恩典国际圣经学院

第二课 -- 介绍,B部分
Lesson 2 – Introduction, Part B

The Synoptic Problem

符类福音问题

“Synoptic” is a Greek word meaning “seeing together.” Applied to the gospels, it refers to the fact that the first three gospels take a similar view of the Savior’s life. For nearly two thousand years people have been studying the differences and similarities found in the first three gospels. Some of their conclusions have provided us with interesting, helpful information on the content and purpose of the individual gospels, and thereby have helped God’s people and have glorified the Savior. However, some of the conclusions drawn by scholars have done the opposite. They have approached the three gospels as mere human documents from the starting point of doubt, and they have had no respect for the gospels’ divine authority or saving purpose. These “Bible doubters” have come up with the phrase “the synoptic problem” in their attempt to analyze the first three gospels. Since we believe that the Holy Spirit inspired all of the Scriptures in the exact way that God intended the books to be written, we have no “problem” with the content of the gospels. Our scholarship is to glorify Christ and advance his kingdom. The accompanying document, The Synoptic Problem, is written from a Bible-believing perspective and gives a critical evaluation of the theories put forth by the scholarly “Bible doubters.”

“符类福音”(Synoptic)希腊原文字义是 “同观”(一起来看事物)。就福音书来说,是指前三福音书在对救主生平的记载采用了相似的观点。近两千年来人们不断地研究前三部福音书中显明的不同与相似之处。其中一些结论对我们了解各福音书独特的内容及写作该福音书的目的提供了有意义的有用信息,因此荣神益人。然而,学者们所持的某些结论却恰恰相反。他们仅仅是从对人类普通文献的角度来怀疑前三福音书,毫不尊重福音书来自神的权威性或以救恩为目的。这些“圣经怀疑论者”最终以所谓的“符类福音问题”试图来分析前三福音书。因为我们相信整本圣经都是圣灵所默示的,按神所定的方式写成,所以,我们并不觉得福音书的内容有任何 “问题”。我们对圣经的学识是为了荣耀基督的名以及扩展他的国度。附加的文献《符类福音问题》,是从相信圣经的角度,对学术上的“圣经怀疑论者”提出的理论给出的关键性评价。

1. Become familiar enough with the theories presented in The Synoptic Problem that you can, in a simple and general way, explain some of the theorists’ ideas and the arguments against them.

尽可能使自己成为探讨“符类福音问题”理论中的成员,用简单、概括的方式解释其中的一些观念并且提出自己的反驳的理由。

熟悉“符类福音问题”中的理论,以便简单、概略地解释某些理论家的观点及反驳的理由。

2. Prepare questions that you have on the above material.

准备对上述材料的提问。

The Synoptic Authors

符类福音的作者

The more important matter is to look at what the Bible itself says. As we study the gospels, it is interesting and helpful to consider what we learn about Matthew, Mark, and Luke in the Scriptures. Studying their background, relationships with other believers, their reason for writing the Savior’s story, and their literary style will help us understand the gospels’ message better. Best of all, as our understanding increases, our faith grows! Also included with the lesson is a second document called Supplementary Information on Synoptic Authors. That document includes information on the authors’ intended audience, their purpose in writing Jesus’ story, their literary style, etc. You may use that material for your own personal growth. Our Bible study in this lesson will focus on passages from Scripture that show us the authors’ background and their interaction with the Lord and other believers.

看看圣经本身说了什么更重要。当我们研究福音书的时候,从圣经中去了解马太、马可与路加这些福音书的作者是很有意义且非常有帮助的。研究他们的背景、与其他信徒的关系,他们写作救主故事的理由以及他们文字上的风格,能帮助我们更好的理解福音信息。最好的是,随着我们理解力的增强,我们的信仰提升了!这一课同样包含着《符类福音作者辅助信息》。这个文件包含了各福音书作者的著作对象、写作耶稣故事的目的以及文字上的风格等等。你可以运用这些材料来帮助你个人的成长。我们这一课的圣经学习将集中在透过圣经的记载,展示作者的历史背景、他们与主以及其他信仰者的关系。

Christians commonly refers to the first three gospels as Matthew, Mark, and Luke. These names, however, did not appear in the early Greek manuscripts as titles to the gospels. The earliest mention of their names as the gospel’s authors is by the church historian Eusebius, who lived from 260-340 A.D. His reference shows us that it was commonly accepted from the very beginning of the New Testament Church that Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John were the authors of the four gospels. The order also reflects the church’s tradition regarding the order in which the gospels were written.

基督徒一般通称前三福音为马太(福音)、马可(福音)、路加(福音)。但是,他们的名字并没有作为标题出现在早期希腊文福音书的手稿当中。最早提及他们是福音书作者的是教会历史学家优西比乌(260-340)。他提到了从新约教会初期马太、马可、路加和约翰即被公认为新约福音书的作者。福音书的次序同样反映了教会传统是按照福音书的写作顺序。

Matthew

马太

“Matthew” is the English form of the Hebrew name Mattathiah, meaning “gift from the Lord.” The Greek equivalent is “Theodore,” “gift of God.” His name is found in the four lists of the twelve apostles (Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13), as well as in the story referred to as The Calling of Matthew (Matthew 9:9-13; Mark 2:14-17; Luke 5:27-32).

“马太”是希伯来文Mattathiah名字的英文形式,他的涵义是“从主来的礼物”。希腊文是“Theodore”,“上帝的礼物”。他的名字出现在四次列出的十二门徒中(太10:3;可3:18;路6:15;徒1:13)。同样也出现在《马太的呼召》故事中。(太9:9-13;可2:14-17;路5:27-32)。

3. Read the three references to The Calling of Matthew listed above. How is the Matthew reference different from the Mark and Luke references? How would you account for this difference? (Note: The tax collectors were Jews hired by the Romans to tax their fellow Jews. They made money by overcharging their fellow countrymen, as is evident from Zacchaeus’ words in Luke 19:8.)

阅读以上三处列出的《马太的呼召》,马太的记载与马可和路加福音的记载怎样不同?你怎么看待这个差异? (注:税吏是被罗马雇用的向犹太人征税的犹太人。他们通过讹诈自己的同胞来挣钱,从撒该的话语可以证实, 路19:8 )

4. Note the criticism of the Pharisees. Why would such a complaint be something that fits the Pharisees well? (The Pharisees were the religious sect that prided themselves in how well they kept not only God’s Law, but also the many other laws added by the rabbis.)

注意法利赛人的批评。这样的抱怨为什么比较适合他们?(法利赛人是这样的一个宗教派别,他们自以为义,自认为不仅仅遵守上帝的律法,同样也遵守拉比添加的其他教导)

5. What is the meaning of Jesus’ response in verses 12-13? How are those words a personal comfort to us?

在太9:12-13节中耶稣的回应有着什么涵义?这些话语对我们带来怎样的个人安慰?

6. The word for “mercy” in verse 13 is the English translation of the Greek word eleos, which is used for the Old Testament Hebrew word chesed. Chesed can mean “mercy.” It is the feeling that God has toward people that makes him want to help poor sinners. It can also be translated “covenant love,” which becomes the reason why God wants to help his struggling people – it’s because He has promised to help them, for He chose them to be his own.

在太9:13节中“mercy怜恤”一词,英文的翻译是从希腊文“eleos”翻译过来的,它常常用于旧约希伯来文字的“chesed仁慈”。“chesed仁慈”意味着“怜恤”。它是那种促使上帝要救助悲惨罪人的对人的情感。它也可以翻译为“盟约的爱”。这就是上帝为什么要帮助“他愁苦的百姓”的理由——因为他应许帮助他们,因为他拣选了他们。

How do these added insights into this word help us understand what God wants of us?

这个词的这些延伸涵义怎样帮助我们理解上帝想要我们做什么?

7. In what way does Matthew serve as a positive example for us in the fact that he hosted this kind of dinner party for Jesus?

在马太邀请耶稣并举办宴会这件事上,在那些方面他值得是我们学习?

Mark

马可

“Mark” is from a Latin word that means “big hammer.” His name is mentioned by the early church father, Papias (60-130 A.D.), describing him as follows: “Mark became Peter’s interpreter and wrote accurately all that he remembered of the things said or done by the Lord.” Thus, there is a strong tradition that Mark was the younger traveling companion of the Apostle Peter and accompanied him to Rome. This is supported in 1 Peter 5:13, if “Babylon” is taken as a figurative expression for Rome. This verse also shows the close companionship that Mark shared with the older apostle, his “father” in the faith. (Paul spoke of Timothy in similar terms.)

“马可”一词拉丁文的涵义是“大铁锤”。他的名字被早期教父帕皮亚(60-130AD)提及并描述如下:“马可成为彼得的翻译员,准确记载了主藉彼得说过的话与行过的事”。因此,一个很坚固的传统就是马可是使徒彼得年轻的旅行同伴,一直陪伴他到罗马。这些可以在彼前5:13看出,当这里“巴比伦”是喻指罗马的话。这节经文也表明马可与老使徒的关系亲密, 彼得是他灵里的“父亲”。(这就如同保罗与提摩太的关系类似)

8. If a person in Bible times wanted to include himself in a piece of historic writing, it was the custom to write about himself in the “third person.” Thus, the “young man” mentioned in Mark 14:51-52 could very well have been the gospel writer Mark. Why would this be a logical conclusion?

如果一个人在圣经历史的笔墨中想要包涵自己的话,那么当时的一个习惯就是他以“第三人称”的身份来著作。因此,在可14:51-52提到的“年轻人”可能就是福音书的作者马可。为什么这是一个合理的结论呢?

9. Mark is mentioned by his complete name, “John Mark,” in Acts 12:12. His mother is named as Mary, and her house hosted early gatherings of Christians. Some believe it was the same place where Jesus gathered with his disciples for the final Passover meal, where the disciples were locked in fear on the evening of the resurrection, and where the early believers gathered in Acts 1:12 and following. If this last example is true, Mark’s mother would have been wealthy with a large house, for the number of believers is described as “about 120.” If that is the case, their family wealth might also explain why Mark found it easy to go on mission trips.

马可曾经在徒12:12节提到了他的全名“约翰·马可”。他母亲的名字是马利亚,她的家曾经招待了早期的基督徒聚会。一些人认为这个地方是耶稣与门徒最后逾越节的筵席的地方;也是耶稣复活当晚惊恐万分的门徒频繁聚集的地方;也是徒1:12节后描述早期信徒聚集的地方。如果这是真实的例子,马可的母亲就是比较富裕,拥有一幢很大的房子,因为信徒的数目“大约120人”。如果这一点属实的话,他富裕家庭的背景也解释了为什么马可能轻易参加宣教旅程。

What we do know for sure is what is described in Acts 12:12-17. What is it about Mark’s family relationships that becomes a positive example for us? Can you think of how you might do something similar to what Mark’s mother Mary did?

我们可以肯定徒12:12-17节所记载的。马可的家庭关系的哪些方面对我们是一个很好的榜样?想想你如何能像马可的母亲马利亚一样做同样的事情?

10. As is the case in the lives of all believers, something negative happened in Mark’s life as well. This negative thing happened on Paul’s first mission journey. Read about this in Acts 13:13; Acts 15:36-41. What kinds of feelings might you have had if you had been Mark?

跟所有信徒一样,在马可的身上同样有在消极的事情发生。这个消极的事情发生在保罗的第一次宣教旅途中,阅读徒13:13;徒15:36-41。也许你有过这样的经历,你有什么样的感受?

11. What do the following passages tell us about the difficulties between the Apostle Paul and Mark? Colossians 4:10 Philemon 24 2 Timothy 4:11

以下的段落告诉我们发生在保罗和马可之间的困难是什么?西4:10 ;门24;提后4:11。

Luke

路加

“Luke” is a form of the Latin name “Lucius,” which is derived from the Latin word lux, meaning “light.” He is the author of both the third gospel and the book of Acts, which is obvious by the fact that both books are addressed to the same nobleman, Theophilus. Luke is mentioned extensively in the book of Acts by the simple word “we.” When the narrative switches to “we,” it means that Luke, at that point, was traveling with Paul on his second and third mission journeys. The “we passages” in Acts are as follows:

Acts 16:10-17 Acts 20:5-15 Acts 21:1-18 Acts 27:1 – 28:16

“路加”是从拉丁文的名字“Lucius”而来的。源自于拉丁字“lux”意思是“光”。他是第三卷福音书与使徒行传的作者,很显然这两卷书都是他写给贵族提阿非罗的信件。路加在《使徒行传》中从“我们”这一词被广泛地提及。当记述转至“我们”一词时,是指当时路加本人正伴随保罗于其第二次与第三次的旅行布道当中。以下是使徒行传中有关“我们”的一些章节:

徒16:10-17,徒20:5-15,徒21:1-18,徒27:1-28:16

12. Luke is mentioned three times in the letters of Paul. What do we learn about Luke in each of the following verses?

保罗书信中三次提到了路加。以下经文中我们能学习到有关路加的什么信息?

Colossians 4:14  西4:14

Philemon 24   门 24

2 Timothy 4:11 提后4:11

13. What can we learn from Luke about setting priorities, in view of the fact that he had the profession of being a physician?

由路加的职业是内科医生来看,我们怎样学习他怎样设定人生中的优先次序?

14. What are the most important things you want to take with you from this lesson in regard to the authors of the first three gospels and their relationship with the Lord Jesus?

在 这节课学习前三福音作者以及他们与主耶稣的关系当中,你最大的收获是什么?

Gospel Harmony - The Gospel of Matthew
Syllabus for The Gospels Course
《马太福音》内容提要 (主题及思路)
An Outline of Matthew Showing His Theme and Progression of Thought
第一课--介绍,A部分
Lesson 1 – Introduction, Part A
第二课 -- 介绍,B部分
Lesson 2 – Introduction, Part B
第三课 -- 《马太福音》第1-2章 - 引言
Lesson 3 – Matthew Introduction, chapters 1-2
第四课 -- 《马太福音》第3-4章 - 君王事工的开展
Lesson 4 – Matthew, chapters 3-4 The King’s Work Begins
第五课 -- 《马太福音》第5章 - 君王的“登山宝训”—第一部分
Lesson 5 – Matthew, chapter 5 The King’s “Sermon on the Mount” – Part 1
第六课 -- 《马太福音》第6-7章 - 君王“登山宝训”第二部分
Lesson6 – Matthew, chapter 6-7 The King’s “Sermon on the Mount” – Part 2
第七课 -- 《马太福音》第8章 - 君王权威的建立—第一部分
Lesson 7 – Matthew, chapter 8 - The establishment of the authority of the king - part 2
第八课 -- 《马太福音》第9章 - 君王权威的建立——第二部分 - 天国的事工——第一部分
Lesson 8 – Matthew, chapter 9 -The establishment of the authority of the king -Second part 2 - Working in the Kingdom– Part 1
第九课 -- 《马太福音》第10章 - 天国事工的开展—第二部分
Lesson 9 – Matthew, chapter 10 Working in the Kingdom – Part 2
第十课 -- 《马太福音》第11章 - 天国的事工 — 第三部分
Lesson 10 – Matthew, chapter 11 Working in the Kingdom – Part 3
第十一课 -- 《马太福音》第12章 - “天国的事工”—第四部分
Lesson 11 – Matthew, chapter 12 Working in the Kingdom – Part 4
第十二课 -- 《马太福音》第13章 - 天国的比喻
Lesson 12 – Matthew, chapter 13 Parables of the Kingdom
第十三课 -- 《马太福音》第14-15章 - 君王面临着拒绝与反对(A)
Lesson 13 – Matthew, chapters 14-15 The King Faces Rejection and Opposition (A)
第十四课 -- 《马太福音》第16-17章 - 君王面临拒绝与反对(B)
Lesson 14 – Matthew, chapters 16-17 The King Faces Rejection and Opposition (B)
第十五课 -- 《马太福音》第第18-19章 - 君王的谦卑,饶恕与圣洁的生活
Lesson 15 – Matthew, chapters 18-19 The King Urges Humility, Forgiveness, and Godly Living
第十六课 -- 《马太福音》第第20-21章 - 为最后的日子(末日)做好准备,更多的对抗
Lesson 16 – Matthew, chapters 20-21 Readiness for the End, More Confrontation
第十七课 -- 《马太福音》第22-23章 - 对抗与宣告七宗“祸”
Lesson 17 – Matthew, chapters 22-23 Confrontation and Pronouncements of Woe
第十八课 -- 《马太福音》第24-25章 - 末日的预言与比喻
Lesson 18 – Matthew, chapters 24-25 Predictions and Parables of the End
第二课 -- 介绍,B部分
Lesson 2 – Introduction, Part B