第一课 - 看犹太教历史，追溯基督教根源
lesson 1 - Tracing the Roots of Christianity back to Historic Judaism
• It’s important for every Christian to understand their roots or origins. Aside from tracing the human ancestry of Jesus Christ back to Adam and Eve, another reason the Bible traces our lineage to our first parents is so that we never forget where we came from and how we were brought into God’s family. Scripture makes it clear that we came into the family of God only by the grace of God. In this study we will investigate the following topics • 每个基督徒都应该了解自己的根或起源。圣经把 耶稣基督的人类始祖追溯到了亚当夏娃，也把我们的 始祖追溯到了人类的第一对父母那里。这样做的目的是要让 我们永远不要忘记我们是从哪里来，以及我们是怎样被带到神的家里。圣经清楚地说明，我们只有通过神的恩典才得以进入神的家。在这个课程中，我们将探究下面几个题目:
Followers of Jesus – the real children of Abraham
Modern day Judaism – A Chist-less faith
• It’s important to note that not 1 page of the Bible had been recorded until about 500 years after Abraham when God raised up the prophet Moses to record for us the creation account. So for approximately 2,500 years, it was an oral tradition passed down from one generation to the next, whereby God preserved his people until glory in heaven. Biblical words weren’t recorded till about 1,500 B.C. or 500 years after the time-period of Abraham.
• The following chart serves as a brief time-line that accounts for key people and events that transpire from the time of creation to the time-period of God’s calling of the patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and the 12 tribes of Israel. You can trace that lineage that brought about the Savior of the world by looking at the green shaded names of people from one generation to the next. Those shaded in green were called by God’s grace to bring forth the future Savior of the world!
The Story of Abraham
• The historical origins of the Jewish people or the people of Israel is traced back to Abraham. According to Genesis, Abraham came from a heathen home, where his father Terah worshiped false gods, and God called Abraham to pack up his belongings and move from the city of Haran, to the land of Canaan, which is modern day Israel or Lebanon.
Genesis 12:1-3 The Lord had said to Abram, “Go from your country, your people and your father’s household to the land I will show you. 2 “I will make you into a great nation, and I will bless you; I will make your name great, and you will be a blessing. 3 I will bless those who bless you, and whoever curses you I will curse; and all peoples on earth will be blessed through you.”
创世纪12:1-3—-1耶 和 华 对 亚 伯 兰 说 ： 你 要 离 开 本 地 、 本 族 、 父 家 ， 往 我 所 要 指 示 你 的 地 去 。2我 必 叫 你 成 为 大 国 。 我 必 赐 福 给 你 ， 叫 你 的 名 为 大 ； 你 也 要 叫 别 人 得 福 。3为 你 祝 福 的 ， 我 必 赐 福 与 他 ； 那 咒 诅 你 的 ， 我 必 咒 诅 他 。 地 上 的 万 族 都 要 因 你 得 福 。
Who is meant by “All peoples”?
If Abraham would be the father of the Jewish people, how would “all peoples” be blessed through him?
Why then do Christians trace their ancestry back to Abraham?
Review the New Testament Scriptures and determine who the true children of Abraham are in the following passages…
Romans 9:6-8 It is not as though God’s word had failed. For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel. 7 Nor because they are his descendants are they all Abraham’s children. On the contrary, “It is through Isaac that your offspring will be reckoned.” 8 In other words, it is not the children by physical descent who are God’s children, but it is the children of the promise who are regarded as Abraham’s offspring.
罗9:6-8—-6这 不 是 说 神 的 话 落 了 空 。 因 为 从 以 色 列 生 的 不 都 是 以 色 列 人 ， 7也 不 因 为 是 亚 伯 拉 罕 的 后 裔 就 都 作 他 的 儿 女 ； 惟 独 从 以 撒 生 的 才 要 称 为 你 的 后 裔 。 8这 就 是 说 ， 肉 身 所 生 的 儿 女 不 是 神 的 儿 女 ， 惟 独 那 应 许 的 儿 女 才 算 是 后 裔 。
What does the apostle Paul, who himself was an Israelite, teach us about Abraham’s true children?
Galatians 3:1-9 You foolish Galatians! Who has bewitched you? Before your very eyes Jesus Christ was clearly portrayed as crucified. I would like to learn just one thing from you: Did you receive the Spirit by the works of the law, or by believing what you heard? Are you so foolish? After beginning by means of the Spirit, are you now trying to finish by means of the flesh? Have you experienced so much in vain—if it really was in vain? So again I ask, does God give you his Spirit and work miracles among you by the works of the law, or by your believing what you heard? So also Abraham “believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness.” Understand, then, that those who have faith are children of Abraham. Scripture foresaw that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, and announced the gospel in advance to Abraham: “All nations will be blessed through you.” So those who rely on faith are blessed along with Abraham, the man of faith.
现代标点和合本 (CUVMP Simplified)
加3:1-9—-1 无知的加拉太人哪！耶稣基督钉十字架，已经活画在你们眼前，谁又迷惑了你们呢？ 2 我只要问你们这一件：你们受了圣灵，是因行律法呢，是因听信福音呢？ 3 你们既靠圣灵入门，如今还靠肉身成全吗？你们是这样的无知吗？ 4 你们受苦如此之多，都是徒然的吗？难道果真是徒然的吗？ 5 那赐给你们圣灵，又在你们中间行异能的，是因你们行律法呢，是因你们听信福音呢？ 6 正如“亚伯拉罕信神，这就算为他的义”。 7 所以你们要知道：那以信为本的人，就是亚伯拉罕的子孙。 8 并且圣经既然预先看明神要叫外邦人因信称义，就早已传福音给亚伯拉罕，说：“万国都必因你得福。” 9 可见那以信为本的人和有信心的亚伯拉罕一同得福。
The churches in Galatia, predominantly Gentile in origin, first heard the gospel and rejoiced in their free forgiveness and salvation. But it wasn’t long before Jewish converts to the faith of Christianity, who still held on to the ceremonial laws of God, convinced them that they had to keep the law of circumcision in order to be saved, which was an Old Testament ceremony. You can sense a very disheartened apostle Paul in this letter as a result of works being added to grace. But Paul teaches us the true meaning of that first promise given to Abraham that “all peoples” will be blessed through Abraham. What is the true meaning of it?
1 Peter 2:9,10 But you are a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God’s special possession, that you may declare the praises of him who called you out of darkness into his wonderful light. Once you were not a people, but now you are the people of God; once you had not received mercy, but now you have received mercy.
彼前2:9-10—-9 唯有你们是被拣选的族类，是有君尊的祭司，是圣洁的国度，是属神的子民，要叫你们宣扬那召你们出黑暗、入奇妙光明者的美德。 10 你们从前算不得子民，现在却做了神的子民；从前未曾蒙怜恤，现在却蒙了怜恤。
List the Jewish names that Peter now calls the predominantly Gentile church.
• Historic Judasim has a complicated past that is traced through the Old Testament writings of Scripture. They are often depicted by God as a nation that was stiff-necked (stubbon) and rebellious. They often tried to look more like their heathen neighbors than they did God’s chosen and special people. However, in the midst of God’s children who abused grace, you can find a faithful remnant that God reserved by his grace that anxiously anticipated the promises first given to Adam and Eve of a Savior. The New Testament introduces us to a handful of faithful Jews anticipating the arrival of God’s Anointed Messiah. Read the following…
Luke 2:25-38 Now there was a man in Jerusalem called Simeon, who was righteous and devout. He was waiting for the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was on him. It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not die before he had seen the Lord’s Messiah. Moved by the Spirit, he went into the temple courts. When the parents brought in the child Jesus to do for him what the custom of the Law required, Simeon took him in his arms and praised God, saying: “Sovereign Lord, as you have promised, you may now dismiss your servant in peace. For my eyes have seen your salvation, which you have prepared in the sight of all nations: a light for revelation to the Gentiles, and the glory of your people Israel.” The child’s father and mother marveled at what was said about him. Then Simeon blessed them and said to Mary, his mother: “This child is destined to cause the falling and rising of many in Israel, and to be a sign that will be spoken against, so that the thoughts of many hearts will be revealed. And a sword will pierce your own soul too.” There was also a prophet, Anna, the daughter of Penuel, of the tribe of Asher. She was very old; she had lived with her husband seven years after her marriage, and then was a widow until she was eighty-four. She never left the temple but worshiped night and day, fasting and praying. Coming up to them at that very moment, she gave thanks to God and spoke about the child to all who were looking forward to the redemption of Jerusalem.
路2:25-38—-25 在耶路撒冷有一个人名叫西面，这人又公义又虔诚，素常盼望以色列的安慰者来到，又有圣灵在他身上。26 他得了圣灵的启示，知道自己未死以前，必看见主所立的基督。 27 他受了圣灵的感动，进入圣殿，正遇见耶稣的父母抱着孩子进来，要照律法的规矩办理。 28 西面就用手接过他来，称颂神，说： 29 “主啊，如今可以照你的话，释放仆人安然去世！ 30 因为我的眼睛已经看见你的救恩， 31 就是你在万民面前所预备的， 32 是照亮外邦人的光，又是你民以色列的荣耀。” 33 孩子的父母因这论耶稣的话就稀奇。 34 西面给他们祝福，又对孩子的母亲马利亚说：“这孩子被立，是要叫以色列中许多人跌倒、许多人兴起，又要做毁谤的话柄， 35 叫许多人心里的意念显露出来。你自己的心也要被刀刺透。”36 又有女先知名叫亚拿，是亚设支派法内力的女儿，年纪已经老迈，从做童女出嫁的时候，同丈夫住了七年就寡居了， 37 现在已经八十四岁 b，并不离开圣殿，禁食、祈求，昼夜侍奉神。 38 正当那时，她进前来称谢神，将孩子的事对一切盼望耶路撒冷得救赎的人讲说。
Notice the highlighted words of the text. What is the explanation as to why Simeon and Anna were waiting for their Messiah when so many Jews in their day were not?
• So what happened to the Jewish people? Ultimately Scripture teaches us that they rejected their Savior. But it wasn’t for a lack of effort in their Savior trying to reach them. Scholars estimate that there is between 13.5 and 15.5 million Jews. And many of them today are atheist or non-practicing Jews. Compare that to the 2 billion in this world that identify their faith with Christianity. In spite of being rejected for many centuries, Jesus teaches us in the gospel of St. Luke that it’s always been his desire that they be saved and not damned.
• 那么，犹太人身上发生了什么事?圣经最后告诉我们，他们弃绝了他们的救主，而其中的原因并不是因为他们的救主没有努力寻找他们。学者认为，犹太人的数目在1350万 到 1550万之间，但他们很多人今天都是无神论，或是不信犹太教的人。拿那个数字对比今天世界上认同基督信仰的20亿人。尽管他们很多世纪都在拒绝耶稣，但我们在路加福音中看到，耶稣的心意却永远都是要拯救他们，而不是诅咒他们下地狱。
Read the following…读以下经文：
Luke 13:34 “Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those sent to you, how often I have longed to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, and you were not willing.
Jerusalem, who is a picture of the Jewish people because of their place of worship, was accused by Jesus of doing what?
Acts 13:46-48 Then Paul and Barnabas answered them boldly: “We had to speak the word of God to you first. Since you reject it and do not consider yourselves worthy of eternal life, we now turn to the Gentiles. 47 For this is what the Lord has commanded us: “‘I have made you a light for the Gentiles, that you[g] may bring salvation to the ends of the earth.’” 48 When the Gentiles heard this, they were glad and honored the word of the Lord; and all who were appointed for eternal life believed.
徒13:46-48—-46 保罗和巴拿巴就放胆直言，说：“神的话语 先传给你们是必须的。既然你们弃绝这道，断定自己不配得永恒的生命，看哪，我们就转向外邦人， 47 因为主是这样吩咐我们的： ‘我已经指派你为外邦人的光， 使你把救恩带到地极。’ ” 48 外邦人听了这话就感到欢喜，不住地荣耀主的福音 ，凡是被预定进入永恒生命的人都信了。
Why did Paul and Barnabas tell the Jewish people that they had to speak the word of the gospel to them first?
Why did they turn away from the Jews and turn the gospel over to the Gentiles?
Modern day Judaism – A Christ-less faith
Three branches of Modern day Judaism:
1 )Orthodox – Adhere strictly to the Law & rabbinical interpretations of the Law, including all of the dietary laws, rituals, and ceremonies. Orthodox Jews place a heavy emphasis upon the homeland of Israel for dwelling place.
2) Conservative – might be considered a balance between the Reform and the Orthodox. Not so concerned by where a Jew must live in order to be a practicing Jew, but still practices many of the Jewish ceremonies.
3) Reform – The liberal branch of Judaism that basically traces its ancestral line to Jewish people, following some of the dietary restrictions but not as closely, but still holds the Sabbath to be sacred as well as some of the major Jewish holidays. The Reform has both female priests and homosexual priests.
• It’s important to note that historic Judaism provided the vehicle by which God’s Son would be born to this world through the Virgin Mary, a descendant of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Judah, and eventually King David. But by the time Jesus would walk this earth, Judaism of his day became so bogged down by petty laws and legalism, as the religious leaders of Jesus’ day believed that that was the way a man got right with God, rather than through the promise of deliverance through a Savior. For this reason, the Jews have in many respects blinded themselves in their own unbelief of a Messiah. Orthodox Jews today, believe that Israel, the nation, is the Messiah. Sadly, they take those beautiful messianic prophecies of the Old Testament and instead of applying them to Jesus, our Savior, they apply them to themselves (Israel) as a nation. No prophet spoke more candidly about our Savior than did the prophet Isaiah, whom Jesus often quoted in the gospels. Read the following…
Matthew 13:13-16 This is why I speak to them in parables: “Though seeing, they do not see; though hearing, they do not hear or understand. In them is fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah: “‘You will be ever hearing but never understanding; you will be ever seeing but never perceiving. For this people’s heart has become calloused; they hardly hear with their ears, and they have closed their eyes. Otherwise they might see with their eyes, hear with their ears, understand with their hearts and turn, and I would heal them.’ But blessed are your eyes because they see, and your ears because they hear.
太13:13-16—-13 我之所以用比喻对他们说，是因为他们虽然看了，却看不见；听了，却听不进，也不领悟。 14 在他们身上，正应验了以赛亚的预言，他说： ‘你们将听了又听，但绝不会领悟； 你们将看了又看，但绝不会明白； 15 因为这子民的心麻木了， 他们充耳不闻，眼睛闭着； 免得他们眼睛看见，耳朵听见，心里领悟， 回转过来，我就使他们痊愈。’ 16 “但你们的眼睛是蒙福的，因为看见了；你们的耳朵是蒙福的，因为听见了。
• As a consequence to Israel’s unbelief, they were looking for the wrong sort of Messiah – a national hero like David from of old, rather than a Savior from sin. So when Jesus made the claim of being their Anointed Messiah, they tried throwing him off of a cliff. Read the following…
Luke 4:16-21, 28-30 He went to Nazareth, where he had been brought up, and on the Sabbath day he went into the synagogue, as was his custom. He stood up to read, 17 and the scroll of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. Unrolling it, he found the place where it is written: 18 “The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, to set the oppressed free, 19 to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor.” 20 Then he rolled up the scroll, gave it back to the attendant and sat down. The eyes of everyone in the synagogue were fastened on him. 21 He began by saying to them, “Today this scripture is fulfilled in your hearing.” 28 All the people in the synagogue were furious when they heard this. 29 They got up, drove him out of the town, and took him to the brow of the hill on which the town was built, in order to throw him off the cliff. 30 But he walked right through the crowd and went on his way.
16 耶稣来到拿撒勒，就是他长大的地方。在安息日那天，他照自己的习惯进了会堂，站起来要诵读经文。 17 有人就把先知以赛亚的书递给他。他展开书卷，找到一处，那里写道： 18 “主的灵在我身上， 因为他膏立我 去向贫穷的人传福音， 他差派我 去宣告： 被掳的得释放， 瞎眼的得看见， 让受欺压的得自由， 19 宣告主所悦纳的禧年。” 20 然后耶稣把书卷好，还给会堂助理，坐了下来。会堂里，众人的眼睛都注视着他。 21 耶稣开始对他们说：“今天，在你们耳中的这段经文，已经应验了。”
28 会堂里的人听了这些话，都满腔怒火。 29 他们就起来把耶稣赶出城外，拉到山崖上，要把他推下去。他们的城是建在山上的。 30 但耶稣从他们中间穿过去，走开了。
• The word for Messiah (Hebrew word) or Christ (Greek word) means “Anointed One” a very fitting title for the prophecy of Isaiah that Jesus read inside of the Jewish Synagogue when he quoted Isaiah saying, “He [Spirit] has anointed me to preach…” Jesus was anointed by the Holy Spirit at his Baptism to be our prophet, priest and king. But because the Jews viewed him, NOT as a future national hero, but as an ordinary man from Nazareth whom they saw grow up in Mary and Joseph’s household, they wanted nothing to do with him! What a shame. It is for this reason that Christians and Jews separate their heritage at the time of Christ – they go through life without Jesus; we go through life with him.
• 弥赛亚（希伯来语）或基督（希腊语）一词的意思是“受膏者”，该词是以赛亚预言最恰当的标题。耶稣在犹太会堂读出来的就是以赛亚的这个预言：““他（主的灵）在我身上，因为他膏立我–去—传福音。”耶稣在洗礼中被圣灵膏立，成为我们的先知、祭司和君王。但因为犹太人不把他看作未来的民族英雄，而是一个在马利亚和约瑟家里长大、来自拿撒勒的普通人， 所以他们不想和他有任何关系！这真让人羞愧！因为这个原因，基督徒和犹太教徒便在基督的时代分道扬镳：他们过着没有基督的生活，而我们则过着与基督同行的生活。
Differences and similarities between modern day Judaism and Christianity
Both Jews and Christians claim to be monotheistic, which means we worship one God based on the following from Old Testament Scriptures:
Deuteronomy 6:4 Hear, O Israel, the LORD our God, the LORD is one.”
• Christians, however, believe that the one God that Scripture reveals to us manifests himself in three distinct persons – Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. And it’s Moses who first reveals the persons of the triune God in the opening words of Genesis when he records these words of God, “Let us make man in our image” (Genesis 1:26).
Neither Christians nor Jews deny the historicity of Jesus from Nazareth and both accept the historical fact that he died on a cross.
• Jews, however do not believe that his death atoned for sin, nor do they accept the fact that his grave was empty on the 3rd day. For that would mandate their acceptance of his entire ministry. Christians however, believe in the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, which has fully satisfied the anger of our righteous and holy God who hates sin. Jews believe that because God is a gracious God, if a person lives a morally, righteous life according to the laws of Moses recorded in the Ten Commandments – they can be saved from eternal death. They don’t believe that anyone made a payment for sin on their behalf. It’s important to note a subtle distinction here in the various sects of Judaism. The more strict the sect; the more difficult it becomes to earn God’s favor and go to heaven.
Salvation for the Jews today is seeking God’s mercy for their best efforts in keeping the Torah or Ten Commandments of Moses. So their religion is a religion based on the character of the individual and the fact that they would still consider themselves the chosen people of God.
• Salvation for the Christian comes by God’s grace through faith in Jesus Christ based on these words of Scripture… “It is by grace you have been saved, through faith, and this not of yourselves it is the gift of God, not by works so that no man can boast” (Ephesians 2:8,9). So salvation for the Christian rests in the certain promises of God to provide him/her with the salvation and forgiveness through Christ.
弗2:8-9—-“8 你们得救是本乎恩，也因着信。这并不是出于自己，乃是神所赐的； 9 也不是出于行为，免得有人自夸。”所以，基督徒的救赎依赖的是神的某些应许，即他要通过基督向人提供救恩和赦免。
Christians fix their eyes on the afterlife while Jews focus their efforts on the present life.
Jewish Scriptures – The Tanakh- The Torah (Law) of Moses, which is Genesis – Deuteronomy, and the Prophets and Writings, which together make up for them our Old Testament Scriptures. The Christian Scriptures include both Old and New Testament and see Jesus as the fulfillment of all the Scriptures based on our Savior’s own words to the Jewish people of his day…John 5:39-40 “You study the Scriptures diligently because you think that in them you have eternal life. These are the very Scriptures that testify about me, yet you refuse to come to me to have life.”
犹太人的经书——塔纳赫，即摩西律法，包括创世纪、申命记、先知和先知书。这些书卷合起来构成了我们的旧约圣经。基督徒的圣经包括旧约和新约，而且根据我们救主对他那个时代的犹太人亲自说的话，圣经把耶稣看为整本圣经的完结者。约5:39-4039 “你们查考圣经，因你们以为内中有永生。给我作见证的就是这经， 40 然而你们不肯到我这里来得生命。”
• Additional Jewish Scriptures include the Mishnah – Additional teachings written and compiled until the 2nd century A.D. and the Talmud – Additional writings, teachings and commentaries inclusive of the Mishnah, compiled around 5th century A.D. These 3 books rule every facet of an Orthodox Jew’s life.
• As Christians, it’s important that we understand there is NO salvation outside of faith in Jesus Christ and therefore a Jew who denies this world’s only Savior will face him as judge in the life to come. Therefore we must continue to pray for them and witness to them and testify to the truth of the gospel.
Acts 4:12 Salvation is found in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given to men by which we must be saved.”
Philippians 2:9-11 Therefore God exalted him to the highest place and gave him the name that is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.
腓立比书2:9—11—-9 所以神将他升为至高，又赐给他那超乎万名之上的名， 10 叫一切在天上的、地上的和地底下的，因耶稣的名无不屈膝， 11 无不口称耶稣基督为主，使荣耀归于父神。