第四课 中世纪早期的基督教 公元590-1073年
Lesson 4: Early Middle-Aged Christianity 590 – 1073 A.D.

I.World conditions 世界概况

A.Europe’s Dark Ages 欧洲的黑暗时期

  1. Conquests by German tribes - rule in western Europe, northern and central Italy, England, France, and Germany resulted in lawlessness with no orderly government; fall of society


  2. Norse invasions - Viking pirates raided towns along the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts


  3. Government - no stable, lasting government during much of this period until 962


  4. Empire restored - under Charlemagne (ruled 768-814) and Otto I (crowned 962)


B. Moslems rule Eastern countries 穆斯林统治东欧国家

  1. Beginnings – Muhammad founded Islam (570-632); in Arabia


  2. Spread – By end of Muhammad’s life Islam spread across most of Arabia. By 732 it spread across north Africa to Spain and the battle of Tours in France. Islam took over most of the East, completely by 1453.


  3. Influence on the church – Islam almost wiped out Christianity in Moslem countries. Christianity in the East was no longer a factor.


II.Christian developments 基督教发展

A. Christianity spreads in Europe 基督教在欧洲传播

  1. In England - Angles and Saxons drove Christians to the west; monks from Ireland and Scotland returned in the 7th century; monks from Rome in 597 established religious centers at Canterbury and York; under rule of Rome in 664


  2. Among Germans - Boniface (680-755) from England to Thuringia


  3. In Scandinavia - Ansgar (801-865) to Denmark and Sweden


  4. Eastern Europe - in 9th century to the Slavic lands; Russian ruler Vladimir forced Christianity on the people in the late 10th century for political reasons


  5. Through monks - monasteries provided education, lessons in agriculture, preserved books, charity, care of the sick


  6. Methods of growth - people were accepted as soon as they would be baptized; little instruction given once in the church


B. The Pope’s power prospers. 教皇的权力大增

  1. Gregory I “the Great” - a man of noble character, great energy, devotion, ability; strongly believed the apostolic tradition of the Roman bishop; used his position to spread Roman rule by mission efforts


  2. Causes - collapse of any other government; people looked to the bishop at time of need; his exercise of spiritual authority made other rule natural


  3. Claims for power - “False Decretals” were forgeries of early church accounts giving false claims for the authority of the Roman bishop; written in the 9th century and used by Nicholas I (858-867)

    索取权力——“伪教令集”是早期教会的伪造教令,为给予罗马教皇权威的虚假声明, 编纂于9世纪,为尼古拉斯一世(858-867)所使用。

  4. The church divided - East and West separated first in 867 and later in permanent division in 1054 over authority of the Roman bishop


III.Islam emerges as an international power 伊斯兰教作为国际势力开始显露

A.The life of Muhammad 穆罕默德生平

  1. Early years - born in 570 at Mecca; parents died when young; at age 15 became a merchant for a wealthy widow, Khadijah, whom he later married


  2. Religious influences - probable contacts with Christians in Syria, no acceptance of central doctrines of Christian faith; idol worship in Arabia was popular (one of the gods called Allah)


  3. His claims - at age 40 a vision of angel Gabriel to be Allah’s messenger; claimed to receive direct revelations in a cave outside Mecca; his revelations later formulated in the Koran by his followers; claimed to be the final prophet


B.Early expansion of Islam 伊斯兰教的早期扩张

  1. During time of Muhammad - began preaching message of Islam after his visions, “There is no god but Allah (the one god), and Muhammad is his prophet”; much hostility at first; forced to flee Mecca in 622 to Medina (the Hegira); support for followers by raiding caravans; in 630 conquered Mecca and forced his beliefs upon the people


  2. Following death - power struggles among relatives resulted in factions of Shiite and Shunni


  3. Conquests - North Africa, Spain, Turkey, Persia, Arabia, Egypt, Palestine, Iraq, Armenia


C.Islamic teachings 伊斯兰教义

  1. Koran - holy book of their faith; recorded after Muhammad’s death; used as textbook in Moslem countries


  2. The Bible and Christianity - the Bible revered but interpreted on basis of Koran; prophets and Jesus as lesser messengers; rejection of the Trinity; rejection of atonement of Jesus


  3. Five Pillars of Islam –


    a. State that Allah is the only God and Mohammad is his prophet;


    b. ritual prayer five times daily;


    c. almsgiving of 140 of all possessions;


    d. fasting during month of Ramadan;


    e. pilgrimage to Mecca


  4. Other laws - rules of life interpreted by the leaders; no priesthood by a presiding elder (imam) who leads prayers; no pork, drinking or gambling; women in strict obedience; belief and practice in racial equality; at times tolerant of other religions; swift punishment for wrongdoers



主要内容 合乎圣经的基督教 伊斯兰教
Who is God? The only real God is triune: 1+1+1=1. The Father is 100% God. The Son is 100% God. The Holy Spirit is 100% God. There is only one God. God is Allah. There is only one God. Many Muslims think Christians believe in three gods, which means they worship an idol.
谁是上帝? 三位一体的神是独一真神;圣父是百分之百的上帝;圣子是百分之百的神;圣灵是百分之百的神。只有一个上帝。 安拉就是上帝。很多穆斯林认为基督教信仰三位上帝,这就意味着他们在崇拜偶像。
Who is Jesus? Jesus is 100% God.He is God the Son.He has always existed.No one made Him.He became 100% God and 100% human at His conception in Mary.His life and damnation death is the only way to God and escape from hell. He came back to life and is still alive.He will be humanity’s judge on the last day. Jesus (“Isa”) is one of the 124,000 messengers Allah has sent us.Jesus is not God.God is not Jesus.Jesus was born from a virgin, a great miracle worker, and sinless.He didn’t die on a cross.He will have a role when he returns before the last day, maybe turning Christians to Islam.
耶稣是谁? 耶稣是百分之百的神。是上帝之子,是一直存在的。没人造就他,在玛利亚怀孕时他既是完全的神,也是完全的人。他的生命和受咒诅的死亡是唯一通往上帝的道路,也是唯一从地狱逃脱的道路他从死里复活并且仍然活着。在审判日他将审判众人。 耶稣(伊萨)是124000名神的使者之一。安拉派遣他们给我们。上帝不是耶稣。耶稣从童贞女所生,是个伟大奇迹,是无罪地。他不是死于十字架。当他在审判日再次返回时他将在审判日担任一个角色,可能是使基督徒转向伊斯兰教。
Who is the Holy Spirit? The Holy Spirit is God.He is a person, not a force or energy source.He is not the Father or the Son, Jesus.He makes people believers and keeps them part of God’s family. Allah has or is a spirit.Muslim reject the concept of the 1+1+1=1 God.They do not believe there is a person who is God who is the Holy Spirit.
圣灵是谁? 圣灵是上帝。他是三位一体神的一个位格,不是力量和精神来源。不是圣父或圣子耶稣。他使人成为信徒并让人成为上帝家庭的一部分。 安拉有或者就是一个灵。穆斯林拒绝三位一体神的概念。不相信有个人既是上帝又是圣 灵。
How to be saved? Out of God’s love no one deserves He designed a plan to rescue everyone. He sent Jesus to substitute His perfect life and damnation death for every human.Those who reject God’s gift go to hell.God deserves the credit for everyone who depends on Jesus. Humans are basically good, but they can sin.They need Allah’s help.The balance between the good and evil you do determines whether you will go to heaven or hell.The more obedient you are to Allah, the more mercy he will show you.
如何得救? 除了上帝的爱之外无人值得救赎。神制定了计划来拯救所有人。他派遣耶稣以完美的生命和受诅咒的死亡代替每个人受死。凡是拒绝上帝恩典的都将下地狱。凡是依赖耶稣基督的人都应称颂上帝。 人类本质上是善的,但是可以犯罪。需要安拉的帮助。你所行的善与恶之间的平衡状况决定了你是要上天堂还是下地狱。你越顺从安拉,他就会给你越多的仁慈。
What happens after death? The bodies of both believers and non-believers will come back to life at the end. Jesus will take believers to heaven. Those who reject Jesus’ gift will suffer forever in hell. Muslims believe Allah will bring their dead bodies to life again.The punishment of hell is a common theme in the Koran.Islam believes paradise is a garden where Allah will give virgin girls to righteous men.
死后会如何? 信徒和非信徒的身体在死后都会最终复活。耶稣将带信徒升上天堂。拒绝耶稣恩典的将永远在地狱忍受痛苦。 穆斯林相信安拉会让他们起死回生。古兰经中,地狱的惩罚是个永恒的主题。伊斯兰教相信天堂是一个花园,在那里,安拉把童贞女们许配给义人。
Other facts, beliefs, or practices Group worship.No secret ceremonies.Baptism and Communion Voluntary charity and missionary work are important for reaching people with Jesus’ love. Worship is in a mosque.Holy efforts to spread Islam are jihad.Always pray facing Mecca.
其他事实、信条或实践 团体敬拜。没有秘密敬拜仪式。受洗和圣餐,自愿做慈善,传教对把人们带向耶稣的爱是非常重要的。 在清真寺做礼拜。为传播伊斯兰教做出神圣努力就是圣战。永远朝向麦加祷告。
Christian History After Jesus
Lesson 1: Influences on Christians
第二课:早期基督教 公元100-313
Lesson 2: Ancient Christianity 100 – 313 A.D
第三课 早期基督教 公元313-590年
Lesson 3: Ancient Christianity 313 – 590 A.D.
第四课 中世纪早期的基督教 公元590-1073年
Lesson 4: Early Middle-Aged Christianity 590 – 1073 A.D.
第五课 中世纪早期的基督教 II 公元590-1073年
Lesson 5: Early Middle-Aged Christianity II 590 – 1073 A.D.
第六课 中世纪基督教的高度 公元1074-1294
Lesson 6: The Height of Middle-Aged Christianity, 1074-1294
Lesson 7: Middle-Aged Decay, Then New Life, 1294-1517
第八课:宗教改革时期,第一部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 8: The Reformation Age, part 1: 1517 – 1648
第九课:宗教改革时期 ,第二部分:1517 – 1648
Lesson 9: The Reformation Age, part 2: 1517 – 1648
第十课:基督教: 1648年至现代
Lesson 10: Christianity: 1648-Modern times
第四课 中世纪早期的基督教 公元590-1073年
Lesson 4: Early Middle-Aged Christianity 590 – 1073 A.D.