第六课 (lesson 6)亚大纳西信经的历史背景

第六课 (lesson 6)亚大纳西信经的历史背景 分类:信经 Creed 作者:CSI 点击数:1749 Lesson Six: Historical Background to the Athanasian Creed 第六课: 亚大纳西信经的历史背景 A. The Athanasian Creed is a magnificent confession. Luther once said, “I doubt whether the New Testament church has a more important document since the Apostolic Age.” The name of this creed like with that of the Apostles’ and Nicene Creeds, can easily lead to misunderstanding. It is named after Athanasius, the fourth-century bishop who fought so tenaciously against the false teaching of Arius. However, Athanasius was not the author of this confession, even though he was thought to be by most people in the Western church throughout the Middle Ages. They thought he wrote it while he was in exile in the West. In view of this tradition, this Creed was formally accepted into the Lutheran Book of Concord (1580) with the title, “The Athanasian Creed.” The Church of England in its official confession (The Thirty-Nine Articles) also accepted this creed under the same name. But even at this date many scholars questioned whether Athanasius had written it. Another name often used for this Creed is the Quicunque, since that is the opening word, translated into English, “Whoever….” 亚大纳西信经是庄严的信仰告白。路德曾说过,“我怀疑自使徒时代之后新约教会是否拥有比这更加重要的文件”。这部信经的名称与使徒信经和尼西亚信经相似,容易导致误解。它以亚大纳西,四世纪时顽强地与阿里乌的错误教导抗争的一位主教命名。然而,亚大纳西不是这个信仰告白的作者,尽管中世纪西方教会中的大多数人认为他是。他们认为他在被流放到西方时写了这部信经。考虑到这样的说法,这部信经以“亚大纳西信经”这个名称正式被载入路德协同信条(1580)中。英格兰教会在它的正式信仰告白(三十九信条)中也以同样的名称接受了这个信经。但是现在仍有很多学者质疑亚大纳西是否写了这部信经。这个信经常用的另一个名称是Quicunque,因为那是信经一开始用到的词,翻译成英语是,“凡…的人”。 B. For several reasons we are quite sure that Athanasius did not write it. First of all, it was originally written in the Latin language. The author of the Quicunque wrote in a beautiful, sophisticated Latin style, giving careful attention to the rhythms of the paragraphs and of the sentences. The translations can catch some of this but, as scholars acknowledge, they can never do justice to the original Latin. Athanasius did spend years in exile for his faith, in the deserts of Egypt, in Rome and even as far away as Germany. His native language, however, was Greek, and it was in that language which he debated and wrote his treatises. Therefore, it seems unlikely that he could have written the Quicunque in such sophisticated Latin. The Quicunque was, of course, translated into Greek but not before the 12th century, hundreds of years after Athanasius had died. 出于几个理由我们非常确信亚大纳西没有写这部信经。首先,它起初是由拉丁文所写。亚大纳西信经的作者用优美、精确的拉丁风格对段落和句子的韵律进行了细致处理。翻译后的信经能够体现出原文中的一些特点,但是根据学者们经验,翻译不可能保持与原拉丁文完全一致。亚大纳西的确因为他的信仰被流放了几年,到了埃及的沙漠、罗马甚至远至德国。然而他的母语是希腊语,也是他在辩论和他的专著中使用的语言。因此,看似不太可能他用如此精确的拉丁语写了亚大纳西信经。亚大纳西信经当然被翻译成了希腊语,但是不是在十二世纪之前,而是在亚大纳西死后几百年。 C. Secondly, there is also no evidence that this Creed was known either to Athanasius or any of his followers. If Athanasius had actually written it, even when he was in exile in the West, it is difficult to understand why he, his students or his successors in Egypt would not have referred to it. 其次,也没有证据表明这个信经为亚大纳西或任何他的追随者所熟知。如果亚大纳西真的的写了这部信经,即使是在他被流放时所写,也很难理解为什么他自己、他的学生或他在埃及的继任者没有提到这部信经。 D. Finally, when one looks carefully at the theological content of the Creed, one sees that it really deals with controversies which arose in the church after the death of Athanasius (A. D. 373). After his death false teachers spawned new heresies regarding the Trinity and the person of Jesus Christ. These heresies had to be rejected by more careful explanations of what the Scriptures said about God and His essence. Because the author of this Creed uses language and phrases similar to those of St. Augustine, he obviously was well versed in the works of St. Augustine (354-430). Augustine had been forced to study the Scriptural doctrine of the Trinity and had written the most detailed treatises on this subject. 最后,当你仔细看这部信经的神学内容时,你会发现它实际上涉及的是亚大纳西死(公元373)后教会中兴起的争论。在他死后假文士制造出大量关于三位一体和耶稣基督位格的异端邪说。这些异端邪说必定被圣经中关于上帝和他本质更详细的解释所排斥。因为这部信经的作者使用的语言和句子与圣奥古斯丁所写的相似,他显然精通圣奥古斯丁的著作(354-430)。奥古斯丁被迫研究圣经关于三位一体的教义并他所写的大多数详细专著都是关于这个主题的。 E. But if Athanasius was not the author of the “Athanasian Creed,” who was? For years this fascinating question has intrigued scholars. We probably shall never know who it was, and his name has been lost, possibly for ever. Numerous theologians have been suggested as author, but without any sure evidence for any of them. Since it was written in Latin, it is known that it originated in the West, but when and where? 但是如果亚大纳西不是“亚大纳西信经”的作者,那么谁是呢?多少年来,这个极富吸引力的问题引起了学者们的兴趣。我们也许永远也不会知道谁是作者,他的名字可能从此遗失。许多神学家都被提名为作者,但是没有任何有力证据证明他们中的任何一个人是作者。既然它由拉丁文所写,众所周知它源于西方,那么是在何时何地呢? F. Until about 60 years ago, the earliest conclusive evidence for its existence came from the Eighth Century. In 1931, however, a manuscript was discovered which contained selections of sermons by the famous theologian Caesarius. He was the Bishop of Arles in Southern France from 502-542. Among the sermons in this manuscript was the Athanasian Creed virtually as we have it today, under the title The Catholic Faith of St. Athanasius, Bishop. Although Caesarius knew and used the Quicunque, there is not proof that he is the author, as some scholars have thought. Some evidence suggests that the Quicunque or a very similar creed was known in Gaul (now France) during the middle of the Fifth Century. This is probably as close as we can come with regard to the date and place of origin for this famous document. 最早关于它存在的决定性证据来自与十八世纪。1921年,包括著名神学家凯撒利乌斯讲道节选的手稿被发现。他是502-542年期间法国南部阿尔勒地区的主角。这部手稿的讲道中题目为圣亚大纳西主教的大公信仰的讲道实际上就是我们现今所用的亚大纳西信经。尽管凯撒利乌斯了解并使用了亚大纳西信经,但是一些学者认为这不能证明他就是作者。一些证据显示亚大纳西信经或与之非常类似的信经在十五世纪中期在高卢(现今的法国)为人们所熟知。这也许是我们能提供的关于这个著名文件起源的时间和地点最接近的信息。 G. If our Athanasian Creed perhaps had its origin in ancient France, one addition point is worth noting. In the preface to the collection of Bishop Caesarius’ sermons, the compiler exhorts all clergymen and laymen to be familiar with the Catholic faith. Hence they were admonished to read the book of sermons, which included the Athanasian Creed, and “instruct others in it.” 如果我们的亚大纳西信经可能源于古代的法国,那么还有一点值得我们注意。在主教凯撒利乌斯讲道选集的序言中,编者劝告所有神职人员与平信徒熟悉大公信仰。因此他们被劝告要读那部讲道包括亚大纳西信经和“指导他人”的选集。 H. The significance of this admonition can be understood against the background of what had been happening in Western Europe. Germanic tribes (the Vandals and the Goths) had for several centuries put pressure on the Roman Empire from the North. At the beginning of the Fifth Century, they crossed the Rhine River and spread over what is now France. A few years later they invaded Italy, pillaged Rome and conquered northern Africa. These northern tribes did not have much use for Roman learning and culture. With them in control, the people of the former Roman Empire, including the clergy, soon became illiterate and ignorant of the Scriptures and the theology of the church. 这个劝告的重要性可以理解为在于它是以当时发生在西欧的事件为背景。日耳曼部族(汪达尔人和哥特人)几个世纪以来一直从北方向罗马帝国施压。在十五世纪初期,他们跨过莱茵河并入侵现在的法国。几年后他们入侵意大利,侵略罗马并攻克了非洲北部。这些北方部族对于罗马的学术和文化没起到多大作用。在他们的控制下,前罗马帝国的人民包括神职人员,不久就对圣经和教会神学一窍不通和一无所知。 I. The years 400-800 have been traditionally called “The Dark Ages” and many Christians were truly in the dark about the Bible’s teachings. Besides, most of the Goths who controlled France were Arian Christians. They had originally been converted by missionaries teaching the Arian heresy that Jesus Christ was not true God equal with the Father. Such circumstances were not only discouraging to the remaining pious clergy and Christians in France, but they were also a great peril to the doctrinal foundation of the church. Then, somewhere in France, in this time of disrespect for learning and orthodoxy, comes this clear, unambiguous Scriptural confession of the Trinity and the doctrine of the person and work of Jesus Christ. It is majestic in the great truths it confesses, and it speaks loudly and clearly: “Whoever wishes to be saved must, above all else, hold to the true Christian faith” (Sentence 1). 公元400-800年通常被称为 “黑暗时代”,并且许多基督徒对圣经教导确实是一无所知。另外,控制法国的大多数哥特人都是阿里乌派基督徒。他们起初因传教士教导阿里乌关于耶稣基督不是与天父同等的上帝的异端邪说而信上帝。这样的环境不仅使法国剩下的敬虔的神职人员和基督徒感到灰心,也对教会的教义根基构成了巨大威胁。然后,法国的一些地方在这个藐视学习和正统学说的时代,可以明显看到对三位一体的圣经信仰告白以及耶稣基督位格和事工的含糊其辞。这部信经的伟大在于它所认的重要真理和清楚明白地说到:“凡人欲得救,首先当持守大公教会信仰”(第一句)。 J. The Quicunque became a popular creed for instructional purposes, especially after the French king Charlemagne (died 814) decreed (发布命令) that all church leaders had to learn it. At a council held at Rheims in 852, a resolution was passed requiring the clergy to memorize it, grasp its meaning, and be able to expound it in popular language. 由于亚大纳西信经的指导性用途,它广受欢迎,尤其是在法国国王查理曼大帝(于公元814年去世)发布命令所有教会领导者都必须学习亚大纳西信经之后。公元852年在兰斯举行的一个会议上,通过了一项决议要求神职人员背诵它,掌握它的意思并能用通俗的语言进行阐述。 K. The Athanasian Creed never achieved the widespread use in worship that the Apostles’ and the Nicene Creed did, partly because of its length. Its recitation, however, was ordered in the Roman Catholic churches on some Sundays after Epiphany and Pentecost and on Trinity Sunday. The Book of Common Prayer of the Episcopal Church ordered its use at Matins on thirteen holy days throughout the church yea. The liturgical sections of our Lutheran hymnals also contain the Athanasian Creed and it is sometimes recited on Trinity Sunday. 亚大纳西信经从没有像使徒信经和尼西亚信经一样在敬拜中被广泛使用,其中一部分原因是由于它的长度。然而,罗马天主教会要求在主显节,五旬节之后的几个主日和三一主日诵读它。圣公会的公祷书要求在教会年中13个圣日的晨祷中使用它。我们路德赞美诗集的礼拜部分也包含亚大纳西信经并且有时会在三一主日时诵读它。 L. The Athanasian Creed reads as follows:

  1. Whoever wishes to be saved must, above all else, hold to the true Christian faith.
  2. Whoever does not keep this faith pure in all points will certainly perish forever.
  3. Now this is the true Christian faith: We worship one God in three persons, and three persons in one God,
  4. Without mixing the persons or dividing the divine being.
  5. For each person—the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit – is distinct,
  6. But the deity of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit is one, equal in glory and co-eternal in majesty.
  7. What the Father is, so is the Son, and so is the Holy Spirit.
  8. The Father is uncreated, the Son uncreated, the Holy Spirit uncreated.
  9. The Father infinite, the Son infinite, the Holy Spirit infinite.
  10. The Father is eternal, the Son eternal, the Holy Spirit eternal.
  11. Yet they are not three who are eternal, but there is one who is eternal.
  12. Just as there are not three who are uncreated nor three who are infinite, but there is one who is uncreated and one who is infinite.
  13. In the same way the Father is almighty, the Son is almighty, the Holy Spirit is almighty;
  14. Yet they are not three who are almighty, but there is one who is almighty.
  15. So the Father is God, the Son is God, the Holy Spirit is God;
  16. Yet they are not three Gods, but one God.
  17. So the Father is Lord, the Son is Lord, the Holy Spirit is Lord;
  18. Yet they are not three Lords, but one Lord. For just as Christian truth compels us to confess each person individually to be God and Lord,
  19. So the true Christian faith forbids us to speak of three Gods or three Lords.
  20. The Father is neither made nor created nor begotten of anyone.
  21. The Son is neither made nor created, but is begotten of the Father alone.
  22. The Holy Spirit is neither made nor created nor begotten, but proceeds from the Father and the Son.
  23. So there is one Father, not three Fathers; one Son, not three Sons; one Holy Spirit, not three Holy Spirits.
  24. And within this Trinity none comes before or after; none is greater or inferior,
  25. But all three persons are coequal and co-eternal, so that in every way, as stated before, all three persons are to be worshiped as one God and one God worshiped as three persons.
  26. Whoever wished to be saved must have this conviction of the Trinity.
  27. It is furthermore necessary for eternal salvation truly to believe that our Lord Jesus Christ also took on human flesh.
  28. Now this is the true Christian faith: We believe and confess that our Lord Jesus Christ, God’s Son, is both God and man.
  29. He is God, eternally begotten from the nature of the Father, and he is man, born in time from the nature of his mother,
  30. Fully God, fully man, with rational soul and human flesh,
  31. Equal to the Father as to his deity, less than the Father as to his humanity;
  32. And though he is both God and man, Christ is not two persons but one,
  33. One, not by changing the deity into flesh, but by taking the humanity into God;
  34. One, indeed, not by mixture of the natures, but by unity in one person.
  35. For just as the rational soul and flesh are one human being, so God and man are one Christ.
  36. He suffered for our salvation, descended into hell, rose the third day from the dead.
  37. He ascended into heaven, is seated at the right hand of God the Father almighty, and from there he will come to judge the living and the dead.
  38. At his coming all people will rise with their own bodies to answer for their personal deeds.
  39. Those who have done good will enter eternal life, but those who have done evil will go into eternal fire.
  40. This is the true Christian faith. Whoever does not faithfully and firmly believe this cannot be saved. 亚大纳西信经内容如下:
  41. 凡人欲得救,首先当持守大公教会信仰。
  42. 此信仰,凡守之不全不正者,必永远沉沦。
  43. 大公教会信仰即:我等敬拜一体三位,而三位一体之神。
  44. 其位不紊,其体不分。
  45. 父一位,子一位,圣灵亦一位。
  46. 然而父子圣灵同一神性,同一荣耀,亦同一永恒之尊严。
  47. 父如何,子如何,圣灵亦如何。
  48. 父不受造,子不受造,圣灵亦不受造。
  49. 父无限,子无限,圣灵亦无限。
  50. 父永恒,子永恒,圣灵亦永恒。
  51. 非三永恒者,乃一永恒者。
  52. 非三不受造者,非三无限者,乃一不受造者,一无限者。
  53. 如此,父全能,子全能,圣灵亦全能。
  54. 然而,非三全能者,乃一全能者。
  55. 如是,父是神,子是神,圣灵亦是神。
  56. 然而,非三神,乃一神。
  57. 如是,父是主,子是主,圣灵亦是主。
  58. 然而,非三主,乃一主。 依基督真道,我等不得不认三位均为神,均为主。
  59. 依大公教,我等亦不得谓神有三,亦不得谓主有三。
  60. 父非由谁作成:既非受造,亦非受生。
  61. 子独由于父:非作成,亦非受造;而为受生。
  62. 圣灵由于父和子:既非作成,亦非受造,亦非受生;而为发出。
  63. 如是,有一父,非三父,有一子,非三子,有一圣灵,非三圣灵。
  64. 且此三位无分先后,无别尊卑。
  65. 三位乃均永恒,而同等。由是如前所言,我等当敬拜一体三位,而三位一体之神。
  66. 所以凡欲得救者,必如是而思三位一体之神。
  67. 再者,为求得永恒救赎,彼亦必笃信我等之主耶稣基督成为人身。
  68. 依真正信仰,我等信认神之子我等之主耶稣基督,为神,又为人。
  69. 其为神,与圣父同体,受生于诸世界之先;其为人,与其母同体,诞生于此世界。
  70. 全神,亦全人,具有理性之灵,血肉之身。
  71. 依其为神,与父同等,依其为人,少逊于父。
  72. 彼虽为神,亦为人,然非为二,乃为一基督。
  73. 彼为一,非由于变神为血肉,乃由于使其人性进入于神。
  74. 合为一:非由二性相混,乃由于位格为一。
  75. 如灵与身成为一人,神与人成为一基督。
  76. 彼为救我等而受难,降至阴间,第三日从死里复活。
  77. 升天,作于全能神父之右。 将来必从彼处降临,审判活人死人。
  78. 彼降临时,万人必具身体复活;并供认所行之事。
  79. 行善者必入永生,作恶者必入永火。
  80. 此乃大公教会之信仰,人除非笃实相信,必不能得救。