恩典国际圣经学院

第二部分 – 教导——阅读1
Part Two – Teaching

A. The role of the teacher The role of a teacher changes somewhat from culture to culture and depends on various situations. If the teacher is an expert and his students have a strong desire to learn, the teacher can then lecture and expect the students to take notes and stay interested on their own. If the students are not so interested, the teacher will not be so successful lecturing, and will have to use questions, pictures, group activities, and other such methods to keep the students involved. When teaching the Bible, however, you must also remember something else. You are not only trying to get information into the heads or brains of your students, but also through God’s Spirit get the message into their hearts.

A. 教师的角色 教师的角色随着文化和情况的不同会有些变化。如果教师是专家,他的学生也特别追求,教师就可以以讲座的方式讲解,并期望他的学生们记笔记且自己可以独立地一直保持兴趣。如果学生们显得不那么有兴趣,教师的讲座就不是很有效果,他将不得不使用问题、图片、分组讨论和其它相似方式让学生参与到课程学习中来。然而,你在教导圣经时,你还要记住其它的事情。你不只是努力让教导的信息进入学生们的头脑中,还要藉着神的灵将信息带入他们的心中。

Reading 1: Why Are Methods Important? by Prof. David Kuske

阅读1: 教导方法为何重要? 大卫-库斯克教授

In 1 Timothy 3:2, Paul lists being “able to teach” as one of the basic qualifications for a pastor. A few people may be natural teachers. But most people have to learn how to teach. That is what methods do: They provide some basic rules about teaching that help most people teach the way some people teach naturally.

在提摩太前书3:2中,保罗将“善于教导”作为合格牧师的基本要求之一。有少数的人生来就适合作教师。但是绝大多数人需要学习如何教导。这就是教导方法的作用:它们提供一些有关教导的基本规则,用来帮助绝大多数人能像少数生来就适合作教师的人那样进行教导。

But are the methods a teacher uses all that important? Is it not the Holy Spirit who works through the Word of God to enlighten people? Yes, that is true. But the teacher is the tool through which the Holy Spirit does his work. That is why Paul said a pastor should be able to teach. The teacher cannot add any power to the Word by the way he teaches. However, he can get in the way of the Spirit if his teaching methods are poor and the people become bored or don’t understand what is being taught. If methods are used properly, they can help a teacher of God’s Word avoid these problems.

但是一个教师采用的教导方式有那么重要吗?难道不是圣灵在藉着神的话语作工来启发人们吗?是的,事实确是这样。但是圣灵藉着教师这个工具来作他的工。这就是为何保罗说一个牧师应该善于教导。教师教导的方式并不能带给神话语任何额外的能力。但是如果他教导的方式很糟糕使人们感到厌烦或不明白教导的内容,他可能拦阻圣灵作工。如果教导方式被正确地使用,它们就能帮助教导神话语的教师避免这些问题。

Any good method of teaching will actively involve the students in the class by using questions and discussions. The teacher will not do all the talking. But the types of questions and discussions need to be different for the various age levels because the ability to do logical thinking develops gradually in a human being. This activity on the part of the class members of any age is important. It makes sure they understand what is being taught by having them talk about each of the key points of the lesson. This activity also ensures that they will remember more of what was taught than if they just sat and listened. Finally, any good method of teaching will also apply the biblical truths being taught to the faith and life of the students. This is called application.

任何好的教导方式将使用提问和讨论的方式积极地让学生参与到课堂里来。教师不要从头至尾都在讲谈。但所提问题和讨论的类型对不同年龄段的人们应该有所不同,因为人的逻辑推理能力随着年龄增长而不断发展。这样的方式对班中任何年龄阶段的学生们都很重要。它确保藉着让学生们讨论每节课的要点来让他们明白教导的内容。这样的方式也确保学生们将比只是坐着听讲更能牢固地记住教导的内容。最后,任何好的教导方式也会将教导的圣经真理应用到学生们的信心和生活中。这叫做应用。

A good method for teaching adults will include the following important items:

一个教导成年人的好方式将包括以下的重要方面

  • It will be a lesson with one clear goal that is divided into two or three smaller, or sub points (it will not have many points that do not easily lead from one to another)。

    它会是这样的课程:有一个清晰的目标,并将目标细分为二、三个更小的要点(它不会有许多毫不相连的要点)

  • It will be a lesson that can be completed in 45 minutes to an hour (it will not be spread out over two or more weeks, expecting the class to remember what was taught in earlier weeks)。

    它会是这样的课程:45分钟到一小时讲完(如果期望前面课程的教导内容能被记住的话,它不会长于两周或更长的时间)

  • It will get the class active by using questions that challenge adults, comparing or evaluating questions (it will not use childlike questions that merely ask people to repeat or say something in their own words)。

    它会使用对成年人具挑战性的提问,就是比较和评估性提问(它不会使用幼稚的问题,就是只是叫人来重复或用他们自己的话语说一遍教导的内容)来活跃课堂。

  • It will use no more than two or three questions to teach each sub point (it will not tire or confuse the class with too many questions on each point)。

    它会使用不超过二、三个提问去教导每一个小点(它不会针对每个小点用太多的问题使学生们感到疲劳或是困惑)

  • It will use one discussion question to apply each sub point to the lives of the students (the teacher will not lecture about the application or ask the class to come up with its own applications)。

    它会只用一个讨论的问题来将每个小点应用到学生们的生活中(教师不会对应用长篇阔论或是叫全班学生提出他们自己的应用)

Note that if you follow each of these points, you will assist the students in getting everything they can out of a Bible study. Individually none of the points may seem all that important, but when they are used together, they can help you be a useful instrument in the hand of the Spirit rather than being a stumbling block to his work.

注意如果你遵行这些要点中的每一点,你就会协助学生们得到他们能从一个圣经学习班中学到的各种得着。独立地看,没有任何要点看起来很重要,但是当它们被一起使用时,他们能帮助你成为圣灵手中的一个有用的工具,而不是圣灵作工的绊脚石。

Exercise 5: After reading Why Are Methods Important? by Prof. David Kuske, put in your own words the five key items listed for a successful adult Bible study.

练习5: 阅读完大卫-库斯克教授的《为何教导方式很重要?》后,用你自己的话列出一个成功的成人圣经学习班应具备的五个关键要点。

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

These were written for a white North American church. In what way are they applicable or not applicable for your congregation or prospects?

以上这些是为一个北美白人教会写的。在哪些方面它们适用于或不适用于你的教会或是你将来的事工?

B. Communicating to the head (organize and outline) The first job of the teacher is to present the material so that the students can understand it. This means it must be organized in a way that the students can follow. You have already begun to do that when writing your objectives (see page 8)。 Now you will do it even more as you write your lesson plan.11

B. 面向头脑的交流(整理材料,拟出大纲)教师的第一件事是用学生能理解的方式来介绍材料。这意味着它必须整理成学生不会中途迷失的样式。你在写出你的目标时(参考第8页)就已经在这样做了。现在当你写下你的课程设计时,你会更深入地这样做。

There are three basic types of Bible class subjects:

圣经课程题目有三种基本类型:

  • study of a Bible book or books, a chapter or a passage.

    针对一册或多册圣经书卷、一章或一段经文的学习

  • study of a biblical doctrine or teaching or Bible personality.

    针对圣经某个教义或教导或圣经人物的学习

  • study of some other topic (abortion, etc.)

    针对其它话题(堕胎等)的学习

  1. No matter which type of subject you wish to teach, you must first organize your material with a lesson plan.

    不管你希望教导哪种主体,你首先必须将你的材料整理成一个课程计划

    Look at page 12. There you are shown an outline that can be used for almost any Bible lesson. It begins with a five minute introduction that gets the students involved and interested in the subject (see the chart for details)。 Then the teacher announces the aim or theme of the lesson (see page 7)。

    参看第12页。你会看到一个差不多适用于任何圣经课程的大纲。它以一个五分钟的简介开始,吸引学生注意并对课程题目产生兴趣(详情请看图表)。然后教师宣布本节课的目标或主题(参看第7页)。

  2. Now you can now move to your first main point or objective. Teach each objective using three parts: background, key verses, and application.

    现在你可以进入到你的第一个主要的要点或目标。运用背景介绍、关键经文和应用这三个部分来教导每一个要点。

    a) First, provide any background needed to understand the lesson or the particular point or objective. This might be:

    首先,提供必要的、有助于明白课程或某个具体的要点或目标的背景介绍。这可以是:

    Historical or geographical information (especially for a Bible story)

    历史或地理信息(尤其对圣经故事)

    The context of a Bible verse (if a section of Scripture is being discussed)

    圣经经文的上下文(如果只是讨论圣经的某部分经文)

    Any other information needed to fully understand what will follow in the lesson

    其它用来全面理解课程中后续内容的必要信息

    b) After giving the background, focus your students’ attention on a key verse or verses that teach the particular point or objective. You can do this by asking several questions about the verse.

    给出背景介绍后,让你的学生专注于教导某个要点或目标的一节或多节关键经文。你可以通过围绕关键经文提几个问题来达到这个目的。

    c) When the students understand what the verse is saying and its importance, you can then move on to the application. Here you apply what has been learned to the students’ and their lives.

    当学生们理解了经文的含义及其重要性时,你可以进入到应用部分。这里你将学生们学到的知识应用到他们的生活中。

If each of these three steps takes about five minutes, it would take about 15 minutes to teach the entire point or objective. The same three steps are then repeated with the second main point or objective (another 15 minutes) and the third main point or objective. Thus if there are three objectives, this part of the lesson will take about 45 minutes. Read through the lesson plans on pages 35 and 36 for samples of how this method works.

如果这三步的每一步花费五分钟,教导整个要点或目标需用时约15分钟。对第二个要点或目标重复同样的三步(另一个15分钟),然后对对第三个要点或目标重复同样的三步。如此,如果总共是三个要点或目标,课堂的这一部分需用时45分钟。通读35-36页课程计划,找到如何运用此类教导方式的例子。

Depending on the subject matter and the amount of time available, the teacher may do all the background for the objectives at the beginning, teach all the key verses in the middle, and make all the applications at the end. If the subject matter is not easy, however, this may confuse the students. In either case, however, the lesson should end with the application (what this lesson means for the faith and life of the students)。 We will study this further on pages 26 and 27.

依据不同的课程题目和可用的时间,教师可以在课程开始时做所有目标的背景介绍。在课程中间教导所有的关键经文,在课程后段做所有的应用。但是,如果教导的课程题目很难,这样做可能会让学生们感到困惑。然而不管采取哪种方式,课程应以教导应用结束(本节课对学生们的信心和生活的意义)。我们将在第26-27页进行更深入的学习。

A Basic Lesson Plan 一个简单的课程教学计划

The following is a basic lesson plan outline which:

以下是一个简单的课程教学计划大纲,它:

  • works well with any of the three types of class subjects; and

    适用于三种课程题目中的任何一种

  • uses good educational methods (a good mix of telling, questioning and discussing)。

    使用良好的教育方法(很好地融合了讲述、提问和讨论的方式)

A basic lesson plan outline 一份简单的课程教学计划
5 minutes INTRODUCTION Getthe class talking about the subject of the lesson in a way that makes them interested in the spiritual truths to be learned in the lesson. Use an interactive method (an agree/disagree statement, a life situation or item from the news to evaluate, brainstorming, etc.)
5 分钟 介绍 让全班学生谈论本节课的题目,以激发他们对将要学习的属灵真理的兴趣。使用互动方式(同意/不同意的判断性表述,生活中的境况,或是新闻中的评论事项,集思广益,等)
1 minute AIM The goal of the lesson stated in the form of a question to make the students begin to think about the subject.
1分钟 目标 以问题形式来表述课程目标让学生们开始思考课程题目
5 minutes BACKGROUND Bible Portion Lesson: Read the verses surrounding the key verse of this part of the lesson. Briefly explain those verses using several vivid thoughts in these verses to maintain the interest of the class. Topical or Doctrinal Lesson: Read several verses that are related to the key verse and lead up to it. Briefly explain each verse as it is read using a vivid thought in each verse to maintain the interest of the class.
5 分钟 背景 圣经章段学习课程:阅读本课程中围绕关键经文的上下文。用上下文经文中的一些鲜明的思维简洁地解释关键经文,以保持全班的兴趣。 课题式或教义式课程:阅读与关键经文相关联的几处经文。阅读每处经文时,用鲜明的思维简洁地解释该处经文,以保持全班的兴趣。
5 minutes KEY VERSE Develop the first sub point of the lesson with a couple questions on the key verse:
a) ask one or two comparing questions (i.e. asking the class to compare two ideas in this verse, or an idea in this verse with an idea in one of the verses covered in the background verses, etc.) and/or
b) ask one or two evaluating questions (stating the content of the verse in a right way, an ambiguous way [a way that could be understood rightly or wrongly] or a wrong way, and asking the class to evaluate the statement)
5 分钟 关键经文 用对关键经文的几个问题来发展第一个小要点:
a)提一、二个比较性问题(比如:叫全班学生比较本节经文中的两种思想,或者本节经文中的一种思想和背景经文中涵盖的某种思想相比较,等等)和/或
b)提一、二个评估性问题(用正确的、模棱两可的[一种可能被正确或错误地理解的方式]、错误的方式表述该经文的内容,叫全班学生对表述进行评估)
5 minutes APPLICATION Introduce an application of the truth just developed from the key verse. Use an item such as one of the following for the class to discuss:
a) a life situation (news item or personal experience)
b) an ambiguous statement; or
c) a list of related items.
5分钟 应用 介绍从关键经文中直接发展而来的真理的一个应用。使用类似如下所列选项之一让全班学生讨论:
a)生命境况(新闻消息或个人经历)
b)一个模棱两可的表述,或
c)一系列的相关事项
15 minutes Repeat the BACKGROUND, KEY VERSE, and APPLICATION for the second and third sub points.
15 分钟 对第二、三个小要点重复背景介绍、关键经文和应用三步骤
5 minutes Close the lesson by having the class state the answer to the aim, a brief wrap-up of the whole lesson, and a prayer.
5分钟 通过让全班学生说出课程目标的答案,做一个简洁的课尾总结,以及祷告来结束本节课的学习。

See pages 35 and 36 to see two Bible studies that use this outline.

参看35和36页使用这个大纲的两个圣经学习的例子

Exercise 6: Take the objectives you wrote in Exercise 4 (page 8)。 Come up with a theme and several objectives or main points. Put them in a logical order. Then develop a lesson plan such as those on pages 35 and 36. For each section write a few ideas to show the background information you need to provide, choose a key verse to develop each sub point, and then write a brief application idea for each. When you have finished, come up with an idea for an introduction. Now you have written a lesson plan.

练习6: 运用你在练习4(第8页)里的目标提出一个主题和几个目标或要点,并将他们合理排序。接下来,做一个课程计划,比如第35页和第36六页里所写到的那些。在每一个小节里说明你需要提供的背景资料,选择一节关键经文来发展每一个分论点并为它们写一个简短的实际应用案例。这些都完成后,想出一个作为引言的题目。现在你已经写好了你的教学计划。

C. Using all the senses (pictures, variety, interaction)

利用所有的感知/ 思维能力(图片`,手段多样,互动)

  1. INTERACTIVE TEACHING: Teachers easily fall into the habit of doing all the talking. When this happens students become listeners instead of learners. Read page 15, Why Use Interactive Learning?. As you read, answer the following questions.

    互动式教学: 教师们自然而然地习惯自始至终都是自己在讲话 .当这种情况发生的时候学生就变成了聆听者而非学习者。阅读15页,为何使用互动式教学? 在阅读过程中请回答以下问题。

    a) What is meant by interactive teaching?

    互动式教学是什么意思?

    b) List in order the three most important reasons (in your opinion) why people learn better from interactive teaching.

    列举出三个最重要的原因(以你自己的观点):为什人们在互动式教学的过程中学得更加出色。

    c) Would you agree with the statistics on the middle of page 15? Tell a story from your own experience that shows good or bad interactive teaching.

    你同意第15页中间部分的统计数据吗?请你从自己的经验中讲一个故事来表明好的和差的互动式教学的。

    d) Read again point four on page 15. What is the writer assuming that a teacher should never assume?

    请重读第15页上的第四点,什么东西是作者认为一个教师永远不应该(替学生)代劳的?

Christian Education
简介
Introduction
第一部分 – 教导前的准备工作
Part One – Things To Do Before I Teach
第二部分 – 教导——阅读1
Part Two – Teaching
阅读 2 为何使用互动式教学?
Reading 2 Why Use Interactive Learning?
阅读3 互动式学习
Reading 3 Interactive Learning
阅读4 互动学习 – 问题和解答
Reading 4 Interactive Learning – Problems and Solutions
阅读5-问题的种类
Reading 5-Types of Questions
阅读6 - 学习过程的三个方面
Reading 6 -The Three Facets of the Learning Process
第三部分——教导效果检查
Part Three – Finding Out If You Taught
专题课实例(堕胎)
Sample Topical Lesson (Abortion)
圣经节选学习课例
Sample Bible Portion Lesson
第二部分 – 教导——阅读1
Part Two – Teaching