第六课(lesson 6) 规则五—为了正确地解释某一处经文,我们应该寻找该经文的基本意思,研究其文法情境

Rule #5

规则五

TO INTERPRET A BIBLE PASSAGE CORRECTLY, WE SHOULD LOOK FOR ITS SIMPLE MEANING, STUDYING THE GRAMMATICAL SETTING

为了正确地解释某一处经文,我们应该寻找该经文的基本意思,研究其文法情境。

Our method of interpreting the Bible is called “Historical-Grammatical.” This means that when we study the Bible, we try to study the historical setting, and also study the grammatical setting. We have already studied how the historical setting is important (Rule #4). Now let us examine how we study the GRAMMATICAL SETTING of a Bible passage.

我们解释圣经的方法被称为“历史-文法”的方法。这意味着,当我们查考圣经时,我们要尽量研究经文的历史背景和文法情境。我们已经研究过历史背景极其重要(规则四)。现在,让我们研究一下,我们如何研究某处经文的文法情境。

Whenever we read anything, we try to understand it in the simplest possible way. For example: “Two cars were involved in an accident on the freeway this morning when they drove over an icy spot and lost control.”

无论我们读什么,我们尽可能以最简单的方式来理解它。比如:“今天早晨,两辆汽车在高速公路的一个结冰的地点,相撞发生一起车祸事故。”

What is the simplest way to understand this sentence?

理解这句话的最简单方式是什么呢?

We should practice this same method of understanding words and sentences ESPECIALLY when we are studying God’s Word. The Bible has NOT been written in some complicated, confusing, difficult, incomprehensible code that nobody can figure out. The Bible tells us that it is clear and understandable.

我们也应该用同一种方式来理解字句,尤其是我们查考圣经时。圣经并不是用任何人都没法理解的一些复杂的、令人混乱、不可理解的语码写成的。圣经告诉我们圣经的意思是清晰的、并且被人可以理解的。

See: 2 Timothy 3:15 (you have this memorized!) 参考: 提后 3:15 (你已经记住了这一点!)

Psalm 19:7 and 119:105

诗19:7 ;119:105

This does not mean that everything in the Bible must fit into our reason and understanding. What are some teachings and events of the Bible that are definitely impossible for us to understand or explain? Yet it is clear what these teachings and events are.

这并不意味着圣经中的任何一处必须符合我们的理性和理解。圣经中有哪些教导和事件是我们明确不可理解或阐明的?然而,很清楚这些教导和事件是哪些。

APPLYING GOD’S WORD

应用上帝的话语

When we preach and teach God’s Word, we need to apply it. This means that we take the meaning of God’s Word and teach people how it affects them, what it means that they should do or say or think.

当我们宣讲和教导神的话语时,我们需要应用神的话语,这意味着我们领受神话语的意思,并且教导人们如何让话语来影响他们,他们的言行或思想应该如此行。

Examples: 例子:

Matthew 4:1-11

太 4:1-11

What is the application for us today?

对于今天的我们来说,这段经文如何应用?

Matthew 21:1-11

太 21:1-11

What is the application today?

这段经文在今天如何应用?

Colossians 3:15-17

西 3:15-17

What is the application today?

这段经文在今天如何应用?

1 Samuel 17

撒上第 17章

What is the application today?

这段经文在今天如何应用?

UNDERSTANDING THE MEANING OF INDIVIDUAL WORDS

理解个别字词的意义

There are several steps that we can take to determine what individual words mean in the original Hebrew Old Testament or Greek New Testament.

这里有几个步骤使得我们可以确定个别的字词在旧约希伯来文和新约希腊文中的意思。

One step that can be helpful is to study the ROOT MEANING of the word. Where did the word originally come from? How has it been used over history? What picture is connected to it?

第一步就是查考该词的字根意思,这有助于我们的研究。该词原初来自哪里呢?它在历史中经常被如何使用呢?有哪些相关联的描述呢?

Examples: Greek word ‘dikaios’ ; Hebrew word ‘cavod’

例子: 希腊语 ‘dikaios’ ; 希伯来语 ‘cavod’

The most valuable and reliable way to determine what a Greek or Hebrew word in the Bible means is to examine its USAGE. If we are studying a word in Romans 1:16, we should examine how Paul uses this same word in Romans 1, in the entire letter to the Romans, in other letters of Paul. Then we can examine how the word is used in other parts of the New Testament. Then we may also learn how the word is used in other Greek literature of the same time period as the New Testament.

决定一个希腊词或希伯来词在圣经中的意思,最有价值和最可靠的方法就是去考查它的用法。假如我们查考罗1:16节中的一个词,我们就应该考查保罗在罗马书第一章、在整本罗马书信和在其他书信中如何使用同一个词,然后,我们就去考查该词在新约其他经卷中的使用,接着,我们也可以学习该词在与新约同时期的其它希腊文学著作中的用法。

We may describe this process as the INTERPRETATION CIRCLE, which can be used for individual word meanings and also for the general meaning of a passage.

我们可以将这种方法视为诠释循环,它既能用来诠释个别的字词,同时也用来诠释该处经文的大体意思。

We can also learn some things about word meanings by examining SYNONYMS, which are words that mean something similar.

通过考查同义字,我们也可以学到字词意思的其它方面内容,这些字词的意思大约相近。

We also can use Greek and Hebrew resource books to help determine the meaning of individual words from the Bible. One type of book is the Greek or Hebrew dictionary (lexicon) that provides definitions of words.

我们也可以使用关于希腊文和希伯来文的参考书来帮助我们考查圣经中个别的字词的意思。其中一种就是能提供字词定义的希腊文或希伯来文字典(词典)。

UNDERSTANDING THE GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX

理解语法和句法

When we study the Bible in the original Greek or Hebrew, we need to examine words as to how they are used.

当我们查考圣经的希腊或希伯来原文时,我们需要考查这些字词的使用。

What kind of word is it? (Noun, verb, participle, preposition, adverb, adjective, pronoun, conjunction)

它是哪种词性的词?(名词、动词、分词、前置词、副词、形容词、介词、连词)

What form does the word have? (Verbs have tense, voice, mood, person and number. Nouns and adjectives have case, number and gender)

该词有着什么样的词形?(动词有时态、语态、语气,人称和数)名词和形容词有格,数和性)

What order are the words in? (Beginning or end of sentence, close to other key words)

这些词的顺序是什么样的?(位于句首或句末,接近其他关键词)

What groupings of words are coordinated or subordinated?

这些造句的关系是并列的或从属的?

To help understand the grammar and syntax we may use Greek and Hebrew grammar books, and also Bible commentaries.

我们也可以使用希腊文和希伯来文的语法参考书及圣经的注释书来帮助我们理解语法和句法。

THE BIBLE HAS DIFFERENT KINDS OF WRITINGS/LITERATURE(This is also called different ‘genres’)

圣经有不同类型的文学(这也可被称为不同的‘文体’)

  1. History 历史

Which books of the Old Testament are ‘historical’? What story do they tell?

旧约中哪几卷书是‘历史’书呢?它们讲述了什么故事呢?

Which books of the New Testament are ‘historical’? What story do they tell?

新约中哪几卷书是‘历史’书呢?它们讲述了什么故事呢?

  1. Poetry 诗歌

Which books of the Old Testament are ‘poetical’?

旧约的哪几卷书是‘诗歌’呢?

There are also other, smaller poetical portions in the Bible.

圣经也有篇幅较短的其他诗歌。

Examples: Exodus 15, Isaiah 6, Luke 1:46ff, Romans 11:33-36

例子: 出15,赛6,路 1:46及其下,罗11:33-36

In Hebrew poetry, it is important to remember that often you will find a line repeated for the sake of emphasis, or to further explain the meaning (parallelism). For example, Psalm 51. .

在希伯来文的诗歌中,你将会经常发现一句诗歌由于强调而被重复,或者为了进一步解释其意思(以平行方式)而被重复,记住这一点是重要的。比如诗篇 51……

  1. Letters 书信

Which books of the New Testament are letters?

新约中哪些经卷是书信?

Most of the letters follow the same outline:

大部分书信依循同一大纲:

Introduction 简介

Thanksgiving 感谢

Main Body of the Letter 书信的主体部分

Greeting 问候

Conclusion 结论

  1. Prophetical 先知书

A.Teaching 教导

What books of the Old Testament are prophetical? What do they talk about?

旧约哪些经卷是先知书?它们讲论了什么?

B. Apocalypse/Judgement/End Times 启示/审判/末世

This is the kind of literature contained in the book of REVELATION. List some examples in Revelation of the special kind of literature this is and how we should interpret it so as to understand it correctly.

启示录含有这种类型的文学。列举启示录中这一特殊类型文学的例子,并对它们进行诠释,使得我们能够正确地理解。

In determining what kind of literature we are studying in a passage of the Bible, we may follow several steps.

我们查考圣经中的某处经文,并确定其属于哪种类型的文学,可以依循以下几个步骤……

  1. Remember which ‘literature section’ of the Bible a particular book belongs in.

  2. 记住这一特殊经卷属于圣经的哪个‘文学领域’。

  3. Look at the immediate context of the passage to discover if any special type of literature is being used (poetry, parables, etc.)

  4. 考虑经文的直接的上下文,从而去发现是否有其他文学类型曾被使用(诗歌,比喻,等等)。

FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE

比喻性语言

Complete the following statements. . .

完成下列陈述……

  1. It is as hot as . . .

  2. 天气热得像……

  3. It is as cold as. . .

  4. 天气冷得像……

  5. He is as tall as a . . .

  6. 他长得和……一样高

  7. This meal tastes as bad as. . .

  8. 这顿饭跟……一样难吃

All of these would be examples of ‘figurative language.’

所有这些例子都是‘比喻性语言’的例子。

Figurative language is when we use figures or pictures to express ourselves clearly or to teach something.

当我们用图形或图画来清楚表达我们自己的思想或者教导一些东西时,这就是比喻性语言。

The Bible uses figurative language regularly. List 10 examples of figurative language in the Bible.

圣经很有规律地使用比喻性语言。请举圣经中十个使用比喻语言的例子。

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

We will be able to decide when a Bible passage must be taken figuratively, because:

我们将能够决定一段经文在什么时候运用了比喻的语言,因为:

  1. The writer or speaker clearly indicates he is using figurative language.

  2. 作者或说话者清楚地表明了他正在使用比喻性语言。

  3. The context shows that the words must be taken figuratively.

  4. 上下文显明了用语必须以比喻的方式出现。

Notice in the list above how we can determine that these are uses of figurative language.

注意在上面所列的例子中,我们是如何能够确定这些经文使用了比喻性语言的。

When we study figurative language in the Bible, it is important that we try to understand the picture in its historical setting, knowing what the Jews at the time of Jesus would have known. Look at the list of 10 examples on page 15, and identify what ‘homework’ we would need to do in order to understand the pictures used.

我们学习圣经中的比喻语言时,尽量去理解语言的历史情境,去知道耶稣时代的犹太人所知道的,这对于我们很重要。请参考第十五页的十个例子,识别一下我们需要做哪些 ‘家庭作业’从而使我们理解这一比喻语言使用的画面。

When the Bible uses figurative language, there is only ONE (1) point of comparison, and we should restrict our interpretation to that ONE point of comparison.

当圣经使用比喻的语言时,那里只有一种(1)比较,我们应将我们对其的解释局限在这一种比较之中。

Look at the following examples of figurative language in the Bible, and identify the key items. . .

请看下列圣经中的比喻语言的例子,并且识别出它们的主要部分……

              Known     Unknown      Comparison

              已知的       未知的         对照

John 15 约15

Psalm 23 诗 23

Matthew 13 太 13

Matthew 25 太 25

Short Figures of Speech

篇幅短小的比喻性言论

  1. Simile. . .making a comparison using the word ‘like.’

  2. 明喻……用“象”一词进行了对比。

Luke 17:24 路17:24

  1. Metaphor. . .making a direct comparison without using the word ‘like.’

  2. 暗喻……没有使用“象”一字直接进行了比较。

John 15:5 约 15:5

  1. Metonomy. . .using one word that stands for another.

  2. 转喻……使用一个词来代替另一个词。

1 Corinthians 11:26 林前 11:26

  1. Synecdoche. . .using a part to stand for the whole.

  2. 提喻法……使用部分来代替全部。

Psalm 16:9 诗16:9

  1. Ellipsis. . .omitting a word.

  2. 省略法……省略了字词。

1 Corinthians 6:13 林前 6:13

  1. Euphemism. . .softening a statement so that it is less harsh.

  2. 婉转法……就是委婉地陈述,以免过分尖锐。

Acts 1:25 徒1:25

  1. Litotes. . . is an understatement.

  2. 间接肯定法……就是故意轻描淡写,缩小事态,从而收到加强的效果。

1 Thessalonians 2:15 帖前 2:15

  1. Irony. . .is the use of words to express the opposite meaning.

  2. 讽刺……是用语言来表达相反的含义。

Mark 7:9 可 7:9

  1. Hyperbole. . .overstating a point in order to emphasize it.

  2. 夸张法……故意使用夸大或夸张的语句来强调。

John 21:25 约 21:25

  1. Personification. . .is treating something as though it were a living being.

  2. 拟人法……把所描写的事物人格化,从而形象地表达。

1 Corinthians 15:55 林前 15:55

Longer Figures of Speech

篇幅较长的比喻性言论

1.Allegory. . .is an extended comparison.

  1. 寓意法……是一种延伸的比喻。

This is almost NEVER used in the Bible. The only example in the entire New Testament is in Galatians 4:21-31

这种几乎从不被用于圣经中。整本新约只有 加拉太书 4:21-31这一例子。

  1. Parable. . .is an extended comparison.

  2. (道德说教性的)比喻……是把深刻的道理寄于简单的故事之中,借此喻彼,这也一种延伸的比喻。

Jesus uses many parables to teach the people spiritual truths by borrowing everyday experiences. When we interpret parables, sometimes NONE of the details are used, sometimes SOME of the details may be used, and sometimes ALL of the details are used.

耶稣借用每天生活中的经历以许多比喻的方式来教导人们属灵的真理。当我们诠释这种比喻时,有时候,其中的任何细节都不被用来诠释,有时候,部分细节可以被用在诠释,有时候,所有细节资料都被用来诠释。

For an example of a parable where NONE of the details are used for interpretation, see Luke 10:25ff. What is the interpretation of this parable?

比喻中的任何细节都不能用来诠释的例子,请参考 路10:25及其下。那么,这一比喻如何诠释呢?

For an example of a parable where SOME of the details are used for interpretation, see Matthew 25, 21:32-46. What is the interpretation of this parable and what details are used?

比喻中的一些细节可以用来诠释的例子,请参考 太25:如何诠释这一比喻及其中的细节如何被使用?

For an example of a parable where almost ALL of the details are used for interpretation, see Matthew 13 for several examples.

比喻中几乎所有细节都可以用来诠释,请参考 太13:中的诸例子.

Some parables have an EXTENSION, which means there is a second spiritual truth that is taught by it. For an example, see Luke 15:11ff. What are the spiritual truths taught with this parable?

一些道德说教性的比喻有延伸意义,也就是说有第二层属灵含义。比如,路 15:11及其下。这一比喻所教导的属灵教训是什么呢?

Symbols and Types

象征和预表

  1. Symbol. . .does not teach something new, but reminds us of something we already know.

  2. 象征……借用某种已知、具体的事物来间接表达我们抽象的观念,它不教导我们新东西,而是提醒我们已知的东西。

Examples: CROSS ; RAINBOW

例子: 十字架 ; 彩虹

  1. Type. . .is a picture of something that lies in the future.

  2. 预表. . .以现在的事预先表示出来将来要发生的事。

For examples, see:

请参考以下经文:

Deuteronomy 18:15 申18:15

Hebrews 9:3-12 来 9:3-12

Colossians 2:16 西 2:16

Matthew 2:15 太 2:15

Genesis 22 (especially verse 13) 创22 (特指第13节)

John 3:14 and Numbers 21:4-9 约3:14和民 21:4-9