iii. Popes Leo IX (1049-1054) and Hildebrand, Gregory VII (1073-1085) supported these positive changes.