恩典国际圣经学院

阅读3 互动式学习
Reading 3 Interactive Learning

by Prof. David Kuske – 大卫-库斯克教授

A. Observations on interactive learning 互动式学习中的观察

When interactive learning is not done properly, people will not like it. “Too often we end up sharing our ignorance or listening to some people talking about their personal hang-ups.” However, when it is done properly, people will enjoy it. “Knowledge that I only hear is soon forgotten. Knowledge that I think about and talk about with others is remembered and more likely to be used in my life.”

当互动学习没有恰当进行的时候,人们就不会喜欢这种方法。 “总是以分享无知的观点和聆听别人的烦恼来结束课程” 然而当互动学习被处理的恰到好处,人们就能乐在其中。 “仅仅是听过的知识马上就遗忘了,我思考并且和其他人讨论过的知识会被记住并且更可能会运用在生活里面”.

B. Using interactive learning 运用互动学习

Interactive learning must not cheapen biblical truths by spending time on personal opinions about the Bible. Instead, it should increase the learning of biblical truths by helping to explain it and make it personal to the students.

互动学习决不能是花时间让人分享个人对圣经的观点而贬低圣经真理。相反,它应该是通过向学生解释圣经真理并使他们接受而成为他们自己的方式来加深对圣经真理的学习。

When we lead class members to talk about biblical truth with one another:

当我们带领课上的学生互相讨论圣经的真理时:

• it makes them surer of what they believe

令他们更加确信他们所信的

• it makes them more confident to share with others what they believe

令他们更有信心分享他们所信的

• it makes them want to live what they believe knowing that others share their belief in a biblical truth

明白别人与他们有同一个圣经真理的信仰,这令他们愿意去遵照他们所信的而活。

Before interactive learning can take place, the teacher must establish the proper biblical background and clearly present the problem to be solved. Also, 8 to 12 problems in a one hour Bible study is all adults can do.

在开始互动学习之前,老师一定要确立恰当的圣经背景并且清晰的展现需要被解答的问题。另外,一节一个小时的课程里提出8至12个问题是成年人能够消化的极限。

You do not stop being a teacher during interactive learning. You must still lead and guide the students to deal with each problem in the light of biblical truths presented in each passage being discussed.

在互动学习的时候你作为老师的职责并不停歇。你一定要通过每段经文里所讨论的圣经真理来带领并且引导学生去处理每一个问题。

C. Four responsibilities of the teacher 教师的四项职责

1. You must give all the necessary background and state the problem clearly. You get the discussion started and keep it focused on the problem.

你一定要提供所有必要的背景知识并且清晰的陈述问题。带领同学展开讨论然后控制节奏,不要跑题。

The teacher can do this only if the problem:

老师要做到这些,(所讨论的)问题必须是:

• is directly related to the Bible truths just studied (not only distantly connected to it)

• is of interest for all the class members (not just a few)

• is clearly defined with several parts, or is ambiguous (not clearly all right or all wrong)

• 与所学的圣经真理有直接联系 (而不是相距甚远的间接关系)、

• 所有同学都感兴趣的问题 (而不只是几位)、

• 通过几个部分清晰地定义的,或着模棱两可的(没有绝对对错的)

2. You must keep the interactive discussion focused on the main points at all times. Until you have a lot of experience in leading a discussion (or until the class becomes used to discussion), you can do this best by breaking the problem into several parts and leading the class to work at each of these parts one after another (not going back and forth between them)。

你一定要将话题的相互讨论始终保持在问题主旨上。直到你有带领讨论的丰富经验(或者直到全班已经习惯了这种讨论),你可以通过将问题分为几小部分并且带领全班按部就班的依次讨论(并非是拉锯式的来回讨论)从而达到最好的成效。

3. You need to keep the discussion from going off in another direction. You do this by giving a short answer to any question or comment by a class member that is off the track. You then bring the class’ attention back to the problem being discussed.

你应该确保讨论不从别的方向离开主题。通过简短回答脱离主题的同学的问题或点评来帮助讨论回归正题。之后你便可以将全班注意力带回到讨论重点上面。

4. You need to make sure all the class members clearly understand the solution to the problem by having a member of the class summarize the solution as a biblical truth. Then bring the discussion to an end with a vivid and concrete illustration of the biblical truth and its application in the specific case just discussed.

请班上的学生将答案用圣经真理总结出来,这样你可以确保班上的每一个成员都清楚地明白问题的答案。之后你便可以用一个生动具体的圣经真理的实例以及它的具体应用来结束课堂讨论。

D. Different formats for interactive learning 互动学习的不同形式

Listed below are the most important formats used for interactive learning.

以下是互动学习最重要的几种形式

• A question with a number of possible answers (several items mentioned in a passage, numerous examples of the point under study, complete this sentence…, etc.)

一个可能有多种答案的问题 (如:经文段落中提到的几件事项,此学习要点的不同事例,完成这个句子…,等等)

• A statement or example from everyday life that is partly correct and partly wrong (agree/disagree, evaluate…, what’s wrong here…, etc.)

一个日常生活中的模棱两可的案例或陈述(同意/不同意,评价…,改错题…, 等等)。

• Give a list of things that relate to a Bible truth (right/wrong and why, priority ranking, best answer)

列举与圣经真理有关的一系列事物(对/错及原因,优先次序,最佳答案)

Various kinds of cases studies:

多样的学习实例:

  • Report analysis

  • Newspaper article

  • Video clip

  • Paragraph by student

  • Unfinished story (what would you do if…)

  • 报告分析

  • 新闻报导

  • 视频节选

  • 学生的写作段落、短篇报告

  • 未完成的故事(如果……你会怎么做)

E. Using breakout groups effectively 有效使用分组

In order for breakup groups to work successfully, the following must take place:

为了有效的进行分组讨论,必须做到以下几点:

  • Only three or four people per group

  • Make one person in each group the leader or reporter

  • Make the assignment very clear

  • Put a time limit on the discussion (2-4 minutes is usually enough)

  • The teacher should move from group to group (answering questions, dealing with misunderstandings, keeping the group on track)

  • 每组只有三到四人

  • 每组选一个人做组长或做报告者

  • 清晰明确的作业或任务

  • 为小组讨论限时(2-4分钟一般足矣)

  • 老师应该逐次在各小组之间移动,(回答各小组的问题,澄清误解,保持各小组不离主题)。

FORMATS: Read sections D and E on page 18. Here teachers are given some suggested methods of interactive learning (formats) and some hints on small or breakout groups. Think about what a small Bible study might be like in your community with some people whom you are trying to evangelize.

形式:阅读18页上的D,E段。这里给了老师一些互动学习的方法(格式)和分组讨论的提示。设想在你的社区中,你与那些你试图传福音的人们进行小范围的圣经课大概的样子。

Which of the formats do you think might be most effective in getting them involved yet keeping them on track?

你认为哪一种形式能够让人们最大限度的融入到圣经课之中并且又谨守主题?

If you had 10 people do you think a breakout group might work well? Why or why not?

如果有十位同学,你认为小组讨论是否可行?为何可行,或为何不可行?

PROBLEMS: Reading 4: Interactive Learning - Problems and Solutions discusses three problems encountered in many classes. Briefly describe in your own words the three problems and one good solution for each.

问题:阅读4: 互动学习 – 问题和解答 讨论在许多课堂中遇到的三个问题。用你自己的语言简述三个问题并为每个问题附上一个合适的答案。

Christian Education
简介
Introduction
第一部分 – 教导前的准备工作
Part One – Things To Do Before I Teach
第二部分 – 教导——阅读1
Part Two – Teaching
阅读 2 为何使用互动式教学?
Reading 2 Why Use Interactive Learning?
阅读3 互动式学习
Reading 3 Interactive Learning
阅读4 互动学习 – 问题和解答
Reading 4 Interactive Learning – Problems and Solutions
阅读5-问题的种类
Reading 5-Types of Questions
阅读6 - 学习过程的三个方面
Reading 6 -The Three Facets of the Learning Process
第三部分——教导效果检查
Part Three – Finding Out If You Taught
专题课实例(堕胎)
Sample Topical Lesson (Abortion)
圣经节选学习课例
Sample Bible Portion Lesson
阅读3 互动式学习
Reading 3 Interactive Learning