第二课 -- 正统派教会—简要概述圣经中的基督教及其不同形态
lesson 2 -- Orthodoxy – a brief overview of Biblical Christianity and its various forms
Since Christianity began, the outward form of the church has undergone several changes. As Jesus once said to the Samaritan woman at the well, “God is spirit, and his worshipers must worship in the Spirit and in truth” (John 4:24).
Christianity was an outlawed faith in most locations until Emperor Constantine legalized the faith across the Roman Empire in A.D. 313.
The significant division, often called “The Great Schism” occurred in A.D. 1054 as a result of the Western church declaring the Bishop of Rome as their pope (father) or Vicar of Christ. This was based on a false view of Matthew 16 where they believe Peter was the first pope and that there has always been an apostolic succession of popes since that time.
【教派的重大分裂发生在公元1054年，常被称为“教派大分裂”（“The Great Schism” ）。分裂的原因是西方教会宣布罗马的主教为他们的教皇（神父），或天主教教宗。他们的根据是对马太福音16章的错误理解，他们相信彼得是第一位教皇，而且认为从那时起就一直有教皇在延续。
The Eastern Church disagreed which led to the great split in the church. The Easter Church’s capital is located in Constantinople and is comprised of churches from Greece, Russia, Eastern Europe, and Western Asia. The chart below will help you follow a rough outline of the various Christian denominations over the past 2,000 years.
Orthodoxy – a study in Basic Christian Doctrine
Orthodoxy (from Greek orthos (“right”, “true”, “straight”) + doxa (“opinion” or “belief”, related to dokein, “to think”),) is adherence to accepted norms, more specifically to creeds, especially in religion. In the Christian sense the term means “conforming to the Christian faith as represented in the creeds (Apostle’s Creed, Nicene Creed, & Athanasian Creed) of the early Church”.
正统派教会（来自希腊语orthos—意为正确、 真实、正直的+ doxa（“意见”或“信念”， 与Dokein有关，指“思想”），）遵守公认的 准则，更具体地说，就是遵守信条，尤其是宗教 方面的信条。对基督徒来讲，这个词的意思是 “遵守早期教会的信经中提出的基督徒信条 （包括使徒信经、尼西亚信经和亚他那修信经。）”
Our Lord’s desire for ALL Christians, no matter what their origin of faith stems from, is that they are orthodox or true to his Word and holding firmly to his promises of salvation. Read the following…
John 8:31-32 To the Jews who had believed him, Jesus said, “If you hold to my teaching, you are really my disciples. Then you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free.”
约8:31-32—-31 耶稣对那些相信他的犹太人说：““你们如果住在我的话语中，就真是我的门徒了，32 并且你们将明白真理，而真理将使你们自由。”
Why does Jesus want us to both “know” the truth and “hold” to the truth?
1 Corinthians 1:10 I appeal to you, brothers, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that all of you agree with one another so that there may be no divisions among you and that you may be perfectly united in mind and thought.
Why is it so critical that God’s people work at orthodoxy?
Philippians 1:27 Whatever happens, conduct yourselves in a manner worthy of the gospel of Christ. Then, whether I come and see you or only hear about you in my absence, I will know that you stand firm in one spirit, contending as one man for the faith of the gospel.
腓立比书1: 27 只要你们行事为人与基督的福音相称。叫我或来见你们，或不在你们那里，可以听见你们的景况，知道你们同有一个心志，站立得稳，为所信的福音齐心努力。
How do we “contend as one man for the faith of the gospel”?
Heterodox refers to a church that has turned away from accepted Scriptural teachings. A heterodox church uses the Word of God and teaches that Jesus is true God and the only Savior of mankind. However, because they no longer hold “unswervingly” to the Word of God, their faith is in constant pressure from the false teachings. Therefore, members of a heterodox church fail to enjoy the full freedom, which God intended for us to have. Read the following…
Hebrews 10:23-25 Let us hold unswervingly to the hope we profess, for he who promised is faithful. And let us consider how we may spur one another on toward love and good deeds. Let us not give up meeting together, as some are in the habit of doing, but let us encourage one another – and all the more as you see the Day approaching.
来10:23-25—-23 也要坚守我们所承认的指望，不至摇动。因为那应许我们的是信实的。 24 又要彼此相顾，激发爱心，勉励行善。 25 你们不可停止聚会，好像那些停止惯了的人，倒要彼此劝勉。既知道（原文作看见）那日子临近，就更当如此。
• The severity of false teaching in the Christian church today can vary greatly from one church to the next, which is why it is of utmost importance that use our Bibles to discern false teachers and false teachings and then adhere to the Bible’s instruction of “Keeping away from them.” Read the following…
Matthew 7:15,16 “Watch out for false prophets. They come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ferocious wolves. By their fruit you will recognize them.”
太7:15-16—-15 你们要防备假先知。他们到你们这里来，外面披着羊皮，里面却是残暴的狼。 16 凭着他们的果子，就可以认出他们来。荆棘上岂能摘葡萄呢？蒺藜里岂能摘无花果呢？
Does Jesus warn orthodox, or Bible believing Christians of heterodox churches?
1 John 4:1 Dear friends, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God, because many false prophets have gone out into the world.
Does the apostle John tell us that we can trust every pastor or teacher of the Word of God?
Romans 16:17,18 I urge you, brothers, to watch out for those who cause divisions and put obstacles in your way that are contrary to the teaching you have learned. Keep away from them. For such people are not serving our Lord Christ, but their own appetites. By smooth talk and flattery they deceive the minds of naive people.
罗16:17-18—-17 弟兄们，那些离间你们，叫你们跌倒，背乎所学之道的人，我劝你们要留意躲避他们。 18 因为这样的人不服事我们的主基督，只服事自己的肚腹。用花言巧语，诱惑那些老实人的心。
What instruction does the apostle Paul give orthodox Christians when they come in to contact with heterodox Christians? Why?
2 Timothy 4:1-3 In the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who will judge the living and the dead, and in view of his appearing and his kingdom, I give you this charge: Preach the word; be prepared in season and out of season; correct, rebuke and encourage—with great patience and careful instruction. For the time will come when people will not put up with sound doctrine. Instead, to suit their own desires, they will gather around them a great number of teachers to say what their itching ears want to hear.
提后4:1-3—-1 我在神面前，并在将来审判活人死人的基督耶稣面前，凭着他的显现和他的国度嘱咐你。 2 务要传道。无论得时不得时，总要专心，并用百般的忍耐，各样的教训，责备人，警戒人，劝勉人。 3 因为时候要到，人必厌烦纯正的道理。耳朵发痒，就随从自己的情欲，增添好些师傅。
Paul, writing to another pastor by the name of Timothy, tells us why people go away from orthodoxy or accepted Bible teachings. He says it is because they want their “ears itched” instead. What do you suppose Paul means by that expression?
Practical Application Orthodox/Heterodox
Of all the various Christian churches out there, and there are thousands of different denominations that vary from each other, there are mainly 3 differing branches of Christianity with a whole lot of sub-points as the chart on p. 1 indicates. But perhaps we can summarize them with these 3 titles: Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and Reform.
Now imagine the following debate between a Catholic Priest, a Lutheran Pastor, and a Reform teacher. This is what the 3 men will bring with them to the debate:
Catholic: The Bible + 1,900 years of writings from the church fathers that they say are on the same level as the Holy Scripture.
天主教：圣经+1900年来 教父著作中的内容 与圣经同等重要。
Lutheran: The Bible
Reform: The Bible + their brain as they believe and teach that everything in Scripture has to agree with their reason and intellect.
Martin Luther, the man after whom our church body is named after, once made the statement: “It is not Scripture that needs to be made reasonable; it’s reason that needs to be made Christian.” As for the church fathers, Luther also pointed out many errors and contradictions that church fathers had regarding articles of faith in the Bible. Therefore, one of the founding principles that came out of the Lutheran Reformation was the Latin term, Sola Scriptura, which means, “By the Scriptures Alone,” do we derive our articles of faith from, whether they make sense to our intellect or not. For it is not the duty of Christians to try and make sense out of every matter of doctrine, but rather that we simply reveal what the Scriptures state.
马丁路德，就是我们用他的名字来称呼教会的那一位，曾经这样说过：“不是我们要把圣经变得更理智，而是我们的理智需要更像基督徒。” 路德指出，教会的先父对圣经的信条也有很多错误和矛盾之处。因此，路德的改革制定了一个基要原则：不管它能不能通过我们的理性，“唯独圣经”是我们信条的来源（拉丁语把它称为Sola Scriptura）。因为基督徒的责任不是要努力让教义的每一条内容能通过我们的理性，而是要来揭示圣经所陈述的内容。
That’s why it makes it much easier for me to categorically label all of Christendom into 3 main camps and the pictures would like this:
所以，要把所有 基督徒分成3大类 ，用图片表示就是 这样：
Roman Catholic Theology
Let’s take a look at a handful of Biblical teachings and see how some Christian churches have swerved to the right or the left of what the Bible clearly teaches.
Matthew 28:18-20 Then Jesus came to them and said, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, 20and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.”
太28:18-20—-18 耶稣进前来，对他们说，天上，地下所有的权柄，都赐给我了。 19 所以你们要去，使万民作我的门徒，奉父子圣灵的名，给他们施洗。（或作给他们施洗归于父子圣灵的名） 20 凡我所吩咐你们的，都教训他们遵守，我就常与你们同在，直到世界的末了。 替代文本
Acts 2:38-39 Peter replied, “Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. The promise is for you and your children and for all who are far off—for all whom the Lord our God will call.
徒2:38-39—-38 彼得说，你们各人要悔改，奉耶稣基督的名受洗，叫你们的罪得赦，就必领受所赐的圣灵。 39 因为这应许是给你们，和你们的儿女，并一切在远方的人，就是主我们神所召来的。
Consider this Baptist statement of faith from 1688
“Infant baptism is rejected, because only an adult can consciously perform an act of Obedience; in order to be baptized one must actually profess repentance towards God, faith in and obedience to our Lord Jesus Christ. Since children cannot do this, they therefore are not to be admitted to baptism.”
• Those under the sub-point of “Reform” deny baptism to infants and their argument that they so often use is that the Bible doesn’t say infants should be baptized. But the real reason behind the denial of infant baptism is that it doesn’t make sense to their reason that God can work forgiveness and salvation in the heart of a little child, or that God would even need to work these things in a child’s heart. And since their intellect is on the same plateau as the clear writings of Scripture, they teach an age of accountability, something that’s never taught in Scripture, that a young child has a free pass from God till he’s somewhere between the age of 10-13, the time that he can make an intelligible decision for his salvation.
• Interestingly enough, orthodoxy, or the defense for Infant baptism from the Scriptures is first and foremost the words of our Savior, who commands “All nations” to be baptized, which is certainly inclusive of infants. But to use the reform argument that says the Bible doesn’t command the baptism of infants can be used against them. Read the following passages of Scriptures and see if you can determine in the following passages if infants and small children were to be excluded:
Acts 16:14,15 The Lord opened her heart to respond to Paul’s message. When she and the members of her household were baptized…
徒16:14,15—-14 有一个卖紫色布疋的妇人，名叫吕底亚，是推雅推喇城的人，素来敬拜神。她听见了，主就开导她的心，叫她留心听保罗所讲的话。 15 她和她一家，既领了洗，便求我们说，你们若以为我是真信主的，（或作你们若以为我是忠心事主的）请到我家里来住。于是强留我们。
Acts 16:33 At that hour of the night the jailer took them and washed their wounds; then immediately he and all his family were baptized.
1 Corinthians 1:16 Yes, I also baptized the household of Stephanas.
The likelihood of each of these 3 households, who were all baptized, not having infants or children in them younger than 10 years old seems highly improbable. However, the clear words of Jesus remain, “Go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.” Since children and babies are born sinful, and in need of forgiveness and new life, and are part of “all nations” orthodoxy mandates that we suppress our intellect and often times sinful reasoning for the clear words of Scripture.
• The Lord’s Supper
The three theological positions concerning Holy Communion with slight variations:
|Denomination 教派||Theological belief 神学信仰||Bread & Wine 饼和葡萄汁||Body and Blood 身体和血|
|Reformed: View Baptist, non-denomination, Calvin, Assembly of God, Pentecostal, United Church of Christ, Methodist,(“a symbolic meal”)||Representation: No forgiveness of sins given by Jesus. It’s just a memorial meal symbolic of the past.||Bread & Wine|
|改革宗的观点: 浸信会，非宗派，加尔文派，五旬节派教会，灵恩派，联合基督教会，循道宗派（一个象征性的圣餐）||代表: 里面没有耶稣对罪的宽恕，那只是纪念过去的象征性的一餐。||饼和葡萄汁|
|Roman Catholic & Episcopalian View (A re-sacrificing of Christ’s body and blood)||Transubstantiation Priest changes it into body and blood so that it is no longer bread and wine. This is a meritorious work toward salvation for the sinner||Body & Blood|
|Lutheran View: a sacrament or sacred right that Christ gave to the body of believers (the church)||Real Presence (Jesus’ body and blood are present with the bread and wine and Jesus gives us the forgiveness of sins)||Bread & Wine||Body & Blood|
Now let’s read the Scriptures to determine orthodoxy…
Matthew 26:26-30 While they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to his disciples, saying, “Take and eat; this is my body.” 27Then he took the cup, gave thanks and offered it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you. 28This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. 29I tell you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it anew with you in my Father’s kingdom.” 30When they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.
太26：26-30—-26 他们吃的时候，耶稣拿起饼来，祝福，就掰开，递给门徒，说，你们拿着吃，这是我的身体。 27 又拿起杯来，祝谢了，递给他们，说，你们都喝这个。 28 因为这是我立约的血，为多人流出来，使罪得赦。 29 但我告诉你们，从今以后，我不再喝这葡萄汁，直到我在我父的国里，同你们喝新的那日子。 30 他们唱了诗，就出来往橄榄山去。
1 Corinthians 11:27-29 “Therefore, whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of sinning against the body and blood of the Lord. A man ought to examine himself before he eats of the bread and drinks of the cup. For anyone who eats and drinks without recognizing the body of the Lord eats and drinks judgment on himself.”
林前11:27-29—-27 所以无论何人，不按理吃主的饼，喝主的杯，就是干犯主的身主的血了。 28 人应当自己省察，然后吃这饼，喝这杯。 29 因为人吃喝，若不分辨是主的身体，就是吃喝自己的罪了。
The apostle Paul makes it very clear that the communicant receives 4 things in Holy Communion…
Jesus couldn’t be clearer when he states that the spiritual blessing in the meal he instituted is the forgiveness of sins. So why, then, do some believe only the body and blood are present? Why do others believe that only bread and wine are present? Based on the Bible, we would definitely NOT say that the Bible leaves it as an open-ended question. The reason is that the Roman Catholic Church rely on the tradition of what their forefathers taught them, even if it doesn’t coincide with the Scriptures. And the Reform camp believes that everything in the Scriptures have to be reasonable and since it is not reasonable that we receive the body and blood of Jesus, just like it’s not reasonable to them that God can work faith in an infant…, therefore they conclude that it must not be what we read in the Scriptures.
Orthodoxy does NOT form itself from one particular denomination of Christianity. Orthodoxy is formed by the Word itself. For God’s Word stands as its own testimony for every Christian to either believe, doubt, or reject. But it is the Scriptures that serve as our only source of doctrine and articles of faith.