第八课：宗教改革时期，第一部分：1517 – 1648
Lesson 8: The Reformation Age, part 1: 1517 – 1648
I. Political and social scenery 政治与社会背景
A. In the East 在东方
in 1453 Constantinople fell to the Turks. The entire East remained in Moslem control. Muslims invade Europe.
a. Christianity established itself in China on at least 4 occasions. The first three failed.
i. The first Nestorian mission operated from the 600s through the 800s.
ii. The second Nestorian mission operated in the 1200s and 1300s.
iii. The Roman Catholic mission grew during the 1500s and 1600s.
The Catholic mission collapsed after 1700.
a. The Vatican prohibited Jesuit attempts to accommodate Chinese customs and language in the liturgy.
b. This made the Chinese government persecute Christians as agents of a foreign government.
B. In Europe – Charles V elected to the throne of the Holy Roman Empire in 1519 (Spain, Netherlands, Germany, Austria). Strong rulers in France and England competed for power and challenged the pope. 在欧洲——1519年查尔斯五世登上神圣罗马帝国的宝座（西班牙，尼德兰，德国，奥地利）。法国和英国的强大统治者们为权势竞争并向教皇发出挑战。
C. World events - the Renaissance opened learning and people’s minds to new outlooks. 世界时事—— 文艺复兴开启人们对于新观点的思想和学识的大门。
Invention of the printing press made large numbers of books available.
Columbus discovered the New World in 1492.
II. Condition of the Roman Catholic Church 罗马天主教教会的情况
A. The Popes 教皇
Julius II (1503-1513), known as the “warrior pope.”
a. He began St. Peter’s at Rome in 1506.
b. He hired Raphael and Michelangelo to produce works of art.
c. Leo X (1513-1522) raised money to continue work on St. Peter’s through the sale of indulgences.
B. Spiritual life among the people – there was growing resentment against the church because it became powerful and wealthy at the expense of the people. 人们的属灵生命——因为教皇在向人们高额收费的情况下变得强大富有，人们反对教会的愤恨不断上升。
III. The work of Martin Luther 马丁路德的工作
A. Early life 早期生活
Martin Luther was born in 1483 at Eisleben, Saxony, Germany.
a. He was the first child of Hans, a prosperous mine owner, and his wife Margaretta.
b. His parents were stern but loving, and very religious.
c. His father was determined to send his son to school to be a lawyer.
From a young age Martin Luther wanted to be sure about his relationship with God.
B. Becoming a monk 成为一个修道士
At age 18 Luther entered the University of Erfurt to become a lawyer.
He got caught in a thunderstorm one day in 1505. A bolt of lightning knocked him to the ground. Luther was terrified. He called out to the protecting saint of miners, “St. Anne, save me! I’ll become a monk!”
Two weeks later he entered the Augustinian monastery at Erfurt and became a serious monk.
C. Life as a monk 修道士的生活
Sometimes he went without food for three days.
He slept often without a blanket in freezing winter weather.
All his self-discipline brought him no spiritual rest or comfort.
His supervisor, Jon Staupitz, talked to Luther about God’s mercy, but Luther blurted out, “I do not love God! I hate him!”
Staupitz encouraged him to study to become a priest. Luther was ordained a priest in 1507.
As he served his first Mass, he almost ran in a panic out of the church. He was scared to death of being that close to a holy God.
His superiors sent him to Rome in 1510 as a messenger.
D. As a university professor 作为一名大学教授
He was assigned to Wittenberg University as a professor of theology in 1511.
He earned a doctor of theology degree in 1512.
Luther fixated on God’s high standards, what the Bible calls “God’s righteousness.” He had no idea what the gospel really was.
a. He became fascinated by Jesus’ words from the cross, “My God, my God, why have You forsaken Me?”
b. He thought, “God turned His back on Jesus? God should turn His back on me. Why did He do it to Jesus?”
c. The answer had to lie with Jesus’ identity with sinners. He shared people’s separation from God to assume the punishment God demanded of sinners.
Luther lectured on Psalms, Romans, and Galatians.
He also served as preacher at the Castle Church.
1458 He gradually understood that God’s righteousness isn’t just His demand. It’s also His donation. God gives us Jesus’ holiness and helps us depend on Jesus’ life and damnation in our place (Romans 1:17).
E. Protest over indulgences 抗议赎罪券
Luther was getting upset about what Catholics taught about relics, pilgrimages, and prayers to saints.He was also upset about the church’s teaching that you simply have to make an appearance at church but not understand what’s going on there.
The pope had Jon Tetzel selling indulgences in Germany.
On October 31, 1517, Luther nailed 95 discussion topics to the university’s church doors, which were like a bulletin board.
These topics got wide distribution in Europe because of the printing press.
Pope Leo X summoned Luther to Rome. Luther refused.
The Leipzig debate against Catholic scholar Jon Eck set Luther against the church and the pope.
莱比锡与天主教学者约翰艾克的辩论 使路德反对天主教教会和教皇 。
Luther published many books to explain to the people of Germany what the Bible taught.
a. Only Jesus can rescue us by His life and death.
b. Only the Bible can tell us what to believe and how to live, not the pope or church “experts.”
c. There are only two sacraments, Baptism and Holy Communion, not seven.
d. He said you don’t need a priest to make the Lord’s Supper official.
e. He taught that the Bible explains that every believer is a priest.
f. He taught that church work is not the only holy profession. God uses every profession to serve other people. Even being a mother or a farmer is a holy profession to God.
F. Trial and excommunication 审判和驱逐
Luther refused to respond to the pope’s requests to say his writings were incorrect and unholy.
In 1520 Pope Leo issued his official statement that Luther was a heretic, headed to hell.
Luther burned the pope’s document on December 10.
Emperor Charles summoned Luther to a judicial gathering in the German city of Worms in 1521.
Luther stood up to the emperor and experts.
The Emperor declared Luther an outlaw. Anyone who killed him would not be in trouble.
Friends hid him in the Wartburg castle, where he stayed for nearly a year and translated the whole New Testament into German. Perhaps 200,000 copies sold between 1522 and 1534.
G. Progress 进展
New reformers, far more radical than Luther, appeared in Luther’s absence. They were turning people away from the Bible and to their own feelings.
新的改革者，比路德更加激进 ，在路德不在时企图控制局面。 他们领人偏离圣经而依靠自己的感觉。
Luther returned to Wittenberg in 1522 to stabilize the situation.
He married Catherine von Bora, a former nun, in 1525 and had 6 children.
100,000 peasants died in a revolt in 1525. They believed Luther had given them permission to rebel against their rulers.
Luther fixed the church service to emphasize teaching God’s Word. He translated worship services into German and gave the people bread and wine in the Lord’s Supper.
Luther published the Large and Small Catechisms in 1529.
Luther had discussions with Zwingli in 1529 over fifteen points of doctrine.
Augsburg Confession in 1530 gave the official Bible teachings of the Lutheran Church in Germany.
Luther’s teachings spread to Scandinavian countries and other parts of Europe.
H. Accomplishments – He helped people answer four confusing questions: 成就——他帮助人们回答了4个令人困扰的问题：
How can we be sure we’re safe from God’s rage and punishment?
Who should we believe when we have questions about God?
How can we be sure we are part of God’s family of believers?
What is real Christian living?
I. Death on February 18, 1546, buried in Castle Church in Wittenberg 路德于1546年二月18号去世，被葬在瓦特堡的城堡教堂。
IV. Results of the Lutheran Reformation 路德宗改革结果
A. Christian doctrine 基督教教义
Luther removed from the church the results of years of false teachings and corruption.
He reminded people that God’s Word and Sacrament are the way God reaches us, not by religious things we do for Him.
He emphasized the Bible teaching that all believers are God’s ministers.
He got rid of superstition and exposed the worship of the saints and Mary as idol worship.
B. Education 教育
Luther wrote little Bible teaching manuals for parents to use for teaching their children.
He established schools in the churches to train children.
C. Worship life 敬拜生活
He introduced worship in the language of the people instead of Latin.
He introduced congregational participation by having the group sing hymns and psalms in German.
D. To other lands 到过其他国家
Sweden in 1527
Denmark in 1536
Norway in 1539
He helped the Bible influence many other Protestant leaders in Europe.