第八课 (lesson 8)信经的重要性

第八课 (lesson 8)信经的重要性 分类:信经 Creed 作者:CSI 点击数:1551 Lesson Eight: The Importance of our Creeds 第八课: 信经的重要性 A. In a day of skepticism and relativism, creeds in general are not regarded very highly. In many denominations, the general viewpoint is that since the Holy Scriptures are a human book, liable to error, creeds express at best only a part of God’s truth. Hence many draw the conclusion that the church today cannot unite on doctrine but it can unite only in a common service to mankind. Many famous theologians do not accept such doctrines as the deity of Christ, his virgin birth, or his resurrection, not to mention other miracles. So, for years the Ecumenical Creeds, used so regularly for confession of faith through the centuries, have not represented the actual convictions of many theologians. 在怀疑论和相对论存在的时期,信经通常没有引起高度重视。在很多教派中,人们普遍认为因为圣经是人手所写的,可能会有错误,信经所表达的最多不过是上帝真理的一部分。因此很多人得出的结论是当今的教会不能在教义上合一,但是可以在公众的礼拜仪式中合一。很多著名的神学家不接受比如说基督神性,童贞女生子或基督复活这样的教导,更不用说其他神迹了。所以,已经经过了几个世纪常用于认信的三大公信经,多年来不能代表很多神学家的实际所信。 B. The Athanasian Creed in particular offends liberal theologians who recognize the contradiction between their views and those of this Creed. This is particularly true since this Creed explicitly affirms that anyone who denies the truths it confesses will perish forever. At times some of these liberal churchmen have made efforts to eliminate this Creed from the Confessions of the church. But these efforts have usually died when it was pointed out that the denial of the Athanasian Creed would imply a full acceptance of the other two, which, of course, not many were ready to affirm in any literal sense. Hence, the Ecumenical Creeds have remained in regular use in some denominations so as not to disturb the average parishioner. However, in these churches the Creeds are not taken seriously by the professional theologians and, as each year passes, by fewer and fewer laymen. This is a sad situation and hence it is necessary for everyone to study the Creeds to see where modern theology rejects them and whether one can honestly subscribe to them himself. 亚大纳西信经尤其触犯了那些认为这部信经中的一些观点与他们的观点相矛盾的自由派神学家。尤其是因为信经明确声明任何否认真理所告诉我们的事的人都将受到永久的惩罚。有时这些自由派神学家中的一些人试图将这部信经从教会认信中去掉。但是这样的努力常常是徒劳的,因为当它指出否认亚大纳西信经暗示着完全接受其他两部信经时,他们当然还没有准备好在文字意义上肯定这一点。因此,三大公信经仍然在一些教派中正常使用以免扰乱普通教区教友。然而,在这些教会中,信经并不受那些专业神学家的重视,而且随着时间的推移,它被越来越少的平信徒所重视。这是可悲,每个人都有必要学习这些信经从而了解当今神学所否认的内容并且一个人是否能诚实的认同它们。 C. Heresies have always been a fact of life in the Christian church. Though a single heresy usually attacks only some part of Christian truth, it is still dangerous. For the truths of Scripture are tightly tied together. To deny one is in the end to undermine or deny all the rest of them. Not to recognize this is simply not to recognize the nature of the doctrines Christ has revealed to us. The Christian faith is a systematic and integrated whole, built on a single foundation, the Prophetic-Apostolic Word. It might be helpful to picture the Christian body of doctrine as a church building. The foundation is the inspired Word of God; the main body is the doctrine of justification; and the head or pinnacle is the doctrine of Jesus Christ as true God and true man. 异端邪说的存在已经是在基督教会中常常需要面对的事实。尽管个别的异端通常只攻击一部分基督真理,但是它仍是危险的。因为圣经中的真理是紧密连结在一起的。否认一点最终会导致诋毁或否认其他所有的。不承认这一点就是不承认基督已经向我们揭示的教义的本质。基督徒的信心是一个有系统的,整体性的,建立在单一根基上的,和预言的-使徒的道。将基督身体比作教堂的教导也许能帮助我们理解。根基是所默示的上帝的话语;主体是公义的教导;同时头或顶端是关于耶稣基督是完全神和完全人的教导。 D. During the first four centuries of the history of the Christian church, we might say that the head of Christian doctrine was attacked, namely, that Jesus Christ is truly the Son of God and truly the Son of Man. Within the church these doctrines were settled and confessed at the Council of Nicaea in 325, the Council of Constantinople in 381, and the Council of Chalcedon in 451. At that time the church acknowledged the Trinity and also that the Second Person is at one and the same time the son of God and the Son of Man, “At once complete in Godhead and complete in Manhood.” These truths are embodied in the three Ecumenical Creeds. 在公元1-4世纪基督教会的历史中,我们可以说基督教义的头,即耶稣基督是完全的上帝的儿子和完全的人的儿子受到了攻击。在教会内部,这些教导于公元325年的尼西亚会议,公元381的君士坦丁堡会议和公元451年的卡尔西顿会议上被订立和承认。那时教会承认三位一体以及第二个位格既是上帝的儿子同时也是人的儿子,“同时在神性和人性中得以完全”。这些真理在三大公信经中得以呈现。 E. During the Middle Ages, the center of Christian doctrine, namely, justification by grace through faith in the of Jesus Christ without the deeds of the Law, had been debased into the teaching that man is justified by his own works. Through Martin Luther and his fellow Reformers, the Scriptural truth of justification was restored to the church. 中世纪时,基督教义的中心,即靠着恩典在耶稣基督功劳里的信心而不是守律法的行为得来的公义,已经掺杂了人是靠着自己的行为称义的教导。通过马丁路德和他一起的改教家的努力,圣经中关于称义的真理在教会中得以保存。 F. Ever since the beginning of the nineteenth century, when Rationalism gained a secure hold within the external Christian church, the attack against the foundation of the church, namely, Scripture (Eph. 2:20) has grown in intensity. We may call Scripture the foundation of the Church because Scripture in everything it says and teaches points us to Jesus Christ. This is the battle that is raging around us now: Has God spoken clearly and directly to us through His Son? Is the Scripture the inspired, inerrant Word of God, the only source of all doctrine, or is it merely the word of men? This is a struggle of immense proportions, the results of which have cosmic significance. If the foundation goes, then the whole structure falls. Then there is no basis for accepting any doctrine as infallibly revealed in Scripture, and if this becomes the position of the external church, then it no longer represents the invisible Church of God. 自从19世纪初期以来,当唯理主义在外部基督教会中获得稳固基础时,对教会根基的攻击,即圣经(以弗所书2:20)变得更加强烈。我们会称圣经为教会的根基是因为圣经中所说和所教导的每一点都是指向耶稣基督的。这场围绕我们的战争正愈演愈烈:上帝通过它的儿子明确直接地和我们对话过吗?圣经是否是默示的,毫无错误的上帝的话语,所有教义的唯一来源还是它只不过是人手所写的话呢?这是极大程度上的斗争,这场斗争的结果具有无比的重要性。如果根基不存在了,那么整个构造都将坍塌。那么没有依据将任何教导看作在圣经中被毫无错误地揭示而被接受并且如果这一点成为外部教会的立场,那么它将不再代表上帝无形的教会。 G. The Ecumenical Creeds assume that the Scripture is the only source for the truths which are to be believed and preached by the church. So these Creeds even today serve as excellent bulwarks against false doctrine in regard to the Trinity, the Person and work of Christ. The heresies the Early Church had to fight are still with us, although they appear under different names and guises. 三大公信经假定圣经是被教会相信和教导的真理的唯一来源。因此这些信经即使是在当今仍作为抗击关于三位一体、基督位格和工作的错误教导的坚固堡垒。早期教会中与异端的斗争仍然存在,尽管他们以不同名称和伪装出现。 H. UNITARIANISM AND FREE-MASONRY 一神论派和共济会 In the sixteenth century a number of Anti-Trinitarians who were mainly from Italy troubled the Reformation churches with their doctrine. Shortly after Luther’s death, Laelius Socinius and his nephew, Faustus Socinius, proclaimed a Unitarian theology which gained a good number of followers. The Socinians declared that the Bible was the source of religious truth, but they said a person should not accept into his theology anything that is contrary to human reason. Since the doctrine of the Trinity and particularly the deity of Jesus Christ are contrary to reason, they are not to be believed. To the Socinians Jesus Christ was a human being empowered to show man the way to heaven. The Unitarians became a powerful factor in the United States, especially New England, in the eighteenth century. 在十六世纪时,一批主要来自意大利的反三位一体论者用他们的教导扰乱了改革派教会。在路德去世后不久,莱利乌斯 苏西尼和他的侄子浮士德 苏西尼宣扬的一神论神学为他们获得了一大批追随者。苏西尼派宣称圣经是宗教真理的来源,但是一个人不应接受任何与人的理性相矛盾的宗教理论。因为关于三位一体,尤其是耶稣基督神性的教导与人的理性相矛盾,它们不应被相信。对苏西尼派来说,耶稣基督是被授予权利向人们显示通往天堂道路的人。一神论派在十八世纪的美国,尤其是新英格兰变得相当有影响力。 I. In the mid-seventeenth century a movement of rationalist thought grew under the leadership of the Englishman, Lord Herbert of Cherbury (1583-1684). This movement has also exerted no small influence both in Europe and the United States. It became the religion of the Masonic Lodge and all the other lodges patterned after it. This type of Anti-Trinitarianism goes under the name of Deism. It emphasized the results of scientific study as a means of revealing the true God. The Deists denied the Trinity, the incarnation of Jesus Christ, and other central doctrines pertaining to our salvation. They also taught that the deity did not intervene in this world after he had created nature and the laws of nature. The heart of Deism is similar to that of Unitarianism, the denial of the Trinity and the belief of man’s personal salvation by his own good character. The influence of Unitarianism and Deism on our country has been profound since many of our founding fathers (such as Thomas Jefferson) were Unitarians or Deists. 在十七世纪中期一场唯理主义思想运动在英国人赫尔伯特勋爵(1583-1684)的领导下逐渐扩大。这场运动还在欧洲和美国产生了不小的影响。它形成了麦逊共济会这个教派并且其他共济会随之进行模仿。这种反三位一体论派被称为自然神论。它强调将科学研究的结果作为揭示真神的方式。自然神论者否认三位一体、耶稣基督的道成肉身和其他与我们救恩有关的中心教导。他们还教导神在他创造自然和自然的法则之后就不再干涉世上的一切了。自然神论核心与一神论相似,都否认三位一体和相信人的救恩来自个人的良好品德。由于我们许多的开国元勋(如托马森 杰弗逊)都是一神论者或自然神论者,因此一神论和自然神论对我们国家有着深远的影响。 J. JEHOVAH’S WITNESSES AND MORMONS 耶和华见证人和摩门教 Nearly everyone has had members of the Jehovah’s Witnesses ring the doorbell. Without discussing the many false doctrines they teach, it is necessary to point out that they emphatically deny the doctrine of the Trinity. One of their leaders, Rutherford, called it “the Devil’s doctrine.” While their terminology is at times confusing because they sometimes call Christ the Son of God, they nevertheless expressly deny the equality of Christ with the Father, so clearly taught in John 10:30, and clearly confessed in the Ecumenical Creeds. Jehovah’s Witnesses also reject the Deity and the person of the Holy Spirit, much like one of the heresies which the Early Church rejected at the Council of Constantinople. The Jehovah’s Witnesses teach that the Holy Spirit is only “the power” of God. 摩门教徒几乎按过每家人的门铃。他们不谈论他们教义中许多的错误,而是指出他们强烈反对关于三位一体的教导。他们的领导人之一,卢瑟福,称三位一体的教导为“魔鬼学说”。而他们的用辞又时常很混乱,因为他们有时称基督为上帝的儿子,却又明确否认基督与父是同等的,其实这样同等的关系已经在约翰福音10:30中讲述得十分清楚并在三大公信经中被明确承认。耶和华见证人还否认圣灵的神性和位格,这很像被早期教会在君士坦丁堡会上拒之门外的异端之一。耶和华见证人教导圣灵只是上帝的“能力”。 K. Teams of Mormons cris-cross our land doing missionary work. Mormonism has some peculiar doctrines that deny the theology of the Ecumenical Creeds. They teach that man has an eternally pre-existent soul and that he is placed here on earth in order to gain remission of sins through obedience to the laws and regulations laid down by the priesthood. Such a belief erases the difference between God the creator and man the creature. Mormons may at times sound Trinitarian. They may hand out a pamphlet that says, “We believe in God the eternal Father, and the Son Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit.” But if one pursues the topic with them in any depth, say, on the basis of the Athanasian Creed, one will see that they, too, reject the Deity of Christ and the person of the Holy Spirit. In actuality, Mormonism seems to teach a type of polytheism. They believe that gods have families and raise spiritual children, as human families raise physical children. They also teach that by raising children man can become a god. Ideas such as these are far removed from the lofty concept of God revealed in the Scriptures and confessed in these Ecumenical Creeds. 摩门教的团体穿梭于我们国家各地进行传教。摩门教徒有一些专门的教义否认三大公信经的神学理论。他们教导的是人具有预先存在的灵魂并且这个灵魂被置于世上从而通过遵行祭司定下的律法和法规得以赦罪。这样一种信仰抹杀了创造者上帝与被造物人之间的区别。摩门教也许时常听起来像是相信三位一体的人。他们也许会递给你一个小册子说,“我们相信永恒的父上帝,子耶稣基督,和圣灵”。但是如果与他们再深入讨论这个话题,并说,是基于亚大纳西信经的,就会看到他们拒绝承认基督的神性和圣灵的位格。事实上,摩门教似乎教导的是一种多神论。他们相信各神有家庭并养育属灵的儿女,就像人的家庭养育亲生儿女一样。他们还教导通过养育儿女,人能成为神。这样的一些观点已经远离上帝在圣经中所揭示的以及我们在三大公信经中所告白的崇高信念。 L. MODERN LIBERALISM WITHIN THE CHURCH 教会中的现代自由主义 The denial of the biblical Trinitarian doctrine took many forms in the early church, at it still does today. Here, as perhaps in no other way, church history repeats itself. Early in the church a group of Jewish Christians denied the divinity of Christ, reducing the biblical doctrine to the thought that Jesus was the human son of Joseph and Mary. At his baptism he became the “adopted” Son of God. This heresy is called Adoptionism. Liberal theology at the beginning of the twentieth century propounded a similar view. For it Jesus was a man of such goodness that God exalted him to a divine status. These early liberals had accepted the historical-critical method of interpreting the Bible. This method accepts the critical historical outlook of modern historian and scientists that the Bible is no different than any other book or piece of literature from the past. Such a view of course results in the destruction of its divine and miraculous character. This leads to the belief that Jesus was primarily a good man who is an example for us. With the result that by imitating him we might become the sons of God in the same way he was. This theology is sometimes called the Social Gospel, and its chief slogan was “the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man.” This heresy is still quite common in newspaper editorials (at Christmas and Easter) and in many of the popularizations of Christianity that have been written for the practical, common-sense of man. 对圣经三位一体教义的否认在早期教会中呈现出多种形式,在当今也是如此。或许是别无他法,教会历史往往重演。早期教会中有一部分犹太基督徒否认基督的神性,删减圣经教导而认为耶稣是约瑟和马利亚所生的儿子。在他受洗时,他被“领养”成为上帝的儿子。这种异端邪说被称为“基督嗣子论”。在二十世纪初自由派神学提出了类似的观点。因为耶稣是良善的人而被上帝高举具有神的地位。这些早期的自由派已经接受将历史批判法作为释经的方法。这种方法承认现代历史学家和科学家批判历史的观点,即圣经与过去的其他著作或文学作品没有区别。这种观点肯定导致神性和奇妙位格被破坏。这也会使人相信耶稣首先是一个作为我们好榜样的良善的人。靠着效仿他我们也许会以同样的方式成为上帝的儿女。这样的神学理论被称为社会福音论,而且它的主要口号是“视上帝为慈父,视他人为手足”。这种异端邪说仍然在(圣诞节和复活节时的)报纸评论上相当常见并且由许多基督教大众写文章将此作为实际和人的常识。 M. At the end of the First World War (1918), a reaction set in against this type of optimistic religion about the goodness of man. The theologian Karl Barth (1886-1968) seemed to lead the way back to orthodox Christianity, and this movement is still with us today under the name of neo-orthodoxy. Barth wanted to regain a view of God as transcendent (far above the ways and knowledge of the human world). But since he did not accept all of the Scriptures as fully inspired, he attempted to work out his own view of the Trinity without letting the full weight of the Scriptural testimony guide him. 在第一次世界大战末期兴起了一场反对这种关于人善行的乐观主义宗教运动。神学家卡尔巴特(1886-1968)是要将人们引回到正统的基督教,并且这场运动在当今仍然在以新正统派的名称进行。巴特想要恢复人们对上帝是超然的(远高于人类世界的一切手段和认知)的看法。但是由于他不承认圣经是完全有上帝所默示的,他试图不让圣经见证的全部力量引导他创出他自己对于三位一体的观点。 N. As a result he developed a doctrine of the Trinity which appears very similar to the heresy which was a forerunner of the Arian heresy. That heresy is called Modalism or Monarchianismor Modal Monarchianism. This heresy, in trying to safeguard the unity of the Godhead, denied the distinction between the three Persons, holding that the Father, Son, and Spirit express three operations of God, or three modes or ways of the divine activity. In other words, we call God “Father” when we think of his creating activity, “Son” when we think of his saving activity, etc., but there is no real difference between them. God only puts on different disguises and names for the different roles he plays. 因此,他创出的一套关于三位一体理论明显可以看出与先前的作为阿里乌派先驱的异端非常相似。那个异端邪说被称为形态论或神格唯一论。这种异端试图保护神性的统一,但是否认三个位格之间的不同,坚持父、子和圣灵表现出上帝的三个阶段,或是神性活动的三种模式或方式。换句话说,当我们想到上帝创世的作为时,我们称他“父”,当我们想到他拯救的作为时,我们称他“子”,等等,但是他们之间没有真正的区别。上帝仅仅为他所扮演的不同角色换上了不同的装扮和名称。 O. When Barth speaks or writes about the incarnation of Christ, he does not use the distinction between the person and the two natures of Christ. In fact, he denies that it is permissible to speak about “persons in God.” One can speak only about a manner of being. As a result, the incarnate Jesus cannot be a divine person. Barth does not understand the virgin Birth as a miracle by which the eternal Son of God took human flesh from his human mother so that the historical Christ is at once fully God and fully Man. There are still many people in the neo-orthodox movement today who hold opinions such as these derived from Barthian theology. 当巴特说或写关于基督道成肉身时,他没有用基督与人的区别和他的两种属性。事实上,他反对说“在上帝中的位格”。一个人只能说那是神的样式。因此,道成肉身的耶稣不是神的位格。巴特不理解童贞女生子,通过这个神迹上帝永恒的儿子从他人类的母亲取了人的肉身从而历史上的基督同时是完全的神和完全的人。新正统派运动中的很多人如今仍持有这些源于巴特神学理论的观点。 P. But the neo-orthodox movement has gone far past Barth in following the teaching of his contemporary, Rudolf Bultmann (1884-1976), the most influential theologian today. In 1941, Bultmann delivered his famous lecture, “The New Testament and Mythology,” in which he held that the Bible was essentially mythical in character, and hence it must be demythologized, that is, all of the supernatural elements in the Bible are myths and they must be stripped off to get the original message. The “mythical elements” to be eliminated include the pre-existence of Christ, the virgin birth, the substitutionary atonement, and the resurrection. 但是新正统派运动在追随与巴特同时代的鲁道夫 布尔特曼(1884-1976),当今最有影响力的神学家的教导中已经远远偏离了巴特所教导的。1941年,布尔特曼发表了他著名的报告,“新约和神话”。在这篇报告中他称圣经在角色上实际是虚构的,并且因此它必须被除去神话色彩,就是说,圣经中所有超自然的要素都是神话而且它们必须被剥除还原到原有的内容。要去掉的“神话的要素”包括基督的预先存在,童贞女生子,代赎和复活。 Q. Further, there is no God in the Trinitarian sense. So, all the terms applied to the three persons in the Trinity, the deity of Christ, etc., are simply “mythical” terms. If we apply divine terms to Jesus, they are only “courtesy titles,” as Arius had said 1650 years ago. Since Bultmann’s theology permeates many areas of the external church today, especially in the universities and the seminaries where pastors are trained, the situation is as serious as it was in the church in 325, when Arius was so influential, Arianism was a pagan reaction which gathered the support of worldly people who disliked the exclusiveness of Christianity. Similarly today, since Bultmannism is grounded in naturalism (the belief that there is no supernatural or spiritual creation, value, or significance), the popular philosophy of our time, it easily gets the support and the praise of the majority of people today. 另外,无法理解三位一体中的上帝。因此,三位一体中所有与三个位格有关的词语、基督的神性,等等,都只是“带有神话色彩的”词语。如果将神性用于耶稣,它们也只是出于“尊重的称呼”,正如阿里乌1650年前所说的一样。由于布尔特曼的理论渗透进当今外部教会的许多领域,尤其是在大学中和牧师们接受训练的神学院,问题的严重程度就如公元325年当阿里乌非常具有影响力时教会的情况一样。阿里乌派是聚集了世界上恨恶基督教排他性的一些人支持的外邦势力。今天亦然,由于布尔特曼以当代流行的哲学理论自然主义(相信不存在超自然或属灵的被造物、属性或意义的信仰)为依据,很容易就在当今获得了大多数人的支持和赞赏。 R. Another current threat coming from liberal theology is the idea that we really can know almost nothing about Jesus of Nazareth. Today you can read about theologians and so-called “New Testament scholars” who claim that the Gospels of the New Testament really do not give an accurate report about who Jesus was or what he did. Other Gospels (which were condemned by the early Church) give us a little more information about the historical Jesus, but really we can know little about him. All we can be sure about is that he was a Jewish peasant who purposely or unwittingly caused a popular uprising and who after his death was made into a divine hero by his followers. 当前另一个威胁来自于自由主意神学的观点是我们几乎对拿撒勒的耶稣一无所知。如今你能读到一些神学家们和所谓“新约学者”声称新约中的福音确实没有给出关于耶稣是谁以及他做了什么的准确叙述。其他福音(被早期教会所批判的)给了我们一些更多关于历史上的耶稣的信息,但是我们实际上几乎不了解他。我们所能确信的是他是一个特意或不经意导致民众起义并在他死后被他的追随者当成神一般英雄的犹太农夫。 S. Such a “quest for the historical Jesus” (as it is often called) leads only to a mockery of Christianity. By denying the accuracy of the biblical Gospel accounts, such scholars are left with so little information about Jesus that they can easily paint any picture about him that they wish. The Ecumenical Creeds prevented people from doing that for centuries. The Creeds point out who Jesus was, how and why he became man, what he accomplished on earth, where he went when that work was finished, and that his followers recorded accurately in the Holy Scriptures that He rose from the dead (cf. the Nicene Creed). The Creeds will guard us from such modern heresy as the scholars propound, and they should also warn such people: It is furthermore necessary for eternal salvation truly to believe that our Lord Jesus Christ also took on human flesh. …that our Lord Jesus Christ, God’s son, is both God and Man. (Athanasian Creed, 27-28) 这种“对历史上耶稣的探索”(通常所说的)仅仅引起基督教对其的嘲笑。通过否认圣经福音书上的记载的准确性,这些学者几乎没有留下关于耶稣的信息,这样他们就能轻易按照他们的意志来描绘耶稣。三大公信经几个世纪以来一直阻止人们这么做。这些信经指出耶稣是谁,他怎样和为什么成为人,他在世上成就了什么,在他完成他的工作后他去了哪里,以及他的追随者在圣经中精确地记录了他从死人中复活(参看尼西亚信经)。这些信经将使我们免受当今学者提出的异端邪说的影响并告诫那些人: 再者,为求得永恒救赎,彼亦必笃信我等之主耶稣基督成为人身。神之子我等之主耶稣基督,为神,又为人。(亚大纳西信经27-28) T. A serious study of the these three Ecumenical Creeds brings us back to the Sacred Scriptures and will enable us, under God, to withstand the mortal enemies of Christ’s doctrine. The strength of Athanasius’ position lay in his total dependence on God’s Word as truth. He was, indeed, an “Athanasius Against the world,” but he was also an Athanasius who could say, “If God be for us, who can be against us?” (Rom 8:31). 对这三大公信经的仔细研究使我们重新回到圣经上并在上帝的庇护下抵抗基督教义的死敌。亚大纳西坚持自己立场的力量在于他完全信靠上帝的话是真理。他的确是“与世人为敌的亚大纳西”,但是他也是曾说“神若帮助我们,谁能敌挡我们呢?”(罗马书8:31)的亚大纳西。 APPENDIX 1: EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF THE APOSTLES’ CREED 附录1:使徒信经的早期发展 Hippolytus (A.D. 215) Marcellus (A.D. 341) Rufinus (A.D. 404) Apostles' Creed (today) Do you believe in God I believe in God I believe in God I believe in God the Father Almighty Almighty the Father Almighty the Father Almighty maker of heaven and earth Do you believe in Christ Jesus and in Christ Jesus and in Christ Jesus I believe in Jesus Christ the Son of God His only begotten Son His only Son His only Son our Lord our Lord our Lord who was born of the Holy Spirit who was conceived by the Holy Spirit who was born of the Holy Spirit who was conceived by the Holy Spirit of the Virgin Mary and the Virgin Mary and the virgin Mary born of the Virgin Mary and was crucified under Pontius Pilate was crucified under Pontius Pilate who was crucified under Pontius Pilate suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, and died and was buried and was buried and was buried died and was buried He descended into hell and rose again on the third day, alive from the dead and on the third day rose from the dead on the third day rose from the dead The third day he rose again from the dead and ascended into heaven ascended into heaven ascended into heaven He ascended into heaven and sat at the right hand of the Father and sat at the right hand of the Father and sat at the right hand of the Father and is seated at the right hand of God the Father Almighty about to come to judge the living and the dead from where He will come to judge the living and the dead from where He will come to judge the living and the dead from there He will come to judge the living and the dead Do you believe in the Holy Spirit and in the Holy Spirit and in the Holy Spirit I believe in the Holy Spirit and the holy Church the holy Church the holy Church the holy Christian Church the communion of saints the forgiveness of sins the forgiveness of sins the forgiveness of sins and the resurrection of the flesh the resurrection of the body the resurrection of the flesh the resurrection of the body life everlasting and the life everlasting APPENDIX 2: DEVELOPMENT OF THE NICENE CREED 附录2: 尼西亚信经的发展 Original Creed From Nicea - A.D. 325 Revised Creed from Constantinople - A.D. 381 We believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, We believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, maker maker of heaven and earth, of all that is, seen and unseen. of all that is, seen and unseen. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, the only-begotten of the Father, that is , of the substance of the Father eternally begotten of the Father, God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, of one being with the Father. begotten, not made, or one being with the Father. Through whom all things were made, those in heaven and on earth. Through him all things were made. For us and for our salvation, he came down, For us and for our salvation, he came down from heaven, was incarnate, was incarnate of the Holy Spirit and the virgin Mary, and became fully human. and became fully human. For our sake he was crucified under Pontius Pilate. He suffered death. He suffered death and was buried. On the third day he rose again. On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures. He ascended into heaven. He ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come to judge the living and the dead, He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and his kingdom will have no end. And in the Holy Spirit. And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, Those who say that “there was a time when he [Christ] did not exist” and who proceeds from the Father, ** “before he was begotten he did not exist” and that “he came into being who in unity with the Father and the Son is worshiped and glorified, from nothing,” or are affirming that he is of another substance or being who has spoken through the prophets. [than the Father] or that the Son of God is changeable or subject to And in one holy Catholic and apostolic Church. change, these the catholic and apostolic church of God declared We acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. to be damned. We look for the resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come. Amen Amen. *This condemnation was an appendix later dropped. **“and the Son” added a century later in the West APPENDIX 3: IMPORTANT THEOLOGICAL TERMS 附录3:重要的神学术语 替代文本

替代文本 附录1:使徒信经的早期发展 希坡吕托 (公元215年) 你信神, 全能的父吗? 你信基督耶稣, 神的儿子; 因着圣灵,从童贞女马利亚所生; 在本丟彼拉多手下,被钉在十字架上,受死,埋葬; 第三天从死里复活; 升天, 坐在父的右边; 将来要从那里降临,审判活人、死人吗? 你信圣灵、圣教会、和身体复活吗? Your title here…马赛路(公元341年) 我信全能的上帝, 和我主基督耶稣,由上帝所出的独生子, 由圣灵和童贞女马利亚感孕, 在本丢彼拉多手下被钉于十字架,埋葬。 第三天从死人中复活。 升天, 坐在父的右边。 将来必从那里降临,审判活人死人。 我信圣灵, 我信圣教会, 我信罪得赦免, 我信身体复活, 我信永生。 鲁菲纳斯(公元404年) 我信上帝,全能的父, 和我主基督耶稣,上帝的独生子, 由圣灵和童贞女马利亚所生, 在本丢彼拉多手下被钉于十字架,埋葬。 第三天从死人中复活。 升天, 坐在父的右边。 将来必从那里降临,审判活人死人。 我信圣灵, 我信圣教会, 我信罪得赦免, 我信肉体复活。 使徒信经(现今所用) 我信上帝,全能的父, 创造天地的主。 我信我主耶稣基督,上帝的独生子, 因圣灵感孕, 由童贞女马利亚所生, 在本丢彼拉多手下受难, 被钉于十字架,受死,埋葬。 降在阴间。 第三天从死人中复活。 升天, 坐在全能父上帝的右边。 将来必从那里降临,审判活人死人。 我信圣灵, 我信圣而公之教会,我信圣徒相通, 我信罪得赦免, 我信身体复活, 我信永生。 附录2:尼西亚信经的发展 原有的尼西亚会议所定的信经——公元325年 我等信独一之神,即全能之圣父,创造一切有形无形之万物之主。 我等信独一之主耶稣基督,上帝独生之圣子,与父同质,是从神所出之神,从光所出之光,从真神所出之真神,是生非造,是与圣父同体,天地间的万物皆借圣子而造;圣子为要拯救我等世人而降临,道成肉身,成为完全人。受死。第三日复活。升天。将来必从那里降临,审判活人死人。 我等信圣灵。 ※那些说“曾有一段时期他【基督】不存在”和“在他出于神以先,他不存在”以及“他从无有被造”或是坚称他具有另一种实质或本质【与父不同的】又或是说上帝的圣子是可变的或有所变化的人,都是被上帝的普世和使徒教会所谴责的人。※ 阿们。 君士坦丁堡会议修订后的尼西亚信经——公元381年 我等信独一之神,即全能之圣父,创造天地,及一切有形无形之万物之主。 我等信独一之主耶稣基督,上帝独生之圣子,是圣父在万世之先所生,是从神所出之神,从光所出之光,从真神所出之真神,是生非造,是与圣父同体,万物皆借圣子而造;圣子为要拯救我等世人,从天降临,为圣灵感动之童贞女马利亚所生,成为人身,在本丢彼拉多手下,为我等钉十字架,被害而葬,照圣经之言,第三日复活,升天,坐在圣父之右;将来复必有荣耀而降临,审判生人死人,其国无穷无尽。 我等信圣灵即是主,是赐生命者,是从圣父※※所出,与圣父、圣子,同是当拜,当称颂者,众先知说预言,皆是被圣灵感动;我等信使徒所立独一圣而公之教会;我等信因为赦罪设立之独一洗礼;我等望死后复活,又望来世之永生。 阿们。 “和圣子”于一个世纪后在西方教会中被添加进来。