恩典国际圣经学院

第三十三课 - 第二十七条:论修道院的誓言

lesson 33 - Article XXVII Of Monastic Vows


Introduction: 简介:

From the Catholic Encyclopedia – “The basic idea of monasticism in all its varieties is seclusion or withdrawal from the world or society. The object of this is to achieve a life whose ideal is different from and largely at variance with that pursued by the majority of mankind; and the method adopted, no matter what its precise details may be, is always organized asceticism.”

根据天主教百科全书记载-各种各样的修道院生活的基本思想就是与世界或社会隔离或脱离,其目的就是追求一种理想的与众不同的生活;通常情况下,不论具体细节如何,他们所采用的方式都是一系列的禁欲主义。

“Monastic asceticism means the removal of obstacles of loving God…Life has come to mean renunciation. Broadly speaking, this renunciation has three great branches corresponding to the three evangelical counsels of poverty, chastity, and obedience.”

修道院禁欲是要除去爱神的障碍…生活也就意味着克己。一般来说克己与三种福音劝勉—清贫、清洁和顺服—相对应也分为三种。

Notice how the hierarchy of the Roman Cathlolic Church already imposes upon its lay people that the higher form of spiritual life with God is self-sacrifice, where as living normally in the world that we live in is deemed as second best, or worse than that – almost sinful.

要知道当时的罗马天主教上层已经强加给人们这样的观点就是舍己的生活就是更高层次的属灵生活,正常的生活是次等的,或者更差的—近乎犯罪。

A. Some Abuses Connected with Monasticism 一些与修道院生活有关的滥用

What is taught on our part concerning Monastic Vows, will be better understood if it be remembered what has been the state of the monasteries, and how many things were daily done in those very monasteries, contrary to the Canons. In Augustine’s time they were free associations. Afterward, when discipline was corrupted, vows were everywhere added for the purpose of restoring discipline, as in a carefully planned prison. http://bookofconcord.org/augsburgconfession.php - article27.3 Gradually, many other observances were added besides vows. And these fetters were laid upon many before the lawful age, contrary to the Canons.

如果我们记得修道院的真实情况和每天在修道院中有多少违背教义的事情发生,我们就能更好的理解关于修道誓言的教导。在奥古斯丁的年代修道院是自由的组织。但是随后纪律腐败,就产生了很多的誓言,旨在重建纪律,这使修道院变得如同精心设计的监狱一般。http://bookofconcord.org/augsburgconfession.php - article27.3 除了誓言之外他们又逐渐加入了其它一些规条。他们违背教义把这些枷锁强加于未到规定年龄的人。

Notes:

注:

Our fathers point out that at first, monasteries were optional or voluntary back in Augustine’s day, but soon it became evident that as they needed to maintain better discipline in the monasteries more and more rules and laws and vows crept into the practice of the monastery. So then, what started out as a poisonous root, had now grown into an even more poisonous fruit as abuses to the faith were quite evident in Luther’s day.

我们的前辈们指出最开始在奥古斯丁的年代修道院是非强制的或志愿的,但随后可以看出出于更好维持修道院纪律的需要他们在修道院中制定了越来越多的法律和誓言。这是毒根的开始到路德年代已经长出更毒的果子来因为对信心的滥用已经显而易见。

Monasticism had its beginning in Egypt. Three names stand out prominently in its early development. The first man was St. Anthony, who retired into the desert about A.D. 285 and lived as a hermit. He died in 356 at the age of about 113 years. Many followed his example, and the number of hermits grew rapidly. Then another man, by the name of Pachomius, began to gather the hermits into colonies. A third man, Shenute, introduced the monastic vows.

修道院生活开始于埃及。在其早期发展中有三个重要人物。第一个就是圣安东尼,他隐居到沙漠之中过修道的生活。他死于356年,享年113岁。很多人效法他的榜样,过修道生活的人数激增。第二个人就是帕科缪,是团体修道生活的先驱。第三个人就是舍纽特,始创修道誓言。

Many also entered into this kind of life through ignorance, being unable to judge their own strength, though they were of sufficient age. Being thus ensnared, they were compelled to remain, even though some could have been freed by the kind provision of the Canons. And this was more the case in convents of women than of monks, although more consideration should have been shown the weaker sex. This rigor displeased many good men before this time, who saw that young men and maidens were thrown into convents for a living. They saw what unfortunate results came of this procedure, and what scandals were created, what snares were cast upon consciences! They were grieved that the authority of the Canons in so momentous a matter was utterly set aside and despised. To these evils was added such a persuasion concerning vows as, it is well known, in former times displeased even those monks who were more considerate. They taught that vows were equal to Baptism; they taught that by this kind of life they merited forgiveness of sins and justification before God. Yea, they added that the monastic life not only merited righteousness before God but even greater things, because it kept not only the precepts, but also the so-called “evangelical counsels.”

许多人开始修道生活是因为无知,尽管他们已经够年龄但是却不认识自己能力的大小。误入以后他们就被迫持守这样的生活,其实依据教义他们可以脱离这样的辖制。尽管我们应该更多关注女性但上述情况在女修道院中比男修道院中更为严重。在此之前很多正义之士多这种强硬颇有异议,因为他们看见很多的年轻男女被推进这种生活之中。他们看到这种行径产生的是悲剧,是无数的丑闻,是对良心的捆绑!他们为着在这样严重的事上教义被置之不理而痛心疾首。除了这些罪恶之外还有一条就是誓言,尽人皆知的是此前连谨慎的修士都厌恶誓言。他们却教导誓言等同于洗礼;他们教导这样的生活可以赢得赦罪之恩并在神面前称义。他们还说修道生活不仅可以使人在神面前称义而且更甚的是,这不仅是守圣教法规而且是所谓的“福音规劝”。

Thus they made men believe that the profession of monasticism was far better than Baptism, and that the monastic life was more meritorious than that of magistrates, than the life of pastors, and such like, who serve their calling in accordance with God’s commands, without any man-made services. None of these things can be denied; for they appear in their own books. [Moreover, a person who has been thus ensnared and has entered a monastery learns little of Christ.]

因此他们让人们相信修道远胜于洗礼,修道生活优越于行政官生活、牧师生活等等神所呼召从事的而不是人为的职业。所有这些东西都不能否认,因为这是他们的书上所写的。[款且,陷入其中进入修道院的人很少能了解到基督。]

Notes:

注:

If anyone takes a vow upon himself, he should be fully informed beforehand of all the consequences of his/her vow. This is why Jesus said, “All you need to say is simply ‘Yes’ or ‘No’; anything beyond this comes from the evil one” in Matthew 5:37. Sometimes children were committed to monasteries merely because that relieved the family of the obligation to provide for them, regardless of whether they were competent to live up to their vows or not.

一个人如果要起誓,他首先要知道他所起的誓言的结果。这也是耶稣为什么在马太福音5:37说“你们的话,是,就说是,不是,就说不是。若再多说,就是出于那恶者”。有时候小孩子发誓过修道生活只是为了不再成为家庭的负担,至于自己有没有能力来还这个誓言他们却毫不在乎。

Sadly, Rome placed the 3-phased vow of poverty, chasity, and obedience on the same level as Baptism, teaching their people that making these vows provided them with justification and forgiveness of sins. In fact, people who made such vows were considered more justified than the common people who had merely received baptism.

令人心痛的是,罗马把三段式的誓言—清贫、清洁和顺服置于跟洗礼相同的位置,他们教导人这样的誓言可以洗净人的罪使人称义。事实上,他们认为这样发誓的人比仅仅受过洗的人更为义。

What, then, came to pass in the monasteries? Aforetime they were schools of theology and other branches, profitable to the Church; and thence pastors and bishops were obtained. Now it is another thing. It is needless to rehearse what is known to all. Aforetime they came together to learn; now they feign that it is a kind of life instituted to merit grace and righteousness; yea, they preach that it is a state of perfection, and they put it far above all other kinds of life ordained of God. These things we have rehearsed without odious exaggeration, to the end that the doctrine of our teachers on this point might be better understood.

那么都是什么样的人来修道院呢?从前修道院是神学学校和其它分支机构,是为了辅助教会,牧师和主教也来自修道院。现在完全是另外一回事。大家都知道的就不再重复。从前来修道院是为了学习;现在他们杜撰这是赢得恩典和称义的生活;他们称这是完美的状态,他们看这种生活远远胜于其它神所命定的生活方式。我们毫无夸张的重提这些事情,最后希望我们能够更好的领受我们老师所教导的。

Notes:

注:

Throughout the course of time, monasteries were used for various purposes; they served as hospitals for the sick, they served as a place to provide publication of books, and they also served to train future pastors of the church. However, as time grew, these purposes were neglected, and monastic life was practiced to merit grace.

在历史上修道院起过多种作用;它们曾经做过医院,它们曾做出版图书的地方,他们也做过为教会培训准牧师的地方。然而随着时间的推移,这些用途早已被人遗忘,修道生活被奉为赢得恩典的方式。

B. Monastic Vows Cannot Annul God’s Institution of Matrimony 修道誓言不能废弃神所设的婚姻

First, concerning such as contract matrimony, they teach on our part that it is lawful for all men who are not fitted for single life to contract matrimony, because vows cannot annul the ordinance and commandment of God. But the commandment of God is 1 Cor. 7:2: To avoid fornication, let every man have his own wife. Nor is it the commandment only, but also the creation and ordinance of God, which forces those to marry who are not excepted by a singular work of God, according to the text Gen. 2:18: It is not good that the man should be alone. Therefore they do not sin who obey this commandment and ordinance of God

首先关于结婚他们教导对我们来说没有独身恩赐的人结婚是正当的,因为誓言不能废除神的命令和典章。神的命令如林前7:2:但要免淫乱的事,男人当各有自己的妻子。这不仅是神的命令也是神的创造和典章,要没有独身恩赐的人必须结婚,根据创2:18那人独居不好。因此守神这样命令和典章的人不是犯罪。

What objection can be raised to this? Let men extol the obligation of a vow as much as they list, yet shall they not bring to pass that the vow annuls the commandment of God. The Canons teach that the right of the superior is excepted in every vow; [that vows are not binding against the decision of the Pope;] much less, therefore, are these vows of force which are against the commandments of God.

有什么理由可以反对这样的事呢?人可以尽情歌颂誓言,但是人却不能说誓言能废弃神的命令。教义教导上层对所有誓言例外;[誓言不能约束教皇的决定;]这样这些誓言更不能对抗神的命令。

Now, if the obligation of vows could not be changed for any cause whatever, the Roman Pontiffs could never have given dispensation for it is not lawful for man to annul an obligation which is simply divine. But the Roman Pontiffs have prudently judged that leniency is to be observed in this obligation, and therefore we read that many times they have dispensed from vows. The case of the King of Aragon who was called back from the monastery is well known, and there are also examples in our own times. [Now, if dispensations have been granted for the sake of securing temporal interests, it is much more proper that they be granted on account of the distress of souls.]

如果誓言的责任不能以任何原因更改的话,那么罗马教皇也没有特许的权利因为人不能废除来自神的责任。但是罗马教皇却精明的认定在这样的责任上应该宽厚仁慈,因此我们看到他们很多次从誓言中得到豁免。阿拉贡国王从修道院被赎出一事广为人知,当代也有这样的例子。[如果特许可以以暂时利益为理由,那更可以以灵魂痛苦为理由。]

Notes:

注:

Of the three vows taken by the monk, our fathers point out the most challenging of the three – celibacy. The Word of God says: “Since there is so much immorality, each man should have his own wife, and each woman her own husband” (1 Cor. 7:2). This rule of God, not only for the purpose of keeping order in the world, but for guiding consciences, forbids any person who has not the special gift of remaining celibate to take the monastic vow upon himself, and invalidates any vow that is taken in ignorance. Morever, by the very creation of mankind, God indicated his general plan that men should marry.

在修士的三种誓言中,我们的前辈们指出其中最有挑战性的是—独身。但要免淫乱的事,男人当各有自己的妻子,女子也当各有自己的丈夫。(林前7:2)。神的这个原则不仅是维持世界的秩序而且是为了引导良心,禁止没有这样恩赐的人发单身修道誓言,也使无知的誓言无效。况且,在神造人的时候已经显明他的旨意是人要结婚。

According to Catholic views, the only one who can release a man from such a vow is the pope, in spite of the fact that God’s Word provides us with the command to marry. The case of a king of Aragon is cited. This was Sanctius IV. His son Ramirus had entered a monastery, but the death of his brother Peter would have left the throne without a legitimate successor. Then the pope, in 1245, granted a dispensation and Ramirus left the monastery. If temporal interests were considered as sufficient to annul a vow, how much more the distress of souls?

根据天主教观点只有一位能把人从誓言中解脱出来就是教皇,他们不管神的话是要我们结婚的事实。我们提到阿拉贡王的例子。是桑克蒂乌斯四世的故事。他的儿子拉密鲁斯进入了修道院,但是他的兄弟的死使皇位失去了合法继承人。然后教皇在1245年给予豁免拉密鲁斯离开了修道院。如果暂时的利益可以作为废弃誓言的原因,更何况灵魂的痛苦呢?

In the second place, why do our adversaries exaggerate the obligation or effect of a vow when, at the same time, they have not a word to say of the nature of the vow itself, that it ought to be in a thing possible, that it ought to be free, and chosen spontaneously and deliberately? But it is not unknown to what extent perpetual chastity is in the power of man. And how few are there who have taken the vow spontaneously and deliberately! Young maidens and men, before they are able to judge, are persuaded, and sometimes even compelled, to take the vow. Wherefore it is not fair to insist so rigorously on the obligation, since it is granted by all that it is against the nature of a vow to take it without spontaneous and deliberate action.

其次为什么对方只是夸大强调誓言的约束和作用但对誓言的本质却只字不提呢,誓言应该是可以实现的事情,应该是自由的并且应该是自愿的并且经过认真考虑的?人不是不知道自己有多大能力来保守一生清洁。真正自愿并认真考虑发誓的是凤毛麟角!少男少女在他们能辨别判断之前就被劝说甚至被迫去发誓。因此公平的讲没有必要去死板的守这样的誓言,因为大家都知道非自愿不经认真考虑的誓言是违背誓言本质的。

Most canonical laws rescind vows made before the age of fifteen; for before that age there does not seem sufficient judgment in a person to decide concerning a perpetual life. Another Canon, granting more to the weakness of man, adds a few years; for it forbids a vow to be made before the age of eighteen. But which of these two Canons shall we follow? The most part have an excuse for leaving the monasteries, because most of them have taken the vows before they reached these ages.

大部分的教会法认为15岁之前的誓言无效;因为在次年龄之前人没有足够的判断力来决定终身的事情。有个教会法考虑到男性的弱势在此基础上给男性增加几年,它规定在18岁之前不能发誓。我们应该遵守这两种教会法中的哪种呢?大部分准许人离开修道院,因为大部分人在还没有到达合适年龄之前就许下了誓言。

Finally, even though the violation of a vow might be censured, yet it seems not forthwith to follow that the marriages of such persons must be dissolved. For Augustine denies that they ought to be dissolved (XXVII. Quaest. I, Cap. Nuptiarum), and his authority is not lightly to be esteemed, although other men afterwards thought otherwise.

最后,尽管违背誓言应该受到谴责,但是并不是说这些人的婚姻就应该立即结束。因为奥古斯丁否认它们应该结束(XXVII. Quaest. I, Cap. Nuptiarum),尽管后来人有些异议他的权威还是不容置疑的。

III. Our fathers reserved for the last the principla reason against the binding validity of monastic vows as they were behing handled at the time of the Reformation. It was bad enough that vows were often forced on monks and nuns who were not yet of an age to weigh the implications thoroughly, while according to the very nature of a pledge, it must be without coercion in matters which are possible of fulfillment. As it was, this current doctrine of these vows was destroying the very faith which the church is called to strengthen.

正如当时改教时如何对待修道誓言一样,我们的前辈们一直因为最后一个原则性的原因否认修道誓言的有效性。非常糟糕的是修士修女们在还没有到达合适年龄认识誓言的含义之前就被迫许下誓言,而且根据誓言本质来说,誓言必须是没有强迫并且可能完成的。这种誓言过去直至今天都一直在破坏教会本应该来坚固的信心。

C. Monastic Vows Promote a False Service to God 修道誓言导致虚假的服侍神

But although it appears that God’s command concerning marriage delivers very many from their vows, yet our teachers introduce also another argument concerning vows to show that they are void. For every service of God, ordained and chosen of men without the commandment of God to merit justification and grace, is wicked, as Christ saysMatt. 15:9: http://bookofconcord.org/augsburgconfession.php - article27.37In vain do they worship Me with the commandments of men. And Paul teaches everywhere that righteousness is not to be sought from our own observances and acts of worship, devised by men, but that it comes by faith to those who believe that they are received by God into grace for Christ’s sake.

尽管有很多神关于婚姻的命令是很多人从誓言中解脱,我们的老师还是要让大家知道更多证明誓言无效的言论。所有不出于神的以赢得称义和恩典为目的的服侍都是出于恶的,正如基督在太15:9http://bookofconcord.org/augsburgconfession.php - article27.37 他们将人的吩咐,当作道理教导人,所以拜我也是枉然。保罗在所有地方都教导称义不是因为守律法或敬拜行为,不是靠人的行为的而是因为信因藉着基督我们能够来到神的恩典之中。

But it is evident that monks have taught that services of man’s making satisfy for sins and merit grace and justification. What else is this than to detract from the glory of Christ and to obscure and deny the righteousness of faith? It follows, therefore, that the vows thus commonly taken have been wicked services, and, consequently, are void. For a wicked vow, taken against the commandment of God, is not valid; for (as the Canon says) no vow ought to bind men to wickedness.

但是很明显的是修士们教导人的服侍可以赎罪并赢得恩典和称义。这难道不是在贬低神的恩典和因信称义吗?因此所发的誓言也是邪恶的是最终无效的。因为违背神的命令的邪恶的誓言是没有用的;因为(教会法认为)誓言不应该把人带进邪恶。

Paul says, Gal. 5:4: Christ is become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are justified by the Law, ye are fallen from grace. To those, therefore, who want to be justified by their vows Christ is made of no effect, and they fall from grace. For also these who ascribe justification to vows ascribe to their own works that which properly belongs to the glory of Christ.

保罗在加5:4说:你们这要靠律法称义的,是与基督隔绝,从恩典中坠落了。那些要靠自己誓言称义的是弃绝基督,是从恩典中坠落了。那些把称义归功于誓言的也就是归功于自己所做的而称义本属基督的荣耀。

Notes:

注:

The heart of the gospel is that we believe that sinners are received by God into his grace on the basis of Jesus’ redemptive work for us on the cross. We can’t add merit or works to grace or we lose grace as Paul writes to the Christians at Galatia.

福音的核心是我们相信罪人得以进到神的恩典中是因耶稣在十架上为我们做的救赎大工。我们不能在恩典上加上人的工作否则我们就如保罗所写给加拉太基督徒的那样从恩典中坠落了。

These words, harsh as they may seem, hit the Roman Catholic Church right between the eyes with their practice of monastic vows. None of these vows can be traced to even one commandment of God, but were introduced by men, who may have been well-meaning, but men nonetheless. By teaching men that they merit grace by performing such acts, not only do they blaspheme Christ’s work of redemption on the cross, but they bind men to wickedness as well.

这些话看似难听,但却一语击中罗马天主教修道誓言的要害。这些誓言没有一丁点的圣经根据只不过是人的想法,这些人可能是善意的但却没用到正地方。教导人行为可以赢得神的恩典不仅是亵渎基督在十架上的救赎而且把人带人邪恶之中。

Nor can it be denied, indeed, that the monks have taught that, by their vows and observances, they were justified, and merited forgiveness of sins, yea, they invented still greater absurdities, saying that they could give others a share in their works. If any one should be inclined to enlarge on these things with evil intent, how many things could he bring together whereof even the monks are now ashamed! Over and above this, they persuaded men that services of man’s making were a state of Christian perfection. And is not this assigning justification to works? It is no light offense in the Church to set forth to the people a service devised by men, without the commandment of God, and to teach that such service justifies men. For the righteousness of faith, which chiefly ought to be taught in the Church, is obscured when these wonderful angelic forms of worship, with their show of poverty, humility, and celibacy, are cast before the eyes of men.

不仅可以肯定修士们教导守律法和誓言可以使人称义和赢得神的赦罪之恩,而且他们更加荒唐的说他们可以把自己的行为分给他人。假如有人在这样的事情上恶意深究的话,不知道可以发掘出多少让修士们都汗颜的事情来!更甚的是他们让人们相信人所杜撰的服侍可以使基督徒成圣。这难道不是把称义归于人的工作吗?在教会中让人们以一些毫无圣经根据的方式服侍神并且教导这样使人称义是严重冒犯神了。

Notes:

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Proof of the shame that these teachers of the monastic life is seen in the attitude of the monks who added further absurdities to this doctrine in that simple lay-members could borrow some of the works of a celibate monk, who vowed poverty and obedience to present before God because alledgely the monk had so many extra merits that he could offer them to common people.

这些修道生活鼓吹者的厚颜无耻更见于他们荒唐的声称一些普通成员可以借用一些单身修士的善行,因为这些单身修士起誓要在神面前清贫和顺服所以他们就有多余的功德可以借用给普通人。

Furthermore, the precepts of God and the true service of God are obscured when men hear that only monks are in a state of perfection. For Christian perfection is to fear God from the heart, and yet to conceive great faith, and to trust that for Christ’s sake we have a God who has been reconciled, to ask of God, and assuredly to expect His aid in all things that, according to our calling, are to be done; and meanwhile, to be diligent in outward good works, and to serve our calling. In these things consist the true perfection and the true service of God. It does not consist in celibacy, or in begging, or in vile apparel. But the people conceive many pernicious opinions from the false commendations of monastic life. They hear celibacy praised above measure; therefore they lead their married life with offense to their consciences. They hear that only beggars are perfect; therefore they keep their possessions and do business with offense to their consciences. They hear that it is an evangelical counsel not to seek revenge; therefore some in private life are not afraid to take revenge, for they hear that it is but a counsel, and not a commandment. Others judge that the Christian cannot properly hold a civil office or be a magistrate.

而且说有修士是成圣的的说法让人们认不清神的律例和真正的服侍神。因基督徒的成圣在乎心中敬畏神并且有信心,相信因为基督的缘故我们得以与神和好,在所有呼召我们做的事情求告神并确信神会帮助我们;同时还要有外在的善行来印证我们的呼召。真正的成圣和服侍神乃在于此,而不在于单身、乞讨或衣衫褴褛。对修道生活的错误赞扬让人们产生很多错误的想法。人们听到单身生活被高度赞扬所以那些有婚姻生活的人就感觉良心不安。人们听到只有乞讨者才能成圣因此那些有财产有事业的人就感觉良心不安。人们听到不要报复是福音规劝因此很多人生活中回去报复他人因为他们听说那不过是规劝而不是命令。还有人认为基督徒在政府任职或作执政官是不妥的。

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注:

Here we see the monastic way of life held up before God as the ultimate way of pleasing God in life and the result of this is that the true Commandments of God are covered up. Husbands and wives, fulfilling their God-given duties in their family, are led to doubt because they are told that celibacy is what God really wants. Monastic vows, therefore, create confusion of consciences concerning a person’s calling in life.

在这里我们看到他们把修道生活奉为使神喜悦的终极途径结果导致神的真正的命令被忽视。丈夫和妻子本来在生活中尽来自神的本分但是因为有人教导说独身才是神所要的而陷入迷惑中。因此修道生活会混乱人心让人迷惑自己一生的呼召。

There are on record examples of men who, forsaking marriage and the administration of the Commonwealth, have hid themselves in monasteries. This they called fleeing from the world, and seeking a kind of life which would be more pleasing to God. Neither did they see that God ought to be served in those commandments which He Himself has given and not in commandments devised by men. A good and perfect kind of life is that which has for it the commandment of God. It is necessary to admonish men of these things.

据记载有些人抛弃婚姻家庭和国家责任去修道院中隐居。他们称之为脱离世界去寻求神所喜悦的生活方式。但他们不知道服侍神应该照神的命令而不是人的命令。好的成圣的生活要靠神的命令。这是人都应当知道的事。

And before these times, Gerson rebukes this error of the monks concerning perfection, and testifies that in his day it was a new saying that the monastic life is a state of perfection.

在此之前格尔森指责修道和成圣的错误,这证明在他那个时候修道生活是成圣的是一种新的提法。

Notes:

注:

Here, examples are pointed out how men were misled concerning God-appointed callings regulated by God-given commandments, something about which the famous Chancellor of the University of Paris, John Gerson (1429), complained about.

在这里我们列举了人们在神的呼召上的受的误导,神的呼召是依照神的命令的,还有巴黎大学校长约翰格尔森(1429)所指责的。

So many wicked opinions are inherent in the vows, namely, that they justify, that they constitute Christian perfection, that they keep the counsels and commandments, that they have works of supererogation. All these things, since they are false and empty, make vows null and void.

所以誓言中有很多邪恶的观念,比如使人称义,是基督徒成圣,是守规劝和命令,有超人一等的公德。所有这些东西都是错误和虚空的,因此也使得誓言无效。

Notes:

注:

This concluding paragraph briefuly sums up the arguments against the monastic vows.

结束一段是一些反对修道誓言的简要总结。