恩典国际圣经学院

第三部分——教导效果检查
Part Three – Finding Out If You Taught

A teacher has not really taught unless the students have learned. Students have not necessarily learned just because they sat through a class. Therefore, you should never assume that teaching and learning have taken place just because you had a class. This section will cover how to find out if learning really has taken place and how effective it was. You will also learn about how humans learn differently at various stages of life.

除非学生有所学,否则老师就就没有真正地教。学生在课堂上坐了一节课并不意味着他们学到了东西。因此,你永远不要认为因为你上了一节课就是教学。这一部分将涵盖如何检查是否有教有学以及学习的效果。你也将了解人在人生不同阶段学习的不同特点。

A. Tests A. 测试

Depending on the situation, a teacher will often give some kind of quiz or test to the students. This could be done for several reasons. Giving a test will help you know if the students really learned what you wished them to learn. Giving a test can also be a motivation for the students to pay attention. With adults who wish to be baptized, a test might be used to ensure that they understand the faith they will be baptized into. With confirmation classes, tests help the teacher and congregation know if a student has the necessary knowledge to properly take the Lord’s Supper. Your pastor will help you decide in which situations tests may be useful or necessary.

一个老师根据不同情况,会经常让学生做一些试题或测试。这可能出于几个原因。通过测试将帮助你知道学生是否真正掌握你要他们所学习的内容。进行测试也可能是为了让学生专心学习。对于想要受洗的成人,测试用来确保他们明白将受洗归入的信仰。对于坚信礼的课程,测试可以帮助老师和会众知道一个学生是否对正确领圣餐有必要的认识。你的牧师将帮助你决定在什么情况下测试是有益的或必要的。

B. Evaluations of the class B. 课堂评估

Even if tests are not necessary, a teacher may still wish to use a class evaluation. Like a test, this can help you find out whether you are communicating well with the students and whether they are learning. Evaluations can also help a teacher learn which subjects, teaching methods and lesson formats are most appreciated by the students. Adults will not come to a class that does not fit their needs. Evaluations can help you know if you are meeting those needs and how to do so better.

即使测试不必要,一个老师仍愿意使用课堂评估。就像一个测试,评估可以帮助你发现你与学生是否交流畅通,他们是否学有所得。评估可以帮助一个老师了解哪些科目,教学方法,课堂形式最适合学生。成人不会去一个无法提供他们需要的课堂。评估能帮助你知道你的课是否满足他们的需要,以及怎样做会更好。

Exercise 10: You have just finished teaching a series of Bible classes on the life of Moses and soon will begin a new series on the sacraments. Write five questions you could ask your students to help you evaluate the subject, teaching methods and format of your class.

练习10: 你刚完成关于摩西生平的一系列圣经课程的教导,很快开始教导关于圣礼的新的系列课程。写下要问学生的5个问题,帮助你评估该课题、教学方法和课堂形式。

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

C. Student presentations and projects C. 学生报告和课题

As we learned earlier, a good teacher gets a student to use several of his senses. Look over the chart on page 30. Note especially the bottom row. One good way to get the students to use several senses and find out if they have mastered a lesson is to have them do a presentation or project. The chart points out some weaknesses of this approach as well. But from time to time this will be a good approach. It can be used effectively with students who have trouble learning in a normal classroom setting. It can also keep very bright students interested. Can you think of a project or presentation that you might assign one or more adults in a Bible class that has been studying the differences between Lutheran teaching and Catholic teaching?

如我们前面所学,一个好老师会使一个学生运用好几种感官来学习。回顾30页上的图表。特别注意底下一行。使学生运用几种感官来学习和检验他们是否掌握了功课的一个好方法就是让他们做报告或课题。图表也指出了这种方法的一些缺点。但有时不失为一个好方法。这对在正常课堂里有学习障碍的学生来说行之有效。而且能让非常聪明的学生保持兴致。针对一直在圣经课上学习路德宗与天主教的教导之区别的一个或多个成人学员,你能想出布置他们做的一个课题或报告吗?

The Four Basic Teaching Techniques

四种基础教学技巧

Technique
技巧
Definition
定义
Weaknesses
弱点
Strengths
优点
Uses
运用
Telling
叙述
Class Activity = TTT
课堂活动 = 教(师)教教
Few people are effective
学生大多印象不深
No self activity
没有亲自参与活动
No check on understanding
不能检验理解情况
Time saving
省时
Can give guidance
可予以指导
Can stir guidance
可激发指导
Minor points
小要点
Transitions
过渡
Illustrations/ appropriations
图解/借鉴
Asking Questions
提问
Class Activity = TSTSTS
课堂活动 = 教(师)学(生)教学教学
Time consuming
耗费时间
Little stirring of emotions
少于激发情感
Mentally exhausting
精神疲乏
Self Activity
亲自参与活动
Check on understanding
检验理解情况
Can give guidance
可予以指导
Develop major points
展开要点
Using Discussion
讨论
Class Activity = TSSSSTSSS
课堂活动= 教学学学学教学学学学
Time consuming
消耗时间
Requires mastery of the subject
要求掌握课题
May become argumentative
可能产生争论
May lack progression
可能缺乏进度
Self Activity
亲自参与活动
Can give guidance
可予以指导
Share and Correct
分享和纠正
Demands exactness
要求精确性
Applications
应用
Directed Projects
指导性课题
Done Outside Class
课外完成
Takes time
耗费时间
Requires careful crafting
要求认真构思
May be difficult to monitor/ evaluate
可能难以监督/评估
“Programmed sanctification”
“程式化的成圣”
Extends Learning outside class
扩充课外的学习
Develops attitudes
形成观点
Practices skills
操练技巧
Provides a service
提供帮助
Take-home assignments
课后作业

E. Who can learn what? E. 授课对象和授课目标:

God has made us so that we slowly grow from children to adults. It is not only our mind that grows, but our brains as well. This means that children learn differently from adults. Examine the charts on pages 32 to 34. These charts show how people’s minds and emotions and wills operate differently at different stages of life. Note especially the last column. This gives a general guideline as to what can and cannot be taught to people at the various periods of their life. If you will be teaching children of various ages, you will want to refer to this chart from time to time to remind yourself of how children develop. If you are teaching mainly adults, make sure you review page 34 from time to time.

神创造了我们,让我们逐渐地从儿童长大成人。不只是我们的心智在成长,我们的大脑也一样在成长。这意味着儿童的学习方式不同于成人。查考32到34页的图表。这些表格显示出人的思想,情感和意志在人生的不同阶段的表达有所不同。特别注意最后一栏的内容。这一栏对于在人生的各阶段应该如何因材施教给出了一个普遍的指导。如果你教导的将是不同年龄的孩子,你就要经常参考这个表,提醒自己孩子们是怎样成长的。如果你教导的主要是成人,你一定要常常复习34页的内容。

The Gradual Development of Learning from Childhood to Adulthood 从儿童到成人逐步成长的学习过程

Child Development 儿童成长

Age
年龄
Physical
身体的
Intellectual
智力的
Emotional
感情的
Volitional
意志的
Teaching
教导
0-1 Helpless
无助
Walk and hold
搀扶行走
Sensation
感觉
Simple perceptions
简单感知
Only sense oriented
单以感觉为导向
Impulse and desire
本能和愿望
Little can be taught other than by example and simple telling
通过示范和简单语言表达
1-3 Talk
说话
Simple perceptions
简单感知
Still mostly sense oriented
仍主要以感觉为导向
Impulse and desire
本能和愿望
All teaching is done by example and simple telling
所有教导通过示范和简单语言表达
3-6 Self consciousness (“do it myself,” mine)
自我意识(“自己动手” 我的)
Many sense perceptions
很多感官认知
Simple conceptions
简单的概念
Little reasoning
没有判断能力
Many questions
很多问题
Imagination begins (stories)
开始想象(故事)
Mostly sense oriented
主要以感觉为导向
Mental-parents’ pattern
父母心理模式
Strong visual attraction
强烈的视觉吸引
Strongly imitative
强烈的模仿力
First habits
开始形成习惯
Answer endless questions
回答无数问题
By example
通过示范
Tell stories (over and over)
讲故事(反反复复)
Memorize a little longer item
记忆较长信息
6-9 Rapid development of nerves
神经系统迅速发展
Brain almost full size (brief study, then activity)
大脑几乎为完整尺寸(简单的学习,加以活动)
Vivid imagination
生动的想象力
Concrete and simple conceptions (loves stories which teach simple truths)
具体的,简单的概念(喜爱教导简单道理的故事)
Mental emotions easily aroused
易产生心理情绪
Some influence from friends’ reactions
受伙伴的反应影响
Important age for habit formation (imagination, emotions, imitative)
形成习惯的重要年龄(想象力,情绪,模仿力)
By example
通过示范
By Bible history (tell story in a vivid way, question on concrete details, make simple applications)
通过圣经故事(生动地讲述故事,提问具体的细节,进行简单的应用)
10-13 Growth (girls)
成长(女孩)
Energy
Disinterest?
Rebellion?
活力
无兴趣
叛逆
Sex differences
Boy (justice, rude, impetuous)Girl (kind, vain, tenderhearted, delicate)
性别差异
男孩(公平,没礼貌,冲动)女孩(善良,虚荣,温和,脆弱)
Clearer conceptions
更清晰的概念
Peak memory
记忆高峰
Imagination tied to reality
想象力与现实结合
Simple abstractions (judgments, conclusions)
简单的抽象思维(判断,结论)
Critical activity begins (questions things more)
开始批判行为(质疑更多的事情)
Simple reasoning is a pleasure
喜欢简单的理性判断
Ethical feelings, may not imitate
道德情感,不仿效
Social friendships are stronger
重视友情
Self esteem (stronger sense of honor and shame)
自尊(强烈的荣誉和羞辱感)
Best age to form attitudes and some lasting habits (pleasure in thinking, personal emotions, critical thinking open to guidance)
形成观点和持久的习惯的最佳年龄(乐于思考,个人情感,批判性思维,接受指导)
Memorize abstract concepts
记忆抽象概念
Stress understanding
加强理解
Involve in simple reasoning
参与简单理性推理
Make real (vs. “fairy tale”) applications
进行实际(与“童话”比较)应用。

Teenage Development 青少年发展

Age
年龄
Physical
身体的
Intellectual
智力的
Emotional
感情的
Volitional
意志的
Teaching
教导
14-18 Great bodily changes (growth, puberty)
很大的身体变化(发育,青春期)
Sex impulse is strong
Paradox:
highly active, tired out
产生性冲动
矛盾:
极为活跃,非常疲乏
Logical thinking (handle abstract, more complex judgments and deductions)
Paradox: know-it-all, insecure in judgments
逻辑思维(进行抽象的,更复杂的判断和推理)
矛盾:自以为是,对所作的判断却不自信。
Full range of mental emotions, idealistic (great optimism)
Paradox: moody (high or low) and extremes (“cool” or “gross”)
心理情绪健全,理想主义(乐观主义)
矛盾:情绪不稳定(或高或低)极端(或冷或热)
Intense conflict of “Old Adam” and “New Man” (questions why of habits and attitudes)
“老亚当”与“新我”之间剧烈冲突(习惯与态度的问题)
Seeks an identity
Paradox: wants a reason for everything, yet emotion easily overrides logic
寻求认同
矛盾:刨根究底,情感容易超越逻辑
Main goal is to develop attitudes<>br />主要目标是形成观点。
Use a variety of methods which have a high degree of student involvement
运用不同方法使学生积极参与
Be constantly aware of child-adult paradoxes
不断意识到儿童——成人的矛盾
Develop more complex truths along with very practical applications
形成更复杂的真理伴随实际运用

Adult Development 成人发展

Age
年龄
Physical
身体的
Intellectual
智力的
Emotional
感情的
Volitional
意志的
Teaching
教导
Late Teens to Middle Age
青少年后期至中年
Increased stamina of body (full muscle development) and mind (work with top efficiency over a long period of time)
精力充沛(体格健全)(工作效力长期达到巅峰)
Sex impulse strong but not dominant
较强的性冲动但并非主导地位
Able to do logical thinking (able to handle the abstract and to make complex judgments and deductions)
能够进行逻辑推理(能够解决抽象问题和做出复杂的判断和推理)
Varies from opinionated to willing to listen to wishy washy
从固执己见转变为愿意听取各方意见
Idealism of teens gradually changes to realism of middle age
青少年的理想主义逐渐变成中年的现实主义
Emotions continue to be a key factor in learning
情感在学习中继续是关键因素
Mature values and decisions (words and actions determined more by molded habits and attitudes than by emotions)
成熟的价值观和决定(言行更多由已形成的习惯和观点决定,而不是情绪)
Use a variety of methods which have a high degree of student involvement
采用不同的方法使学生积极参与
Develop content with a life-related applications
扩充切身相关的应用部分
Give meaningful, life-related applications
进行有意义的,切身相关的应用。
Give meaningful, life-related projects which address perceived needs and help develop talents
给出有意义的,切身相关的课题,解决认知需要,并帮助发展才干。
Late Middle Age to Old Age
中年后期到老年
Senses begin to weaken
感官开始退化
Body strength and stamina lessen
体能和精力衰退
Increasing health problems
健康问题增加
Ability to handle complex problems gradually decreases (may even revert to level of childhood)
处理复杂问题的能力逐渐降低(甚至可能退回到儿童的水平)
Tend to be opinionated
易于固执己见
Feeling and reactions shaped more by a lifetime of experience than by what the senses may see or hear or by what touch, smell or taste might suggest
感觉和反应更多被人生经验支配,而不是靠视觉、听觉、触摸、闻或品尝的感官判断。
Prone to cling to lifelong habits and attitudes and to resist anything new (general fear of change)
倾向依赖于一生形成的习惯和观点,而拒绝任何新事物(一般都害怕改变)
If not accustomed to a particular method or class activity, introduce it in slow, gradual steps
如果不习惯一种特殊的方法或课堂活动,就以较慢,渐进的步骤导入。
Life-related content, applications and projects
切身相关的内容、应用和课题。
Special attention to the problems of old age (useful retirement, loneliness, health, death and eternity)
特别关注老年的问题( 退休、孤独、健康、死亡和永生)
Christian Education
简介
Introduction
第一部分 – 教导前的准备工作
Part One – Things To Do Before I Teach
第二部分 – 教导——阅读1
Part Two – Teaching
阅读 2 为何使用互动式教学?
Reading 2 Why Use Interactive Learning?
阅读3 互动式学习
Reading 3 Interactive Learning
阅读4 互动学习 – 问题和解答
Reading 4 Interactive Learning – Problems and Solutions
阅读5-问题的种类
Reading 5-Types of Questions
阅读6 - 学习过程的三个方面
Reading 6 -The Three Facets of the Learning Process
第三部分——教导效果检查
Part Three – Finding Out If You Taught
专题课实例(堕胎)
Sample Topical Lesson (Abortion)
圣经节选学习课例
Sample Bible Portion Lesson
第三部分——教导效果检查
Part Three – Finding Out If You Taught