第一课 上瘾
lesson 1 Addictions

Addictions 上瘾
Case Study … 1 实例学习。。。1
  • Mr. Jones complains that his wife has been “nagging” him about his drinking. He admits that he has increased his amount of alcohol consumption that last few months, but that he only drinks on weekends. He drinks every weekend and is vague about the actual amount.

  • 琼斯先生抱怨妻子一直“唠叨”他喝酒。他承认过去几个月酒量增加,但他只在周末喝。他每周末喝酒,喝多少没数。

  • Jill, a woman in her mid-forties, is a wife and mother of three children. She started playing card games in her teens, and became involved in betting on horses. She always believed she had her behavior under control until a casino opened up near her home. Now, she is there every chance she can get.

  • 吉尔,45岁的女士,是位有三个孩子的妻子和母亲。她在青少年时就开始玩牌游戏,并参与赌马。她总是认为她能自控,直到她家附近开了个赌场。现在她逢赌必去。 

Key Terms … 2 关键词…2

Addiction - dependence on a particular substance or activity.

上瘾— 依赖于一种特别物质或行为。

An addiction is either a physical or psychological compulsion to use a substance or engage in an activity to cope with the stress of daily life.


Addiction is a habit and it is difficult to control.


Addiction is largely driven by denial. The addict will blame his or her problems on someone else.


Addiction is usually divided into two categories:


Drug-addiction is a biochemical dependence on a substance (such as alcohol/drug addiction.) Over time the body needs increased amounts of the substance in order to avoid symptoms of withdrawal.


Non-drug addictions are compulsive behaviors, which trigger dopamine surges in the body. Such behaviors are: compulsive overeating, gambling, sexual addictions, video-gaming, or compulsive shopping.


Causes/Character … 3 实例/特征… 3

While the causes of addictions are not fully understood, one view is that addiction is a defense against anxiety. This generalized anxiety is characterized by the “blame and defend” model of denial, in which the addict blames his or her problems on someone else, spouse, family, or friends. This can cause loving friends and family to feel guilty about the situation and can actually transform them into enablers. The result is that the addict avoids any responsibility for his or her actions. (Thombs, 2006)

虽然上瘾的原因还没有完全弄清楚,有一种看法认为上瘾是对焦虑的一种抵御方式。这种普遍性焦虑以 “责备与防卫”的拒绝模式为特征,上瘾者把自己的问题归咎在别人身上,如配偶,家人或朋友身上。这会造成有爱心的朋友或家人对这种处境感到愧疚,真的替人受过。结果是上瘾者逃避了对自己的行为应付的责任。(Thombs, 2006)

This causes of addict can be traced to any of the following factors:


  • Physical: An addict becomes physically dependent upon a substance or behavior. This need can become obsessive to the point that the anxiety results in serious withdrawal symptoms.

  • 身体的:一个上瘾者变得依赖于一种特别物质或行为。这种需要变得强迫到导致严重脱瘾症状。

  • Emotional: Most addicts are emotionally hurt. One study states that the sexual abuse rate for alcoholics has been reported at 12 percent for men and 49 percent for women (Sack, D. 2012).

  • 情绪的: 大多数上瘾者感情受伤。一个调查表明性虐待的酗酒者12%为男性和49%为女性。

  • Relational: Studies show that addictive behaviors are also related to trauma in early childhood. Such trauma causes stress in adulthood relationships and social interaction (Miller, D. 2002).

  • 关系的: 调查显示上瘾行为和童年早期的创伤有关。这样的创伤导致成人以后人际关系和社交的压力。

  • Behavioral: Addicts often develop irrational beliefs about themselves. (Mynatt, S. et al, 2009). Such false beliefs conflict with the identity one has as a child of God.

  • 行为的:上瘾者经常对自己形成不合理的观念。(Mynatt, S. et al, 2009)。这种错误观念与作为神儿女的身份相抵触。

  • Spiritual: Ultimately, addiction is act of rebellion against God’s will. It is the result of the selfish, sinful nature in control of a person’s life.

  • 灵性的:最后,上瘾是违背神旨意的行为。是被自私,罪性控制人生命的结果。

Counseling Advice … 4 心理辅导建议… 4

Many addicts are so dependent on a substance or behavior that it consumes their daily activities, interferes with normal responsibilities, and even replaces hobbies that once provided pleasure and recreation.

Addiction can completely control a person’s desires and ambitions. The saddest tragedy is that addictions can ruin an individual’s relationship with the Lord. Instead of providing comfort and peace, addictions often rob the addict of joy. The very things the addict desires most are lost because of the addiction.

Addiction is also accompanied by painful emotions such as anger, jealousy, fear, and abandonment (Corsini & Wedding, 2008)




The following points summarize some signs or characteristics of addiction:


1)Uncontrollable: For addicts, the dependency on the addiction is beyond their ability to control.


2)Tolerance: An addict builds up a chemical tolerance, which means their bodies need an increased amount of the chemical/activity to produce the same results.


3)Progression: Most addictions begin with experimentation – just sampling the drug, one puff off of the cigarette. Since there is a chemical tolerance, the addict will increase the frequency of the behavior.


4)Isolation: Addiction is a way to lessen and hidden fears or worries a person might experience. Addiction becomes a way to escape from frustration or feelings of anxiety.


Steps to Follow … 5 遵循步骤… 5

1)Safety First – if there are small children involved, then their safety is a priority. Driving under the influence, sexual or verbal abuse needs to be confronted. If family members are in immediate danger because of the addict’s behavior, then they must be removed from the situation at once.

安全第一 — 如果涉及到小孩子在中间,那么首先要考虑的是他们的安全。酒后或吸毒后开车,性虐待或言语虐待的问题需要解决。如果家庭成员因为上瘾者的行为而处于直接危险的情况下,必须立刻将他们转移。

2)Encourage a Physical Examination – A doctor’s exam will determine if the addiction has caused any physical problems. This is important with substance abuse, such as alcoholism.

鼓励身体检查— 医生的检查将确定上瘾者是否有任何健康问题。这对滥用药物的情况尤为重要,如酗酒。

3)Refer to a Professional – As a Christian, your main focus is to provide spiritual counsel. That can only happen if an individual is receiving physical and emotional help as well. Church leaders are wise to have a working relationship with the addict’s physician or dependency counselor. This allows the pastor to be free to focus on the addict’s spiritual well-being. A doctor or addiction counselor will offer professional help in ways that a pastor or church member is not equipped. A Christian support group is also quite helpful because it provides accountability and encouragement to a struggling Christian who is caught in an addiction. The support group concept will be discussed and developed in future pastoral counseling courses. (Scheutze & Matzke, 1988)

移交给专业人士— 作为一名基督徒,你的主要目的是提供灵性辅导。这只能是在个人接受身体和情绪的帮助下进行。教会领袖和上瘾者的医生或药品咨询师有协作关系是十分明智的。这可以使牧师自由地专注于上瘾者灵性健康的问题。医生或上瘾问题咨询师将提供牧师或教会成员不具备的专业帮助。基督徒团队的支持也是非常有帮助的,因为他们担负责任并鼓励与瘾争战的基督徒。在以后的教牧辅导课程中将讨论和发展团队支持理念。(Scheutze & Matzke, 1988)

Light on the Path … 6 路上的光… 6

Read and React. Read the passage and answer the following questions:


Woe to those who rise early in the morning to run after their drinks, who stay up late at night till they are inflamed with wine. Isaiah 5:11

祸 哉 ! 那 些 清 早 起 来 追 求 浓 酒 , 留 连 到 夜 深 , 甚 至 因 酒 发 烧 的 人 。以赛亚书5:11

1)How would you categorize the addiction described in this passage?


2)One of the characteristics of addiction is that it becomes an uncontrollable behavior. Explain how this passage addresses that concept.


3)Notice the progression: what does the addiction intend to do to this person?


4)Why does the alcoholic need a drink “early in the morning” as well as “late at night”?


5)How does the Lord react to the problem of addiction?


Many people question God’s intentions when they see suffering in the world. People wonder why God doesn’t fix all of our problems if he is able.


Let’s consider 1 Timothy 6:17 – Command those who are rich in this present world not to be arrogant nor to put their hope in wealth, which is so uncertain, but to put their hope in God, who richly provides us with everything for our enjoyment.

让我们思考提摩太前书6:17 –你 要 嘱 咐 那 些 今 世 富 足 的 人 , 不 要 自 高 , 也 不 要 倚 靠 无 定 的 钱 财 ;只 要 倚 靠 那 厚 赐 百 物 给 我 们 享 受 的 神 。 享 受 的 神 。

1)Describe how God blesses us according to this passage.


2)If God provides richly provides all we need, then what does God not send to us?

既然神厚 赐 百 物 给 我 们,那么有什么东西神不会赐给我们?

3)Addiction is really an illogical trust in something that is uncertain. How could you use 1 Tm. 6:17 to explain that truth?


This passage tells us that God is the one “who richly provides us with everything for our enjoyment.” That means that God is not the author of evil. Rather, he is the giver of all good things. The Bible makes it clear that Satan is the one who works diligently to ruin God’s blessings.

这节经文告诉我们 神是“厚 赐 百 物 给 我 们”的 那一位。这意味着神不是邪恶的王。他是所有美好事物的给予者。圣经明确告诉我们撒旦是竭力毁坏神祝福的那一个。

Addiction is really an illogical trust in something that is uncertain, as the passage explains. Addictions are not God’s problems; they are human problems. Satan takes advantage of them to try to control us and lead us to hopelessness. So, is there hope for an addict? As Christian counselors, it is our privilege to announce the certainty that there is hope in the Lord!


Let’s look at 1 John 1:8, 9 – If we claim to be without sin, we deceive ourselves and the truth is not in us. If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just and will forgive us our sins and purify us from all unrighteousness.

参看约翰一书1:8, 9 –我 们 若 说 自 己 无 罪 , 便 是 自 欺 , 真 理 不 在 我 们 心 里 了 。 9我 们 若 认 自 己 的 罪 , 神 是 信 实 的 , 是 公 义 的 , 必 要 赦 免 我 们 的 罪 , 洗 净 我 们 一 切 的 不 义 。

What is the main truth we want to leave with someone dealing with addictions?


Remember that repentance means:


Philippians 4:13 I can do everything through him who gives me strength. There are two important pronouns in this verse “I” and “him.”

腓立比书4:13 我 靠 着 那 加 给 我 力 量 的 , 凡 事 都 能 做 。这节经文中有两个重要的人称代词“我”和“他”。

Give examples of how an addict might make excuses about his/her addiction.

Explain how addicts need to have Christ in order to overcome their struggles.


Evaluate: it is important to tell an addict that s/he needs to work with God to overcome addiction.

评价: 告诉一个上瘾者他/她需要与神合作来戒瘾是非常重要的。

Some Mindful Questions … 7 思考题… 7

Mental health professionals are expected to conduct a variety of clinical interviews. Counselors must be able to put clients at ease, help them to feel understood, gather important information, set goals, and safely address any crises. This also applies to Christians in a helping our counseling ministry.


The following list of questions are examples of how a counselor can ask certain questions with the goal of better understanding the situation:


1)Have you ever been concerned about your substance use? If so, why?


2)How often do you use this substance?


3)At what age did you first begin using it?


4)Is there a history of addiction in your family of origin?


5)Has your addiction ever affected your job or family?

上瘾影响你的 工作 或家庭吗?

6)Have you ever tried to quit? What happened when you did? How did it make you feel?


7)Do you want to quit?


8)How do you envision your life changing if you could overcome your addiction?


Evaluation of Mood Disorder Patients in a Primary Care Practice:


Now, it’s Your Turn … 8 现在,实例练习8

Choose one of the case studies provided. Apply the concepts we’ve learned in this lesson to the case study:


  • Mr. Jones complains that his wife has been “nagging” him about his drinking. He admits that he has increased his amount of alcohol consumption the last few months, but that he only drinks on weekends. He drinks every weekend and is vague about the actual amount.

  • 琼斯先生抱怨妻子一直“唠叨”他喝酒。他承认过去几个月酒量增加,但他只在周末喝。他每个周末喝酒,喝多少没数。

  • Jill, a woman in her mid-forties, is a wife and mother of three children. She started playing card games in her teens, and became involved in betting on horses. She always believed she had her behavior under control until a casino opened up near her home. Now, she is there every chance she can get.

  • 吉尔,45岁的女士,是位有三个孩子的妻子和母亲。她在青少年时开始玩牌游戏,并参与赌马。她总是认为她能自控,直到她家附近开了个赌场。现在她逢赌必去。  1)Identify the addiction (drug or non-drug addiction).


2)What are some of the characteristics that help you to identify this as an addiction?


3)Apply the Steps to Follow part 5 to the case. Which one(s) fit the case study?


4) List the specific sins that you feel need to be addressed.


4)Explain how you would share good news of the gospel to this person.


5)Discuss the differences between drug addiction and non-drug addiction.


6)List and explain the 5 factors that can be traced to addiction.


7)How does “chemical tolerance” become a characteristic of addiction?


References: 参考:

Corsini, R.J., Wedding, D. (2008) Current Psychotherapies 8th ed. Belmont, CA Thomas Higher Education.

Meier, Minirth, Wichern, Ratcliff. (1992) Introduction to Psychology and Counseling: Christian Perspectives and Applications. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House.

Schuetze, A., Matzke, F. (1988) The Counseling Shepherd. Milwaukee, WI: Northwestern Publishing House.

Thombs, Dennis L. (2006) Introduction to Addictive Behaviors. Guilford Press.

Christian-Counseling-Part 1
基督徒心理辅导 大纲
Christian Counseling Catalog
第一课 上瘾
lesson 1 Addictions
第二课 抑郁症
lesson 2 Depression
第三课 焦虑
lesson 3 Anxiety
第四课 妒忌和羡慕
lesson 4 Jealousy and Envy
第五课 生气的解决方案
lesson 5 Anger Resolution
第六课 愧疚和羞耻
lesson 6 Guilt and Shame
第七课 悲痛和损失
lesson 7 Grief and Loss
第八课 自尊
lesson 8 Self Esteem
第一课 上瘾
lesson 1 Addictions