第十二章 圣周星期四的晚上 — 受难日
Chapter 12 Holy Week Thursday Night - Good Friday
It was now Friday, April 7, A.D. 30, the day of Jesus’ greatest sufferings, his trials, and his execution on the cross. We most often refer to this day as Good Friday. It was a good, yes even a great and glorious day for the world. For it was the day when Christ paid the price for the sins of all mankind and earned salvation for every soul.
Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane （Matt 26:30,36-46; Mark 14:26,32-42; Luke 22:39-46; John 18:1）
Late on Thursday Jesus and his disciples left the room where they had finished eating the Passover meal. They then walked out of Jerusalem, crossed the brook Kidron, and climbed the gentle slopes of the Mount of Olives where they entered a garden known as Gethsemane. Jesus’ greatest struggle began in a garden just like Adam and Eve’s greatest suffering began in another garden – Eden.
That Passover night there was almost a full moon, but the olive trees made the garden darker with their shadows. But there was a greater darkness which had fallen upon the world. There was a darker enemy than Judas who was on his way to the Garden. Satan, the Prince of Darkness, also came to tempt Jesus. He gathered his forces for an attack upon the second Adam, Jesus. He tried to get Christ to fall just as he had gotten Adam and Eve to sin in the Garden of Eden.
Jesus left eight disciples at the entrance to the garden and took Peter, James, and John farther inside. They had seen Jesus in his full glory on the Mount of Transfiguration. Now they would see him in his great struggle and sadness. Jesus said to them, “My soul is overcome with sorrow to the point of death … Stay here and keep watch” （Mark 14:34）。
A great sorrow caused Jesus to throw himself to the ground and resulted in a sweat like blood （Luke 22:44）。 This sorrow was produced by three unholy terrors. First, the eternal Son of God faced a condition totally strange to himself – his own death. Second, his death was a substitute for others. He would have to bear all men’s sins on his own shoulders and feel the full fury of God’s justice. In the garden he was already accepting this load. Finally, Satan was given freedom to try to scare Jesus into sinning. While all this was happening, the disciples slept. Rather than judging the disciples too harshly, we would do well to examine the reason for their slumbers. He found them very tired because of their sorrow （Luke 22:45）。 Their spirits were willing to obey Jesus （Mark 14:38）， but their bodies were totally out of energy.
Good Friday 受难日
At long last, in the early hours of Good Friday, Jesus reported, “The time has come” （Mark 14:41）。 The right time about which Jesus had so often spoken had now arrived. The two opposing forces would now meet in battle: Jesus and Satan.
Jesus Betrayed and Arrested （Matt. 26:47-56; Mark 14:43-52; Luke 22:47-53; John 18:2-12）
Jesus suffered mental and spiritual grief in the garden. Soon his physical struggle and suffering would begin. Judas entered the garden leading a group of Roman soldiers armed with swords and Jewish leaders and temple guards carrying clubs. Judas showed which man they soldiers should arrest by going up to the Son of God and kissing him. This was the worst act of betrayal in human history.
Jesus did not normally use his divine power while on earth except to heal or help people. This time, however, his power threw the mob to the ground. Then Jesus surrendered self. In this was he indicated that he was willing to be arrested and suffer. But the disciples did not understand what Jesus was doing. Peter grabbed his sword and struck one of the soldiers, cutting off the man’s ear. Jesus healed the ear, again showing that he was peacefully going with the men and did not want to cause a bloody fight
After Jesus was arrested, the disciples, along with an unnamed young man, fled. Since the latter is mentioned only in Mark’s Gospel account, it is thought that this man was Mark.
Trial by the Jews （Matt. 26:57–27:1; Mark 14:53-15:1; Luke 22:54-71; John 18:13-27）
Before beginning a study of Jesus’ trials before the religious leaders, we should remember that several times earlier he had prophesied about the events that would now happen.
Matthew 马太福音Mark 马可福音Luke 路加福音John 约翰福音
At the first cleansing of the temple (John 2:19-22)
第一次洁净圣殿2:19-22 （约翰福音 2:19-22）
At Caesarea Philippi (Matthew 16:21-23; Mark 8:31-33; Luke 9:22)
At the close of the Galilean ministry (Matthew 17:22-23; Mark9:31-32; Luke9:43-45)
On the final journey to Jerusalem (Matthew20:17-19; Mark10:32-34; Luke18:31-34)
Two days before the final Passover (Matthew26:1-2)
Thursday night of Holy Week (Matthew26:31-32; Mark14:27-28)
If we put all six of these prophecies together it would read like this:
Destroy the temple of my body and I will raise it again in three days. But before this I must go to Jerusalem and be betrayed into the hands of men. You disciples will be scattered. I must suffer many things at the hands of the Jewish religious leaders. They will condemn me to death and turn me over to the Gentiles. They will mock, spit on, beat, and crucify me. On the third day I will be raised to life.
After his arrest Jesus was taken to the house of the high priest, Caiaphas. Soon some members of the Jewish council （Sanhedrin） gathered to judge him. As he had prophesied, Jesus suffered many things at the hands of the elders, chief priests, and teachers of the Law. He was blindfolded, hit, and spit on. Then this court condemned him to death. His crime was claiming to be the Son of God. Since his claim was true, there was really no crime at all.
When Jesus said that he was the Christ, he added, “And you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven” （Mark 14:62）。 What did Jesus mean? For the moment these religious leaders were his judges, but one day he would be their Judge. They might kill his earthy body, but he would one day decide where these leaders would spend eternity.
Since the Jewish council could not legally conduct business at night, they met again at daybreak to confirm the decision of their secret night meeting. They condemned Christ. He was guilty of blasphemy, a crime with the penalty of death. However, while the Roman government allowed the Jews to punish small crimes themselves, they were not permitted to put anyone to death. Only a Roman court could execute someone. Thus, according to Jesus’ prophecy, the Jews turned him over to the Gentile Romans.
While Jesus was being tried by the religious leaders, in a near-by courtyard Peter was also on trial. People there were accusing him of being a disciple of Jesus. Three times he pleaded not guilty. When the rooster crowed for the second time Peter remembered Jesus’ earlier warning, “before the rooster crows twice you yourself will deny me three times.” Then he broke down and wept （Mark 14:30,72）。
Trial by the Gentiles （Matt. 27:2, 11-30; Mark 15:1-19; Luke 23:1-25; John 18:28-19:16）
The Jews condemned Jesus for religious reasons. When they brought him before the Roman governor, Pontius Pilate, they changed their charges. Since Pilate would not be interested in religious issues, Jesus was charged with political crimes.
During the course of the trial, just as he predicted, Jesus was mocked, spit on, flogged and [as we will see shortly] crucified by the Gentiles. The Jewish guards had mocked and beaten Jesus because he was the Messiah. The Roman soldiers did the same to Jesus because he was a king.
Pilate, in spite of all his failings, was not easy to fool. He could see that Jesus was innocent and that the Jews were jealous of him. So he tried to refer the case to King Herod. Then he had Jesus beaten, hoping that the Jews would pity him. When that failed, he threatened to release a violent criminal named Barabbas. But the Jews would not take “no” for an answer. They got their way by threats. While Pilate was washing his hands of the whole matter the Jews cried out, “Let his blood be on us and on our children” （Matt. 27:25）。
Judas’ Suicide （Matt. 27:3-10）
The tragic case of Judas Iscariot is a good reminder that where sin remains unforgiven, man has no inner peace. In spite of the 30 silver coins in his purse, the weight of God’s Law （Deut. 27:25） pressed down heavily on him. Even confessing his wrong and returning the money could not bring him peace. He now decided on suicide.
Meanwhile, there was another man filled with sorrow because of his sins. He was Peter, the one who had denied the Savior three times. It is interesting to see how Peter found the inner peace which Judas wanted so much. But that story will have to wait until the next chapter.
The Crucifixion （Matt 27:31-56; Mark 15:20-41; Luke 23:26-49; John 19:17-30）
The streets on which Jesus walked to the cross is called the Way of Sorrows （Via Dolorosa）。 Leaving the court of Pilate, he was dressed in his own clothes, and a heavy cross was laid on his shoulders. Condemned criminals usually had to carry their own crosses to the execution site. The Lord did carry his cross （more accurately, our cross） as far as his tortured body would allow. Then he collapsed. The soldiers then made a pilgrim named Simon carry the cross the rest of the way.
The death march attracted a crowd. Among them were some believing women who began to mourn and wail as was the local custom. However, Jesus would not even allow this expression of sorrow. He encouraged them to look into their own future and see the destruction of their city （A.D. 70）。 Jesus’ unselfish warning was his last public speech before his death.
At last they came to a skull-shaped hill outside the city wall. There on Golgatha, or Calvary, Jesus was crucified between two criminals. Nails were driven through his wrists and feet, and the cross was stood up. It was 9:00 A.M.
For the next three hours Jesus suffered the physical pain of crucifixion and mental suffering from the cruel Jewish and Roman spectators. But, Jesus had expected such treatment and the Old Testament prophecies had already described the scene accurately （Ps. 22:1-18; Is. 53:12）。
It was during these pre-noon hours that Jesus made his first three statements from the cross. In each case he showed true concern, not for himself, but for mankind. He prayed for who had caused his death, “Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing” （Luke 23:34）。 To the repentant criminal on the cross next to him, he made the promise, “I tell you the truth, today you will be with me in paradise” （Luke 23:43）。 Finally, Jesus gave instant comfort and lasting security to his dear mother bleeding from her very soul （Luke 2:35）。 Referring to his beloved disciple John, Jesus said, “Dear woman, here is your son.” To John he explained “Here is your mother” （John 19:26-27）。
Then at noon darkness fell across the whole earth, lasting for three hours. This sign from heaven quieted the crowd. No one could see Jesus’ face during this time, and the Lord was left to himself.
We cannot imagine how much pain Jesus suffered during these dark hours. The weight, guilt, and punishment for the sins of all mankind were on him. Suddenly, at 3:00 P.M,. Jesus cried out in a loud voice saying, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” （Matt. 27:46; Ps. 22:1）。 When God the Father withdraws himself from a person, then that person experiences hell （Matt. 25:41）。
Light then returned to the earth. The three hours of suffering in hell was completed. Jesus then found strength for three final statements.
He said “I am thirsty” （John 19:28） so that the last Old Testament prophecy concerning his death might be fulfilled （Ps. 22:15; Ps. 69:21）。
Once the drink had been given to him, Jesus could say confidently, “It is finished” （John 19:30）。 While his enemies were happy at his defeat, the shout of triumph comes from the lips of Jesus. This word was a report to the Father who had sent him; but it was said in a loud voice so that all men could hear it. With the greatest single word ever spoken, he announced the finish of the work which his Father had given him. Finished was his work of redemption, the work of bringing God and man together again, the work of suffering and dying for all people. The rule of the prince of hell had been broken, and Satan had been crushed under his heel.
With his mission finished, Jesus now could allow his broken body to die. His last words were, “Father, I give my spirit into your hands.” （Luke 23:46）。
At that very moment God the Father added his own “amen” to Jesus’ perfect death. The Old Testament was closed, the new time of grace had begun. The curtain （as thick as the palm of a man’s hand） which sealed off the Most Holy Place in the temple, was torn from top to bottom. This showed that because of Jesus’ atoning death all sinner can now approach God. Meanwhile the earth shook. The resurrection was begun as dead believers were made alive. A Roman centurion made a startling discovery: Jesus was “a righteous man… The Son of God” （Luke 23:47; Mark 15:39）。
Jesus Pierced and Buried （Matt. 27:57-61; Mark 15:42-47; Luke 23:50-55; John 19:31-42）
Since evening was coming on and sundown marked the beginning of the Sabbath, the Jews asked that the execution be completed and the bodies removed from the crosses. By breaking the two criminals’ legs the soldiers made sure that they would soon die. Jesus, however; was already dead. A soldier stuck a spear into his side, missing his ribs, but piercing his heart. This too was according to God’s plan （Exod. 12:46; Ps. 34:20; Zech. 12:10）。
The faithful women at the foot of the cross, as well as loyal John, were overcome with grief. They had made no plans for the Lord’s burial. But God the Father had worked out the details in advance （Is. 53:9）。 The rich believer Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus were allowed to bury the lifeless body. Good Friday came to a close. The Lord was buried in the Garden Tomb and a large stone was rolled into place, closing the burial chamber.