恩典国际圣经学院

第一章 耶稣基督的诞生和童年
Chapter 1 Birth and Childhood of Jesus Christ

General Introduction

The Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John describe the birth, life, suffering, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. These pages of the Bible outline the life of Christ. As we study them we should ask ourselves three questions. First, who is Jesus Christ? Second, what has Jesus done for me personally? Finally, how should I respond to the love of Christ? As Martin Luther read the Bible he asked himself these same questions and answered them as follows: “I believe that Jesus Christ, true God, begotten of the Father from eternity, and also true man, born of the virgin Mary, is my Lord. He has redeemed me, a lost and condemned creature, purchased and won me from all sins, from death, and from the power of the devil, not with gold or silver but with his holy, precious blood and with his innocent suffering and death. All this he did that I should be his own, and live under him in his kingdom, and serve him in everlasting righteousness, innocence, and blessedness, just as he has risen from death and lives and rules eternally. This is most certainly true.”

概述

圣经中在马太福音、马可福音、路加福音、约翰福音中记载了耶稣基督的降世、生活、受难、受死和复活。这些圣经的章节勾勒了基督的一生。在我们学习这些内容的时候,应该自问三个问题:第一,谁是耶稣基督?第二,对于我个人来说,耶稣为我做了什么?第三,应该如何回应基督的爱?在马丁路德读到这些经文的时候,他问了同样的问题,他的回答是这样的:

“我相信耶稣基督是真正的上帝,被天父从永恒中拣选;同时他也是真正的人,由童贞女马利亚所生,是我的主。他已经救赎了我,一个迷失的、有罪的被造物,将我从罪、死亡和魔鬼的权势下赎回。不是用金银而是用他圣洁的宝血,和他无辜地受难和死亡。他为我所作的一切使我成为他的子民,生活在他的国度中,并且用永远如一的正义、圣洁、福分来服侍他。正如耶稣从死里复活,活在永恒中,掌管着永恒的国度。这无疑是最重要的真理。”

Historical Background 历史背景

The Old Testament Scriptures ended with the prophecy of Malachi. For over 400 years the prophets were silent. Then, in a humble stable, a child was born – God had sent the promised Savior!

玛拉基书是旧约最后一卷。在随后的400多年先知们保持了沉默。然后,一个婴孩卑微地来到世上,降生在马槽里——上帝已经派来了他所应许的救主。

We do not know the month, day, and year of Jesus’ birth. According to the Gospels it took place when Caesar Augustus was the emperor of Rome (Luke 2:1) and Herod the Great was king of Judea (Matt. 2:1)。 Most Bible scholars conclude from Matt. 2:13-22 that Jesus’ birth (or Nativity) took place some time before Herod’s death, which history dates at 4 B.C. Tradition places Jesus’ birth on December 25 or January 6, probably in the year 5 B.C.

我们不知道耶稣出生的具体年、月、日。根据福音书的记载,耶稣诞生是在该撒亚古士督做罗马皇帝时期(路加福音2:1),也是大希律王做犹大王时期(马太福音2:1)。大多数圣经学者从马太福音2:13-22中推断,认为耶稣的诞生(或说基督降世,Nativity)是在大约公元前4年大希律王死之前的某一时间。传统将12月25日或者1月6日作为耶稣的生日,年份很可能是公元前5年。

Regardless of the exact date, we do know that the birth of Jesus Christ occurred at an excellent time in world history according to God’s divine plan and timetable (Gal. 4:4)。 Some 300 years earlier Alexander the Great of Macedonia set out to destroy the Persian Empire. Within 13 years his armies had conquered Greece, Asia Minor, Palestine, Egypt, and Persia, extending his empire as far to the east as India. Following Alexander’s death his empire was divided among his most powerful generals. Within the next three centuries Greek (the language of Alexander) and Greek culture was spread widely in the countries that bordered the eastern half of the Mediterranean Sea.

不管耶稣基督具体的生日是哪一天,我们所知道的是,遵照上帝的神圣计划和时间表的(加拉太书4:4),耶稣基督降生在世界历史上的一个辉煌的时期。大约300年以前[修改标记],大马其顿的亚历山大开始摧毁波斯帝国。13年内他的军队击败了希腊、小亚细亚、巴勒斯坦、埃及和波斯,其帝国一直扩张到印度东部。随后亚历山大之死使其帝国被分给了他的强将们。在接下来的三个世界里,希腊语(亚历山大的语言)和希腊文化在地中海东半部的各国广泛流传。

However, it was Rome, not Macedonia, which proved to be the world power in the first century B.C. Roman armies extended their empire to almost every country around the Mediterranean Sea. The Romans insisted on law and order within the countries they ruled. For a rare moment in history, a general peace existed throughout this area. Individuals could safely sail the seas or travel the mighty Roman roads that connected countries and continents.

然而,最终成为公元前第一个世纪的世界强国的,不是马其顿,而是罗马,罗马军队将他们的帝国范围扩张到了几乎每一个地中海地区的国家。在罗马所统治的国家里,他们坚持自己的法律和制度。整个区域实现大范围和平,这在历史上是很少有的。在不同国家之间,人们可以安全地在海上航行,或者是在大罗马帝国的区域内旅行。

The time was right for the Savior to come to earth. Under Roman rule Christ could travel the highways of Palestine with little fear of robbers and safely preach his saving message. Later his disciples could carry the Gospel easily throughout the empire. The accounts of Jesus’ life, written in Greek, could be read and understood by educated people everywhere.

这样的时代对于救世主的到来正合适。在罗马的统治下,基督可以行走在巴勒斯坦而不用过于担心有强盗,而且可以安全地宣讲他的救赎信息。以至于后来他的使徒们能够容易地将福音传遍整个帝国。而用希腊语撰写的耶稣生平也能够被受过教育的人们阅读和理解。

The Forerunner Announced (Luke 1:5-23) 先驱(路加福音1:5-23)

The events just before Christ’s birth are described in the first chapter of the Gospel according to St. Luke. Through the angel Gabriel God began revealing his plan of salvation and fulfilling his prophecies of old. The first to learn of Christ’s coming (or advent) was the priest Zechariah. This elderly man of God, who was to lead the temple service that particular morning, had been deep in prayer. As a faithful priest he had, no doubt, been praying that God would send the promised Messiah.

圣路加在福音的第一章记载的事件,恰恰发生在耶稣诞生之前。上帝通过天使加百列开始揭示他的拯救计划,并完成旧约先知书的预言。第一个知道基督要来的人是祭司撒加利亚。撒加利亚是属上帝的人,年纪已经老迈,在那个特别的早晨,正是他来负责圣殿的相关仪式,他一直以来都在主面前迫切祷告。毫无疑问,最为一个信实的祭司,撒加利亚一直不住地向上帝祷告,求上帝按照许诺差遣弥赛亚来到世上。

Suddenly the angel Gabriel appeared to him announcing that this prayer had been answered. In carefully chosen words Gabriel picked up the thought on which the Old Testament had ended. Through Malachi (3:1) God had promised that immediately before the Messiah’s coming a man would be born to prepare the people to receive their Savior. The final words of the prophecy were these: “See, I will send you the prophet Elijah before that great and dreadful day of the Lord comes. He will turn the hearts of the fathers to their children, and the hearts of the children to their fathers…” (Mal. 4:5-6)

天使利百加突然出现并宣告说他的祷告已经被应允。利百加谨慎用语,选择了旧约最后一章中上帝的预言。在玛拉基书3:1中上帝预言在弥赛亚来之前会有一个人来预备救世主的道路。这章预言书的最后一段是:“看哪,耶和华大而可畏之日未到以前,我必差遣先知以利亚到你们那里去。他必使父亲的心转向儿女,儿女的心转向父亲…”(玛拉基书4:5-6)

Now the time of waiting was over. Zechariah’s wife Elizabeth would have a child who would preach with the spirit and power of Elijah. God commanded that the forerunner be named “John.” In Hebrew this means ‘“the Lord is Gracious.” This name emphasized God’s undeserved love for sinful mankind which caused him to send his Son to earth.

如今等待的时间已经结束。撒加利亚的妻子以利沙伯会生一个孩子,这个孩子将会靠着圣灵和以利亚的力量讲道。上帝要求给先驱使者取名为“约翰”.在希伯来语中,约翰的意思是“主是仁慈的”,这个名字强调了上帝对罪恶的人类不配得的爱,甚至将他的儿子差派到世上。

The Savior Announced (Luke 1:26-38) 救主(路加福音1:26-38)

The story then leaves the great temple in Jerusalem and the godly old priest. It turns to the tiny village of Nazareth and an ordinary young woman. Five months after speaking to Zechariah, Gabriel appeared to a young virgin named Mary. Again in a carefully worded yet simple message the angel made known the mystery of Christ’s coming (Luke 1:26-38)。 First he greeted Mary and put an end to her fears. Then he reminded her of the familiar prophecy of Isaiah (7:14), “The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son, and will call him Immanuel” (“God with us” Matt. 1:23)。 Mary had been chosen to be “the virgin” and her son would be “Jesus” (“The Lord is Salvation”)。 He would be the promised Savior.

故事到这里离开耶路撒冷伟大的圣殿和圣的老祭司。而转到了拿撒勒这个小镇和一个平凡的年轻女人上面。在利百加与撒迦利亚说话之后的五个月,他出现在一个叫马利亚的一个年轻处女面前。还是很谨慎地选择言语,但是用很简单的信息,揭示了基督来临的秘密。(路加福音1:26-38)。首先他向马利亚致意,叫她不要再害怕。随后他用人们所熟知的以赛亚书7:14提醒马利亚,“主自己要给你们一个兆头,必有童贞女怀孕生子,给他取名叫以马内利(”上帝与我们同在“马1:23)。马利亚被拣选为”童贞女“,她的儿子将是”耶稣“(”主是救赎“)。他将是应许的救主。

We should note that at this time, Mary showed a humble faith throughout her entire life. She did not question God’s word as Zechariah had. She only asked for more information about the part she was to play in God’s plan. Gabriel did explain her role. Through a miracle a child would come to life inside of her. God’s Holy Spirit would be its father. Meanwhile she would remain a virgin until the child was born.

此时我们注意到,马利亚在整个一生中都显示出了谦卑的信心。她没有像撒迦利亚一样质疑上帝的话。她只针对在上帝的计划中她要扮演的角色部分询问了更多的信息。利百加解释了她的角色。她腹中的孩子将来到世上,这是一个神迹。上帝的圣灵是它的父亲。同时,知道孩子出生之前,她都保持童贞女之身。

Mothers-To-Be (Luke 1:39-55) 母亲(路1:39-55)

Mary soon left Nazareth and traveled to the home of her relative, Elizabeth, whom Gabriel had said was pregnant. No sooner had the women greeted each other than John leaped within his mother’s body. Thus he greeted the unborn Jesus, indicating that Jesus was the greater one. At this point Elizabeth honored Mary as the mother of the Lord, but Mary gave all praise to God.

马利亚很快就离开了拿撒勒,去她的亲戚以利沙伯家,就是利百加说她怀孕的以利沙伯。马利亚和伊利沙伯刚相互问安时,约翰就在妈妈的肚子里跳动。他如此欢迎未出生的耶稣,正暗示了耶稣更伟大。此刻,伊利沙伯尊称马利亚是主的母亲,但是马利亚将所有的荣耀都归给上帝。

In her words, often called the ”Song of Mary,“ she told how God had blessed her (Luke 1:46-49)。 Then she described God’s salvation through Jesus Christ (vv 50-55)。 This message from Mary’s heart reveals her deep faith. We must remember that she was a commoner who had never gone to school. Nevertheless, she did know the word of the Lord. Her ”song“ repeats the mood and content of such Old Testament verses as 1 Sam. 1:11; 2:1-10; Ps. 103:17; Ps. 107:9.

在通常被称为”马利亚的颂歌“中,她讲述了上帝是如何祝福她的(路1:46-49)。然后她描述了上帝通过耶稣的救赎(vv50-55)。这些来自马利亚内心的讯息揭示了她深深的信念。我们一定记得她是一个从来没有进过学校的平民。然而,她了解主的话语。她的”颂歌“在旧约撒母耳记上1:11;2:1-10还有诗篇103:17;107:9中不断重复那样的心情和内容。

A Word To Joseph (Matt. 1:18-25; Luke 1:56) 对约瑟的话(太1:18-25;路1:56)

After staying with Elizabeth for three months, Mary returned to her home in Nazareth. This was about the time when John, the forerunner was born. Soon it became obvious to the carpenter Joseph that his fiancee Mary was pregnant. In those days engagement was a solid agreement to get married. It was considered final and could only be broken through divorce. However, while Joseph was thinking about divorcing Mary, Gabriel appeared to him. The angel spoke of the miraculous child and told Joseph that Mary had done no wrong. He also said that the child was to be named Jesus. Joseph then took Mary to be his wife.

马利亚和以利沙伯同住了三个月之后,就回到拿撒勒的家中。这正是主的使者约翰出生的时候。很快木匠约瑟明显地发现他的未婚妻马利亚怀孕了。当时订婚意味着必然要结婚,不可随意更改。是经过深思熟虑的最终决定,只有离婚能够将夫妻俩分开。然而,当约瑟正考虑和马利亚离婚的事儿的时候,利百加出现在了他面前。他还是说要给孩子取名耶稣。随后约瑟就娶了马利亚为妻。

The Birth of Jesus (Matt. 1:1-17; Luke 2:1-20; 3:23-38) 耶稣诞生(太1:1-17;路2:1-20;3:23-38)

Throughout the Old Testament God had spoken about the Savior’s coming. One such detail was given in the prophecy of Micah (5:2)。 The Christ was to be born in Bethlehem Ephrathah.

在整个旧约里上帝已经预言了救世主的到来。在先知书弥加书(5:2)中有详细的描述。基督将要出生在伯利恒

The Roman emperor ordered that every Jewish male had to go to the hometown of his ancestors to register for purposes of taxation. We do not know whether God caused Augustus to order the registration or simply used this political event for his purpose. But in God’s plan of salvation his decree brought Mary to Bethlehem at the time of the birth.

罗马的皇帝规定每一个犹太男人都必须回到祖先的家乡注册登记,以便征税。我们不晓得是否是上帝让亚古士督发起了报名上册,或者上帝只是借助这场政治事件达到其目的。但是,在上帝的救赎计划里,他的指令带领着马利亚来到伯利恒。

Since Joseph and Mary were both descendants of King David (Matt. 1:1-17; Luke 3:23-38) they had to travel to Bethlehem, David’s hometown. Of course this also meant that Mary’s unborn son would be a descendant of David (see Is. 11:1-2; Jer. 23:5)。 Again we see that the events around Christ’s birth were not accidents. They followed God’s plan.

既然约瑟和马利亚都是大卫王的子孙(太1:1-17;路3:23-38),他们就必须要回到大卫的家乡伯利恒。当然这也意味着马利亚未出生的儿子也将是大卫的子孙(参看赛11:1-2;耶23:5)。可见在耶稣基督诞生前后发生的事情并非偶然,都遵行上帝的计划。

The details of Jesus’ birth are well known. Unable to find room in an inn in Bethlehem, Mary and Joseph had to stay in a stable. It was there that Mary gave birth to Jesus, wrapped him in strips of cloth and laid him in a manger. However, when thinking of the first Christmas and the picture of mother and child it is easy to forget what was actually taking place. God became flesh; the second person of the Trinity became human. We cannot understand the eternal Son being born, the almighty God as a helpless infant, the all-glorious One in need of diapers. Christ had not become human to be honored but to be humbled and to suffer and die on the cross for the sins of all mankind (Phil. 2:6-8)。

大家都很熟悉耶稣诞生的细节。在伯利恒的一家小旅馆里马利亚和约瑟找不到房间,只好住在马厩里。马利亚在马厩里生下了耶稣,用破布包裹着放在马槽里。然后,当我们想到第一个圣诞节和母子俩的画面时,很容易就忘记了当时的真实情景。上帝成为肉身,第二个三位一体的人成为人类。我们无法理解永生上帝的儿子的诞生,全能的上帝成为一个无助的婴孩儿,配的所有荣耀的唯一真上帝成为一个需要尿布的孩子。基督不是尊贵地来到世上而是卑微地成为人的样式,而且要为了全人类的罪受难、被钉死在十字架上。(腓2:6-8)

The birth of Jesus was an event of great importance. Shepherds were camped in the Bethlehem hills guarding their flocks. Without warning an angel appeared announcing the news of the Messiah’s coming. Then armies of angels appeared, singing that God was being glorified in heaven, and that peace had come to earth. Through sin, man had separated himself from God. Now God was at peace with man through Jesus Christ the Prince of Peace (Is. 9:6)。

耶稣诞生是非常重要的大事。伯利恒山上的牧羊人正照看着羊群,这时突然天使出现了,宣告弥赛亚要来的消息。然后天使的军队出现,歌唱说天堂里荣耀的上帝和平安已经来到世上。罪使人类和上帝隔绝。现在借着耶稣基督、和平的君王,上帝与人类和好(赛9:6)。

Note the response of the shepherds. Although they saw the angels, it was the preached word of God that inspired them (Luke 2:15)。 Then, after visiting the Christ child in the stable, they became lay witnesses spreading the news of Jesus’ arrival to their friends and neighbors (Luke 2:17)。

请注意牧羊人的反应。尽管他们看到了天使,实际上警醒他们的却是上帝的话(路2:15)。牧羊人拜访了基督——马槽里的婴孩儿之后,他们随即成为见证人,在朋友和邻居之间传开了耶稣来到世上的消息(路2:17)。

Jesus’ Circumcision and Presentation (Luke 2:21-38) 给小耶稣行割礼并献给主(路2:21-38)

Following that first Christmas day, Joseph enrolled in the census and found better lodging for his family. However, Mary and Joseph did not let earthly matters keep them from their spiritual responsibilities. They obeyed the Old Testament law (Lev. 12:3)。 On the eighth they took Jesus to be circumcised. In this way Jesus was placed under the law, and he began fulfilling that law for man’s salvation. It was also at this time that Joseph named the infant ”Jesus.“

第一个圣诞节之后,约瑟报名上册,而且为他的家人找更好一些的地方借宿。然而,马利亚和约瑟没有让尘世的琐事影响到他们灵命上的责任。他们遵守了旧约的律法(利12:3),在第八天给耶稣行了割礼。这样耶稣就被放在律法以下了,而且开始为了人类的救赎遵行律法。也是此时约瑟给这个婴孩取名叫”耶稣“.

On the 40th day Mary and Joseph took Jesus on the 7-mile trip from Bethlehem to the temple in Jerusalem. There, they followed another Old Testament law. Because he was Mary and Joseph’s firstborn son, Jesus was formally presented to the Lord (Ex. 13:2,12; Num. 18:15-16)。 Mary also offered a sacrifice making her clean after having given birth to a child (Lev. 12:1-8)。

到了第40天,马利亚和约瑟从伯利恒走了7英里来到耶路撒冷的圣殿。在圣殿他们遵行另外一项旧约的律法。因为耶稣是马利亚和约瑟头生的儿子,理应献给主(出13:2,12;民18:15-16)。马利亚也献祭使自己洁净(产妇的洁净条例)(利12:1-8)。

While the family was in the temple a faithful man of God named Simeon came and took Jesus in his arms. Simeon’s knowledge of the past allowed him to prophesy concerning the future. The Old Testament taught him that while the Messiah would earn salvation for all men (Is. 42:6; 49:6) only some would make him their rock of salvation. For many he would be a stumbling block (Is. 8:14)。 Looking into the future, Simeon knew that Jesus was ”destined to cause the falling and rising of many“ (Luke 2:34)。

当这一家人在圣殿里的时候,一位叫西面的上帝的忠实信徒走进圣殿,接过耶稣。西面对旧约的了解使得他能预言未来。旧约的教导说弥赛亚来时会成为全人类的救赎(赛42:6;49:6),他是他们被救赎的磐石。对于很多人来说他是绊脚石(赛8:14)。展望未来,西面知道耶稣是”被立,叫许多人跌倒、许多人兴起“(路2:34)。

Finally, with sadness and deep sympathy, Simeon told Mary that she would endure much suffering. She would see Jesus despised and rejected by men (Is. 53:3) and die a painful death for sinful mankind (Ps. 22)。 This would cause a sword of deep sorrow to cut her own soul (Luke 2:35)。

最后,西面带着伤感而且深深的同情,告诉马利亚她将要忍受很多苦难。她会看到耶稣被人藐视、厌弃(赛53:3),为罪恶的人类痛苦地死去(诗22)。这一切都会深深刺透马利亚的心(路2:35)。

A very old female prophet, Anna, then came up to Joseph and his family. She also witnessed that redemption was to be found in Christ Jesus.

有一位年老的女先知,名叫亚拿,来到约瑟一家人面前。她也做见证说在耶稣基督里有救赎。

Visit of the Wise Men (Matt. 2:1-18) 博士朝拜圣婴(太2:1-18)

Still filled with wonder, Mary and Joseph took Jesus back to Bethlehem. Sooner than they expected, however, the prophecies of Simeon were fulfilled. Gentile wise men (called Amagi@), following a special star, came to the house where the child Jesus was, and worshiped him. As part of their worship they gave Jesus precious gifts: gold, sweet-smelling incense, and an expensive lotion called myrrh.

马利亚和约瑟心里仍旧疑惑不解,他们带着耶稣回到了伯利恒。然而西面的语言很快就实现了,这比他们所期待的要快多了。温文尔雅的博士跟随着特别的星来到小耶稣所住的房子敬拜他。他们带来了朝拜的珍贵礼物:黄金、乳香、没药。

While Jesus was a rock of salvation for the magi, he was a stumbling block for King Herod. Angry at the thought of a rival king, Herod tried to learn from the wise men where this new king lived. When he failed, Herod ordered his men to kill all male children two years old and younger who were living within the area of Bethlehem. Most Biblical scholars think that about 20 children thus were murdered. However, Jesus was not one of them. God had warned Joseph in a dream to take his family to Egypt. The gifts of the magi may have helped pay for this move.

对于博士来说耶稣是救赎的磐石,而对于希律王来说他是绊脚石。希律一想到有人与他争王的位置就生气,他试图从博士那儿打探到这位新王在哪儿。博士们没有告诉希律,希律则命令他的人杀死伯利恒区域范围内的所有两岁及两岁以内的男孩儿。

Egypt to Nazareth (Matt. 2:19-23; Luke 2:39) 从埃及到拿撒勒(太2:19-23;路2:39)

This short stay in Egypt was yet another part of God’s plan for Jesus (Matt. 2:15)。 Some time later evil King Herod died a painful death. His stomach was eaten by worms. It is said that the smell of his breath was so bad that no one could remain near him.

在埃及的短暂停留是上帝在为耶稣计划的另一部分(太2:5)。后来邪恶的希律王痛苦地死了。他得胃被虫子吃了。就是说他呼出的气非常难闻,以至于没有人能靠近他。

Following Herod’s death, Joseph wished to return to Bethlehem, but he learned that the king’s evil son was the new king. So Mary and Joseph took Jesus and moved back to Nazareth fulfilling yet another prophecy (Mat. 2:23)。

希律死后,约瑟希望回到伯利恒,但他听说希律王邪恶的儿子成了新王,所以马利亚和约瑟带着耶稣回到拿撒勒,去完成另外一项预言(太2:23)。

Jesus’ Boyhood (Luke 2:40) 耶稣的少年时期(路2:40)

The Bible covers the next ten years of Jesus’ life in a single sentence: ”And the child grew and became strong; he was filled with wisdom, and the grace of God was upon him“ (Luke 2:40)。 Those who wish to know more about Jesus during this decade of his childhood must look at his later life for clues. Jesus did not grow up an only child. He had several brothers and sisters (Matt. 13:55-56)。 Although he lived in the town of Nazareth, he must have spent a lot of time out in the countryside watching farmers and shepherds going about their work, and looking at the birds and the flowers. Later he often talked about these in his parables and teachings (Matt. 13:18-23; Matt. 6:26-30)。 And, of course, Jesus was given good religious training by his parents. He studied the Old Testament and learned to read it in the original Hebrew language. In his ministry he often referred to or quoted the Scriptures, especially those verses that spoke about his own work as the promised Messiah. Finally, in his adult life Jesus often went to a hilltop to pray. This habit also may have started in his childhood.

对于接下来十年耶稣的生活,圣经用简单的一句话概括说:”孩子渐渐长大,强壮起来,充满智慧,又有上帝的恩在他身上。“(路加福音2:40)。那些期望了解这十年里耶稣童年生活的人必须查看随后的一些内容寻找线索。耶稣不是独生子,他又几个弟弟和妹妹(太13:55-56)。尽管他住在拿撒勒,到那时他必须花很多时间到乡村去,看管农民和牧羊人做工,照看鸟和花。后来耶稣经常在打比喻和教导中谈到这些(太13:18-23;太6:26-30)。同时,耶稣的父母给了他好的虔诚的宗教训练。他研读旧约并学习用原始的希伯来语读。他在宣教时经常提及或者引用一些经文,尤其是那些讲道他作为预言要来的弥赛亚所要做的事工的章节。最后要提到的是,在耶稣成年后经常去山顶祷告,这个习惯可能也是从童年时期就开始了。

Jesus in the Temple (Luke 2:41-52) 耶稣在圣殿(路2:41-52)

According to Jewish custom, Jesus’ childhood came to an end when he was 12 years old. At this age he reached the first stage in becoming an adult. He was then expected to start learning an occupation or trade. In this important year of his life Jesus went through a sort of ”confirmation.“

根据有太人的习惯,到了12岁,耶稣的童年就结束了。在这个年龄他完成了成人的第一阶段。随后他要开始学习做一种职业或者贸易。在这重要的一年耶稣进行了”坚信礼“.

It all started when Jesus traveled with his parents on a trip to Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover. On this trip (perhaps in the spring of A.D. 8) he took part for the first time in public worship at the temple. A few days later, Jesus became separated from his family and friends. After looking for three days, Mary found him in the temple. Contrary to what many have thought, the Bible shows that Jesus was there to listen, not to teach.

耶稣和父母去耶路撒冷庆祝逾越节,一切都开始了。在去耶路撒冷的行程中(大约在公元8世纪的春天),他第一次参加了圣殿里公开的敬拜。后来没几天的时间,耶稣开始和家人还有朋友分开了。在找了三天之后,马利亚在圣殿里发现了他。与很多人所想得不同,圣经说耶稣在圣殿里不是教导而是听道。

At this time we hear the first recorded words of Jesus Christ. Mary began to scold him ”Son, why have you treated us like this? Your father and I have been anxiously searching for you.“ He replied, ”Why were you searching for me? Didn’t you know I had to be in my Father’s house“ (Luke 2:48-49)? With simple wisdom Jesus informed his parents that he was not guilty of breaking the Fourth Commandment and that he understood his mission in life. God the Father, not Joseph, was his Father. Jesus had come to earth to do his heavenly Father’s bidding.

在这个时期我们了解到有关耶稣基督的第一次记录信息。马利亚开始责备耶稣”我儿,为什么向我们这样行呢?你父亲和我伤心来找你。“他回答说:”为什么找我呢?岂不知我应当以我父亲的事为念吗?“(路2:48-49)耶稣用这样简单的智慧告诉父母,他没有因为违反第四条诫命而犯罪,而且他懂得自己天职。他的父亲是上帝,而不是约瑟。耶稣已经来到世间,回应天父的呼召。

Following this story, another large part of Jesus’ life is described in a single sentence. Jesus, between the ages of 12 and 30, ”grew in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and men“ (Luke 2:52)。 During these years we assume Jesus learned the carpenter’s trade from his father (Mark 6:3)。 And whatever else Jesus did, we know one thing for certain: he never sinned (Heb. 4:15)。

随后,圣经又用一个简单的句子描述了耶稣生平的另外一大部分。耶稣在12岁到30岁之间,”耶稣的智慧和身量,并上帝和人喜爱他的心,都一起增长。“(路2:52)。在这些年月中,我们假定耶稣跟他得父亲学做木匠(可6:3)。不管耶稣还做了什么,有一件事情我们很明确:他从来没有犯过罪( 来4:15)。

Life Of Christ-Ke
前言与目录
Table of Contents
第一章 耶稣基督的诞生和童年
Chapter 1 Birth and Childhood of Jesus Christ
第二章 耶稣开始公开传道
Chapter 2 Jesus Begins His Public Ministry
第三章 欢呼声和不断增长的反对声
Chapter 3 Applause and Increasing Opposition
第四章 安息日的公开辩论和在山上布道
Chapter 4 Sabbath Controversies and Mountain Sermon
第五章 用神迹和预言传道
Chapter 5 Ministry with Miracles and Parables
第六章 转变的时间
Chapter 6 Time of Transition
第七章 一连串的“撤退”
Chapter 7 Series of Withdrawals
第八章 耶稣向南行进
Chapter 8 Jesus Heads South
第九章 死亡之旅
Chapter 9 The Death Journey
第十章 圣周棕枝主日—星期二的早晨
Chapter 10 Holy Week Palm Sunday Tuesday Morning
第十一章 圣周星期二下午 — 星期四晚上
Chapter 11 Holy Week Tuesday Afternoon -- Thursday Evening
第十二章 圣周星期四的晚上 — 受难日
Chapter 12 Holy Week Thursday Night - Good Friday
第十三章 圣周星期六、复活主日到耶稣的升天
Chapter 13 Holy Week Saturday - Easter Sunday to Jesus’ Ascension
第一章 耶稣基督的诞生和童年
Chapter 1 Birth and Childhood of Jesus Christ