恩典国际圣经学院

第三课 -- 罗马天主教—简要概述罗马天主教的内部教导
lesson 3 -- Roman Catholicism – a brief overview of the teachings within Catholicism

Lesson 3 – Roman Catholicism – a brief overview of the teachings within Catholicism 第3课—罗马天主教—简要概述罗马天主教的内部教导

Introduction

介绍

Why study Catholicism? There are over 1.2 billion Roman Catholics in the world, which makes up 50% of the entire Christian population. In the United States, there are 62 million Roman Catholics and in China there are an estimated 5.7 million Catholics.

为什么要研究天主教?因为世界上罗马天主教的人数超过12亿,占基督教总人数的50%。美国有6200万天主教徒,中国估计有570万。

Our Study today is meant to be an overview of this evolving church body that really makes no apologies for its evolution because of the authority that they grant their pope. They put him and the previous popes, who they believe to be the official apostolic succession to Simon Peter, on the same plateau of the Bible saying that only the Pope is the true interpreter of the Scriptures.

在今天的学习中,我们将概览这个演变的教会——罗马天主教。他们把权柄授予了他们的教皇,并且对这样的演变毫无歉疚感。他们把教皇以及以前的教皇(他们相信那些人是继西门彼得之后、接续神权传递的正式继承者)和圣经放在同一个高度,说只有教皇是真正解释圣经的人。

Are Catholics Christians?

天主教徒是基督徒吗?

Catholics or anyone else for that matter can call themselves Christian only if they believe in triune God who carried out our salvation through the work of Jesus, the Son of God. We can be thankful that in spite of the many false teachings within the Roman Catholic Church, they do accept the Bible’s teaching of the triune God and read from the Bible and administer the Sacraments of Holy Baptism and the Lord’s Supper.

天主教徒,或是别的任何人,只有在相信神是三位一体的神,而且神通过神子耶稣的作为施行拯救,才可以称自己是基督徒。我们可以感恩的是,在罗马天主教会中,尽管有很多假教导,但他们却真正接受了圣经对三位一体神的教导,也在读圣经,而且执行洗礼和圣餐的圣礼。

Catholics believe and accept the 3 ecumenical creeds that all Christian churches accept – The Apostle’s Creed, Nicene Creed, and the Athanasian Creed, which all lay out a simple declaration of the Christian faith in the triune God that the Bible presents to us. Even though the Roman Catholic Church misinterprets much of the Bible, the Bible and God’s Word are still effective and can work faith apart from their false teachings as Isaiah points out to us in the following…

天主教相信并且接受所有基督教会接受的3个普遍信条—使徒信经、尼西亚信经和亚他拿修信经。这三个信经都对基督信仰做出了简单声明,相信圣经向我们揭示的三位一体神。尽管罗马天主教错误解释圣经的很多内容,但圣经和神的话仍然是有效的。神能在他们的错误教导之外制造信心,就像以赛亚在下面的经文中为我们指出的:

Isaiah 55:11 so is my word that goes out from my mouth: It will not return to me empty, but will accomplish what I desire and achieve the purpose for which I sent it. The same is true of their teaching regarding Baptism and the Lord’s Supper, even though they teach wrongly according to the bible, these sacraments are still effective based on the promise of Christ and his Word as we read in the following…

赛55:11 我 口 所 出 的 话 也 必 如 此 , 决 不 徒 然 返 回 , 却 要 成 就 我 所 喜 悦 的 , 在 我 发 他 去 成 就 ( 发 他 去 成 就 : 或 译 所 命 定 ) 的 事 上 必 然 亨 通 。 同样,尽管他们对洗礼和圣餐的教导也有错误,并不完全符合圣经的标准,但这些圣礼仍然会按照基督和他话语的应许产生作用。读以下经文:

Ephesians 4:4-6 There is one body and one Spirit, just as you were called to one hope when you were called; one Lord, one faith, one baptism; one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all.

弗4:4-6—-4身 体 只 有 一 个 , 圣 灵 只 有 一 个 , 正 如 你 们 蒙 召 同 有 一 个 指 望 。 5一 主 , 一 信 , 一 洗 , 6一 神 , 就 是 众 人 的 父 , 超 乎 众 人 之 上 , 贯 乎 众 人 之 中 , 也 住 在 众 人 之 内 。

So yes, Catholics can rightfully call themselves a Christian church and there will inevitably be Catholic Christians in heaven, who placed their faith in Jesus Christ (alone) to forgive them of their sins and earn their salvation through his merits. However, due to the nature of their false teachings, there will be many poor souls lost eternally because Christ and the gospel are often times obscured and covered up by their many heresies. Some of those heresies will be discussed in this lesson.

因此,只要天主教徒相信耶稣基督(而且唯有耶稣)赦免了他们所有的罪,而且相信耶稣通过自己的作为为他们赢得了救恩,他们就可以正当地称自己是基督教会,在天堂也不可避免会有天主教会的基督信徒。然而,因为基督和福音常常被他们的异端邪说蒙蔽和遮盖,他们的错误本质会导致很多可怜的灵魂永久地失丧。在这个课程中我们也会谈到其中的一些邪说。

Divisions in the Christian church

基督教会的分歧

Acts 15:1-11 Certain people came down from Judea to Antioch and were teaching the believers: “Unless you are circumcised, according to the custom taught by Moses, you cannot be saved.” 2 This brought Paul and Barnabas into sharp dispute and debate with them. So Paul and Barnabas were appointed, along with some other believers, to go up to Jerusalem to see the apostles and elders about this question. 3 The church sent them on their way, and as they traveled through Phoenicia and Samaria, they told how the Gentiles had been converted. This news made all the believers very glad. 4 When they came to Jerusalem, they were welcomed by the church and the apostles and elders, to whom they reported everything God had done through them. 5 Then some of the believers who belonged to the party of the Pharisees stood up and said, “The Gentiles must be circumcised and required to keep the law of Moses.” 6 The apostles and elders met to consider this question. 7 After much discussion, Peter got up and addressed them: “Brothers, you know that some time ago God made a choice among you that the Gentiles might hear from my lips the message of the gospel and believe. 8 God, who knows the heart, showed that he accepted them by giving the Holy Spirit to them, just as he did to us. 9 He did not discriminate between us and them, for he purified their hearts by faith. 10 Now then, why do you try to test God by putting on the necks of Gentiles a yoke that neither we nor our ancestors have been able to bear? 11 No! We believe it is through the grace of our Lord Jesus that we are saved, just as they are.”

徒15:1-11—-1有 几 个 人 从 犹 太 下 来 , 教 训 弟 兄 们 说 : “你 们 若 不 按 摩 西 的 规 条 受 割 礼 , 不 能 得 救 。” 2保 罗 、 巴 拿 巴 与 他 们 大 大 的 纷 争 辩 论 ; 众 门 徒 就 定 规 , 叫 保 罗 、 巴 拿 巴 和 本 会 中 几 个 人 , 为 所 辩 论 的 , 上 耶 路 撒 冷 去 见 使 徒 和 长 老 。 3于 是 教 会 送 他 们 起 行 。 他 们 经 过 腓 尼 基 、 撒 玛 利 亚 , 随 处 传 说 外 邦 人 归 主 的 事 , 叫 众 弟 兄 都 甚 欢 喜 。 4到 了 耶 路 撒 冷 , 教 会 和 使 徒 并 长 老 都 接 待 他 们 , 他 们 就 述 说 神 同 他 们 所 行 的 一 切 事 。5惟 有 几 个 信 徒 是 法 利 赛 教 门 的 人 , 起 来 说 : “必 须 给 外 邦 人 行 割 礼 , 吩 咐 他 们 遵 守 摩 西 的 律 法 。” 6使 徒 和 长 老 聚 会 商 议 这 事 ; 7辩 论 已 经 多 了 , 彼 得 就 起 来 , 说 :“ 诸 位 弟 兄 , 你 们 知 道 神 早 已 在 你 们 中 间 拣 选 了 我 , 叫 外 邦 人 从 我 口 中 得 听 福 音 之 道 , 而 且 相 信 。 8知 道 人 心 的 神 也 为 他 们 作 了 见 证 , 赐 圣 灵 给 他 们 , 正 如 给 我 们 一 样 ; 9又 藉 着 信, 洁 净 了 他 们 的 心 , 并 不 分 他 们 、我 们 。 10现 在 为什么 试 探 神 , 要 把 我 们 祖 宗 和 我 们 所 不 能 负 的 轭 放 在 门 徒 的 颈 项 上 呢 ? 11我 们 得 救 乃 是 因 主 耶 稣 的 恩 , 和 他 们 一 样 , 这 是 我 们 所 信 的 。”

  1. Who was the division between in the early Christian church and what was it about?

    早期教会的哪些人之间发生了分歧?这个分歧的内容是什么?

  2. Where did the church leaders look to or toward for their solution?

    那些教会领袖到哪里去寻求解决的办法?

  3. What lesson can we learn from this?

    我们从中可以学到什么教训?

    • They determined from God’s Word that it was not necessary for Gentile Christians to follow Jewish ceremonial Laws, which Jesus had fulfilled at his first coming. Christians, from Biblical days, met in councils to look to the Word of God to determine their answers and solutions to their problems. And this is in keeping with Paul’s encouragement to the churches when he wrote…

    • 通过查考神的话语,他们做出决定,没有必要让外邦的基督徒随从犹太的宗教律法,因为耶稣在第一次到来时已经完全了那些律法。基督徒自有圣经起,就开始以议会的形式聚集在一起,通过查考神的话来决定如何回答或解决问题。这与保罗给教会写信鼓励他们的方式是一样的。读以下经文:

    Philippians 1:27-28 Whatever happens, conduct yourselves in a manner worthy of the gospel of Christ. Then, whether I come and see you or only hear about you in my absence, I will know that you stand firm in the one Spirit, striving together as one for the faith of the gospel without being frightened in any way by those who oppose you.

    腓1:27-28—-27只 要 你 们 行 事 为 人 与 基 督 的 福 音 相 称 , 叫 我 或 来 见 你 们 , 或 不 在 你 们 那 里 , 可 以 听 见 你 们 的 景 况 , 知 道 你 们 同 有 一 个 心 志 , 站 立 得 稳 , 为 所 信 的 福 音 齐 心 努 力 。 28凡 事 不 怕 敌 人 的 惊 吓 , 这 是 证 明 他 们 沉 沦 , 你 们 得 救 都 是 出 于神 。

The Council of Nicea

尼西亚会议

• A.D. 325 a Roman Emperor by the name of Constantine, who was the first emperor to legalize Christianity and make it the official religion of the state, presided over a group of bishops across the Christian world with the intent of defining the nature of God for all of Christianity to learn. This came about because of false ideas regarding the nature of Christ. And out of this council would eventually come the Nicene Creed, which most Christian church confess inside of their churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. A false teacher by the name of Arius ed the divine nature of Jesus, who is both the Son of Mary and the Son of God. So the Nicene Creed was meant to create orthodoxy amongst Christians.

• 公元325年,罗马皇帝康斯坦丁第一个将基督教合法化,并将它定为国教。他在整个基督教界召集了一群主教来讨论并确定神的本质,使所有的基督徒都可以学到。召开这次会议的原因是当时存在很多有关基督本质的错误认识。会议最终诞生了尼西亚信经,这是多数基督教会在教会内部都承认的,也包括天主教会。一个名叫阿里乌斯的假教师曾质疑既是马利亚的儿子,又是神子的耶稣的神性,而尼西亚信经就是要在基督徒中间产生正统的教义。

The council of Chalcedon

加克墩会议

• A.D. 451 a council convened from both the Western Church (Rome) and the Eastern Church (Constantinople) to discuss the two natures of Christ, both God and man. It was very common to hold councils when doctrinal disputes came up or heresy crept its way in to the church. But go to God’s Word and mutually discussing God’s Word was the way they handled these issues in the early church. And some great confessions came out of their various councils like the Apostle’s creed, Nicene Creed, and Athanasian Creed, which are simple declarations of faith regarding the work of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. We thank God that Roman Catholics do subscribe to these 3 ancient creeds in the church’s history.

• 公元451年,西部教会(罗马)和东部教会(君士坦丁堡)召集了一次会议,讨论基督神人二性的问题。议会通常是在教义上出现争论、或异端悄悄混进教会时召开,而且初期教会处理这些问题的方式就是回到神的话,并且一起讨论。一些伟大的宣言就是从他们的各种会议中产生的,比如使徒信经,尼西亚信经,和亚他拿修信经,这些都对圣父、圣子和圣灵做出了简单的信仰声明。我们感谢神,在基督教的历史上,罗马天主教会确实服从了这三个古老的信经。

The Great Schism

教会大分裂

• A.D. 1054 The Christian churches primarily split between the west (Rome) and the east (Constantinople) and surrounding areas had their first major split. Rome believed that its bishop ought to be head of the entire church; Constantinople believed their bishop was to be supreme leader of the Christian church and so eventually several excommunications started taking place from both sides and the east and the west were divided amongst Christendom.

• 公元1054年,基督教会的东(君士坦丁堡)、西(罗马) 方从根本上发生了分裂,产生了周边地区的第一次大分裂。罗马相信,她的主教应该是整个教会的头;君士坦丁堡相信,他们的主教应该是基督教会的最高领袖。最后,双方教会发生了一些逐出教会的事件,东、西方在基督教界从此分开。

The Protestant Reformation

新教改革

• A.D. 1517, a Roman Catholic monk and eventual professor of theology at the University of Wittenberg, nailed 95 theses (statements of protest) on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg. His name was Martin Luther. The protests entailed the sale of indulgences (pieces of paper signed by the pope that remit sins), purgatory (a place where the soul gets purged after death for sins yet unpaid for), and the authority of the pope. Luther’s initial intentions were to reform the church from its obvious corruptions. He had NO desire to break away from the only Christian church he knew of growing up. But eventually, because Rome did not want to search the Scriptures to determine the answers most pertinent to our salvation, like the doctrine of justification – Luther was excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church and declared an outlaw. Under the protection of the church, anyone was given the authority to hunt Martin Luther down and take his life. As you can see, a Reformation became absolutely necessary! One could make the historical argument that this was the 2nd Great Schism of the church because after Luther successfully broke from Catholicism, countries all across Europe began to reform as well.

• 公元1517年,一个罗马天主教修士在威登堡的城堡教堂门上钉了95条反对宣言。他叫马丁路德,后来成为威登堡大学的神学教授。他的反对包括卖赎罪券(由教皇签字、能赎罪的纸条)、炼狱(灵魂死后因为罪未付清而必须要待在那里继续净化的地方),以及教皇的权柄。路德的初衷是要改革教会中明显的腐败,他绝不想从他了解并成长的唯一基督教会中分离出来。然而,最终因为罗马不想通过查考圣经来解决这个和救恩密切相关的问题(比如有关称义的信条),路德被罗马天主教逐出教会,并被宣布为法外之徒。在教会的保护下,任何人都有权利追捕马丁路德并取走他的性命。如你所见,改革已经变得绝对必要!这一历史性的争论导致了教会的第二大分裂,因为路德成功地从天主教中分离出来,而且整个欧洲国家也开始了改革。

• Lutherans were initially called by the term evangelicals because they believed that at the center of theology was the Gospel (Greek: Evangel) of forgiveness through Jesus Christ. It was their opponents who did not agree with Luther that labeled them as Lutherans because they wanted the world of Christendom to know that Lutherans follow a man while other Christians follow the one true church at Rome. This was Luther’s statement regarding the title “Lutherans.” He said…I ask that my name be left silent and people NOT call themselves Lutheran, but rather Christians. Who is Luther? The doctrine is not mine. I have been crucified for no one. St. Paul in 1 Corinthians 3:4-5 would not want the Christians to call themselves “of Paul” or “of Peter,” but Christian. How should I, a poor stinking bag of worms, become so that the children of Christ are named with my unholy name? It should not be dear friends. Let us extinguish all factious names and be called Christians whose doctrine we have. The pope’s men rightly have a factious name because they are not satisfied with the doctrine and name of Christ and want to be with the pope, who is their master. I have not been and will not be a master. Along with the church I have the one general teaching of Christ who alone is our master. Matthew 23:8. (Against Insurrection, 1522).

• 路德宗最初被称为福音派,因为他们相信:神学的中心是通过耶稣基督得到赦免的福音(希腊语Evangel:福音)。他们的敌对派不赞同路德,并把他们标记为路德宗。他们的目的是想让基督教界认为,路德宗跟随了一个人,而其他基督徒跟随的是在罗马的真正教会。下面是路德针对“路德宗”说的一段话。他说: “我请求我的名字能沉默下来。人们不要称自己是路德宗信徒,而是基督徒。路德是谁?那些信条不是我的。我没有为任何人钉十字架。使徒保罗在林前3:4-5中不让基督徒称自己是“属保罗的”或“属彼得的,”而是基督徒。我,一个可怜的臭虫袋,怎么能让基督的儿女用我不圣洁的名字称呼自己呢?亲爱的朋友,这是不应该的。让我们消灭所有派别的名称,把拥有我们信条的人称为基督徒。主教的人有权使用自己派别的名称,因为他们不满足所拥有的信条和基督的名字,想和他们的主人—教皇在一起。我从来不是,也不会是一个主人。我和教会一样拥有基督——我们独一的主人,这一共同教导:太23:8 (反对暴乱,1522)

• The name Luther[an] would obviously remain and differentiate us from where other Christians derive their theology. It’s important to note that there are many Lutherans today who do NOT hold to the inerrancy of the Holy Scriptures yet still call themselves Lutherans. This is rather confusing, which is why ALL Christians are to search their Bibles for the truth and compare them with the teachings of any church, including Lutheran churches. It’s also important to note that Luther, who himself was a Roman Catholic Christian, was not against other Catholics. He was against and spoke out most vehemently against what he called the “papists” or followers of the corrupt teachings of the pope. He viewed the papists as men who high jacked the Catholic Church for their own man-made theologies. There have long been including still today, faithful Catholic Christians who, in spite of Rome’s gross misrepresentation of Scriptures, who hold to faith in Jesus Christ. Luther wanted to convene a council and debate these Scriptures, but none would be granted him or the evangelical Christians of his day. The Catholic Church would not convene a council (The council of Trent) until after Luther’s death and no evangelical Christians were invited to that council. In 1962 the 2nd Vatican Council lifted their condemnations against the Lutheran church, but did not resolve their theological differences with them.

• 路德宗显然把路德的名字保留下来了,而且这个名字把我们与其它神学来源的基督教区别开来。但也一定留意,今天很多称自己是路德宗的人并不坚持圣经无谬论的观点,这真是不可思议。这就是为什么说所有的基督徒都要到圣经里去寻求真理,对照任何一个教会的教导,包括路德宗教会;同时也一定要注意,路德本人是天主教徒,他并没有反对其他天主教徒。他反对而且强烈痛斥的是那些他称为“教皇制信奉者”的人,或者是那些顺从教皇腐败教导的人。他认为,那些教皇制的信奉者之所以高高抬举天主教会的原因是为了自己创造的神学。忠于神的天主教徒今天仍然存在。尽管罗马在明显地歪曲圣经,但他们仍然相信耶稣基督。路德想召集一次会议讨论这些经文,但没有人赋予他或当时的福音派基督徒权利去做这件事。天主教会直到路德去世以后才召集了一次会议(特伦特会议),而且福音派基督徒没有被邀请参会。1962年第二次梵蒂冈大公会议取消了对路德宗教会的审判,但并没有解决与他们之间的神学差异。

Differences in Theology between Roman Catholic teachings & the Bible

罗马天主教的教导与圣经之间的神学差异

• 无视圣经就是无视基督—圣哲罗姆(347-420),早期西方教会中学识最渊博的教父。

The Authority of the Church

教会的权柄

Matthew 16:13-20 When Jesus came to the region of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, “Who do people say the Son of Man is?” 14 They replied, “Some say John the Baptist; others say Elijah; and still others, Jeremiah or one of the prophets.” 15 “But what about you?” he asked. “Who do you say I am?” 16Simon Peter answered, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” 17 Jesus replied, “Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah, for this was not revealed to you by man, but by my Father in heaven.18 And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it. 19 I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.” 20 Then he warned his disciples not to tell anyone that he was the Christ.

太16:13-20—-13耶 稣 到 了 该 撒 利 亚 腓 立 比 的 境 内 , 就 问 门 徒 说 : “人 说 我 ( 有 古 卷 没 有 我 字 ) 人 子 是 谁 ?”14他 们 说 :“有 人 说 是 施 洗 的 约 翰 ; 有 人 说 是 以 利 亚 ; 又 有 人 说 是 耶 利 米 或 是 先 知 里 的 一 位 。” 15耶 稣 说:“ 你 们 说 我 是 谁 ?” 16西 门 彼 得 回 答 说 : “你 是 基 督 , 是 永 生 神 的 儿 子 。” 17耶 稣 对 他 说 : “西 门 巴 约 拿 , 你 是 有 福 的 ! 因 为 这 不 是 属 血 肉 的 指 示 你 的 , 乃 是 我 在 天 上 的 父 指 示 的 。 18我 还 告 诉 你 , 你 是 彼 得 , 我 要 把 我 的 教 会 建 造 在 这 磐 石 上 ; 阴 间 的 权 柄 ( 权 柄 : 原 文 是 门 ) , 不 能 胜 过 他 。 19我 要 把 天 国 的 钥 匙 给 你 , 凡 你 在 地 上 所 捆 绑 的 , 在 天 上 也 要 捆 绑 ; 凡 你 在 地 上 所 释 放 的 , 在 天 上 也 要 释 放 。” 20当 下 , 耶 稣 嘱 咐 门 徒 , 不 可 对 人 说 他 是 基 督 。

What Catholics believe:

天主教相信:

• The authority within the church is passed down from Peter to his successors, who happen to be the bishops from Rome.

• 教会内部的权柄从彼得传递给他的继承者,这位继承者正好就是罗马的主教。

What the Bible teaches:

圣经的教导:

Ephesians 2:19-22 Consequently, you are no longer foreigners and aliens, but fellow citizens with God’s people and members of God’s household, built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the chief cornerstone.In him the whole building is joined together and rises to become a holy temple in the Lord. And in him you too are being built together to become a dwelling in which God lives by his Spirit.

弗2:19-22—-19这 样 , 你 们 不 再 作 外 人 和 客 旅 , 是 与 圣 徒 同 国 , 是 神 家 里 的 人 了 ; 20并 且 被 建 造 在 使 徒 和 先 知 的 根 基 上 , 有 基 督 耶 稣 自 己 为 房 角 石 , 21各 ( 或 作 : 全 ) 房 靠 他 联 络 得 合 式 , 渐 渐 成 为 主 的 圣 殿 。 22你 们 也 靠 他 同 被 建 造 , 成 为 神 藉 着 圣 灵 居 住 的 所 在 。

  1. When Paul writes, “You are no longer foreigners and aliens,” who is he referring to?

    当保罗说“你 们 不 再 作 外 人 和 客 旅”时,他指的是谁?

  2. Members of the body of Christ (Christians) build their faith on whose foundation?

    基督身体(基督徒)的成员把信心建立在谁的根基上?

  3. Who is the chief cornerstone of that foundation?

    那个根基最重要的房角石是谁?

    • Because Scripture must ultimately be the interpreter of the Scripture, difficult passages that are to be interpreted based on easier passages of Scripture. A better interpretation of Matthew 16:18 would then be that Jesus was commending Peter for his confession of faith, that he was confessing Jesus to be the “Son of God.” It’s also important for us to remember that when the church had conflict between Jews and Gentiles and whether or not Gentiles had to be circumcised, the head of the church at Jerusalem was NOT peter, but rather James, the brother of our Lord.

    • 圣经的解释者最终还必须是圣经,难懂的部分要根据较容易的经文来解释。对马太福音16:18节的一个更好的解释就应该是:耶稣在称赞彼得对信仰的告白,因为他在承认耶稣是“神的儿子。”我们也必须记住,当教会在犹太人和外邦人之间发生冲突时,在讨论外邦人是否应该受割礼的问题上,耶路撒冷教会的领袖并不是彼得,而是雅各,是我们救主的兄弟。

  4. Respond to the following question: “Didn’t Jesus exclusively give Peter the keys to the kingdom of heaven”?

    回应下面的问题:“耶稣不是把天国的钥匙交给彼得一人了吗?”

    John 20:19-23 On the evening of that first day of the week, when the disciples were together, with the doors locked for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood among them and said, “Peace be with you!” After he said this, he showed them his hands and side. The disciples were overjoyed when they saw the Lord. Again Jesus said, “Peace be with you! As the Father has sent me, I am sending you.” And with that he breathed on them and said, “Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive anyone his sins, they are forgiven; if you do not forgive them, they are not forgiven.”

    约20:19-23—–19那 日 ( 就 是 七 日 的 第 一 日 ) 晚 上 , 门 徒 所 在 的 地 方 , 因 怕 犹 太 人 , 门 都 关 了 。 耶 稣 来 , 站 在 当 中 , 对 他 们 说 : “愿 你 们 平 安 !” 20说 了 这 话 , 就 把 手 和 肋 旁 指 给 他 们 看 。 门 徒 看 见 主 , 就 喜 乐 了 。 21耶 稣 又 对 他 们 说 : 愿 你 们 平 安 ! 父 怎 样 差 遣 了 我 , 我 也 照 样 差 遣 你 们 。 22说 了 这 话 , 就 向 他 们 吹 一 口 气 , 说 : “你 们 受 圣 灵 ! 23你 们 赦 免 谁 的 罪 , 谁 的 罪 就 赦 免 了 ; 你 们 留 下 谁 的 罪 , 谁 的 罪 就 留 下 了 。”

  5. Who did Jesus grant the authority to forgive or withhold forgiveness from, Peter or all of the apostles?

    耶稣把赦免或不赦免罪的权柄赐给了谁,是彼得还是所有使徒?

    Matthew 18:15-18 “If your brother sins against you, go and show him his fault, just between the two of you. If he listens to you, you have won your brother over. But if he will not listen, take one or two others along, so that ‘every matter may be established by the testimony of two or three witnesses.’ If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the church; and if he refuses to listen even to the church, treat him as you would a pagan or a tax collector. “I tell you the truth, whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.”

    太18:15-18—-15倘 若 你 的 弟 兄 得 罪 你 , 你 就 去 , 趁 着 只 有 他 和 你 在 一 处 的 时 候 , 指 出 他 的 错 来 。 他 若 听 你 , 你 便 得 了 你 的 弟 兄 ; 16他 若 不 听 , 你 就 另 外 带 一 两 个 人 同 去 , 要 凭 两 三 个 人 的 口 作 见 证 , 句 句 都 可 定 准 。 17若 是 不 听 他 们 , 就 告 诉 教 会 ; 若 是 不 听 教 会 , 就 看 他 像 外 邦 人 和 税 吏 一 样 。 18我 实 在 告 诉 你 们 , 凡 你 们 在 地 上 所 捆 绑 的 , 在 天 上 也 要 捆 绑 ; 凡 你 们 在 地 上 所 释 放 的 , 在 天 上 也 要 释 放 。

  6. To whom does Jesus grant authority to “bind” the sins of another to him in this earthly life, and to remit or “loose” the sins of people from in this earthly life?

    耶稣把在这世上“捆绑”,宽恕或“释放”另一个人的罪的权柄赐给了谁?

  7. Based upon Scripture, who did Jesus give the keys of the church to? (Circle one)

    根据圣经,耶稣把教会的钥匙交给了谁?(选出一个)

    A. Peter 彼得

    B. all the apostles 所有的使徒

    C. The church (believers) 教会(信徒)

    D. all of the above. 以上所有的人

    • Again, it’s vitally important that we search ALL the Scriptures before making doctrinal statements about what the Bible teaches. In the case of the Roman Catholic Church, they make no apologies that this authority to declare doctrinal statements belongs to Peter and the succession of popes, and therefore you can’t win the argument with them regarding the authority that Christ gives to his whole church regarding the ministry of the keys and the authority of the church.

    • 至关重要的是,我们在制定教义、学习圣经的教导之前,必须要查考整个圣经。罗马天主教会把阐释教义的声明权交给彼得和教皇的继承人,并且对此毫不歉疚。因此,与他们争辩基督把侍奉的钥匙和教会的权柄交给了他的整个教会,就无法胜辩。

    • The long term effects of making one man, a sinner, responsible for the interpretation of Scripture will have devastating consequences for the long term of the church. Luther noted that, which is why one of the critical backbones that came out of the Reformation was the Latin term, Sola Scriptura – the Scriptures Alone!

    • 让一个人,一个罪人来负责解释圣经的长期结果是,它会对教会的长远未来造成毁灭性的后果。路德指出,这就是这次改革为什么要提出这一至关重要的支柱——拉丁语Sola Scriptura(唯独圣经)的原因。

    The Doctrine of Justification

    称义的教义

    What Catholics Believe

    天主教相信:

    • “If any one says, that by faith alone the impious is justified; in such wise as to mean, that nothing else is required to co-operate in order to the obtaining the grace of Justification, and that it is not in any way necessary, that he be prepared and disposed by the movement of his own will; let him be anathema” (Council of Trent, Canons on Justification, Canon 9).

    • “如果有人说,不敬虔的人只要相信就能称义;也就是说,在获得称义的恩典方面,不要求任何别的东西来配合,也不需要人以任何方式通过自己的意志活动做愿意接受的准备;那就把他革出教门”(特伦托会议,有关称义的教规,教规9)。

    • “If any one says, that man is truly absolved from his sins and justified, because he assuredly believed himself absolved and justified; or, that no one is truly justified but he who believes himself justified; and that, by this faith alone, absolution and justification are effected; let him be anathema.” (Canon 14).

    • “如果有人说,一个人因为坚定地相信自己的罪得到了赦免而且被称义,他就可以真地得到赦免和称义;或者说,只有那些相信自己被称义的人才真正称义;以及单单凭借这一信心,就会被赦罪和称义;那就把他革出教门。”(教规14)

    The council of Trent (1545-1564) was the Catholic council that failed to invite any who were trying to reform the Catholic Church from within. Luther died in 1546 and none of his colleagues were invited to participate in this council. As you can see from their own admission, they had no desire to make concessions regarding their false teaching that man is saved by grace + works and not grace alone, as the Bible clearly teaches.

    特伦托会议(1545-1564) 是天主教的会议,没有邀请任何试图从内部改革天主教会的人。路德在1546年去世,他的同事也没有一个被邀请去参加这次会议。从他们自己供认的来看,他们对自己的错误教导无意做出让步,仍然坚持人靠恩典+行为得救,而不是像圣经清楚教导的只靠恩典得救。

    When it states that the Catholic Church anathematizes those who believe the Scriptural teaching of justification, they are excommunicating them or stating, “Let them be accursed.”

    里面说到,如果有人相信圣经教导的称义方法,天主教会就要把他革出教会,就是要把那个人从教会驱逐出去,或者在说:“让那个人受到咒诅。”

    Catholics hold to their view that a man is justified by faith + works based on these words from the epistle of James…

    天主教坚持人是靠信心+行为称义的,他们的根据是雅各的书信:

    James 2:24 You see that a person is considered righteous by what they do and not by faith alone.

    雅各书2:24 这 样 看 来 , 人 称 义 是 因 着 行 为 , 不 是 单 因 着 信 。

    • What Rome fails to do in this instance, however, is allow the context of Scripture to speak for itself. Read what James says leading up to verse 24…

    但是,在这个事例中罗马没有让圣经的上下文自己作解释。读雅各在24节之前说过的话:

    James 2:14What good is it, my brothers and sisters, if someone claims to have faith but has no deeds? Can such faith save them?

    雅各书2:14 我 的 弟 兄 们 , 若 有 人 说 自 己 有 信 心 , 却 没 有 行 为 , 有 什么 益 处 呢 ? 这 信 心 能 救 他 吗 ?

    James 2:19You believe that there is one God. Good! Even the demons believe that—and shudder.

    雅2:19 你 信 神 只 有 一 位 , 你 信 的 不 错 ; 鬼 魔 也 信 , 却 是 战 惊 。

  8. Understanding the context of James based on 2:14 and 2:19 choose the correct answer that helps shed light on 2:24…

    根据雅各书2:14 和 2:19理解上下文,选择能帮助理解2:24节的答案:

    a. James is giving Christians a definition of faith that it’s combined with works

    雅各在给基督徒一个信心的定义,这个信心是和行为结合在一起的。

    b. James is differentiating between real faith that expresses itself with fruits of faith vs. mere knowledge of a historical event where no fruits of faith are present

    雅各在区别真信心(能用信心的果子来表现自己的信心)和一种只是对历史事件的认识(里面没有信心的果子)。

    What the Bible Teaches

    圣经的教导

    Read the following passages and determine what role, if any, our works play in salvation…

    读以下经文,判断我们的行为在救恩方面起着什么作用(如果有的话):

    Romans 11:6”But if it is by grace, it is no longer on the basis of works, otherwise grace is no longer grace.”

    罗11:6 “ 6既 是 出 于恩 典 , 就 不 在 乎 行 为 ; 不 然 , 恩 典 就 不 是 恩 典 了 。”

  9. What is Paul’s point?

    保罗的观点是什么?

    Philippians 3:7-9But whatever were gains to me I now consider loss for the sake of Christ. What is more, I consider everything a loss because of the surpassing worth of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord, for whose sake I have lost all things. I consider them garbage, that I may gain Christ and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own that comes from the law, but that which is through faith in[a] Christ—the righteousness that comes from God on the basis of faith.

    腓3:7-9—-7只 是 我 先 前 以 为 与 我 有 益 的 , 我 现 在 因 基 督 都 当 作 有 损 的 。 8不 但 如 此 , 我 也 将 万 事 当 作 有 损 的 , 因 我 以 认 识 我 主 基 督 耶 稣 为 至 宝 。 我 为 他 已 经 丢 弃 万 事 , 看 作 粪 土 , 为 要 得 着 基 督 ; 9并 且 得 以 在 他 里 面 , 不 是 有 自 己 因 律 法 而 得 的 义 , 乃 是 有 信 基 督 的 义 , 就 是 因 信 神 而 来 的 义 ,

  10. What is Paul’s point?

    保罗的观点是什么?

    Romans 3:20Therefore no one will be declared righteous in God’s sight by the works of the law;rather, through the law we become conscious of our sin.

    罗3:20 所 以 凡 有 血 气 的 , 没 有 一 个 因 行 律 法 能 在 神 面 前 称 义 , 因 为 律 法 本 是 叫 人 知 罪 。

  11. In Catholic theology, they will teach and defend their work-righteous faith by saying that what Paul is talking about in Romans 3:20 is circumcision. They will sight how the Jews wanted to retain the work of circumcision and therefore this isn’t a reference to the moral Law or Ten Commandments. How would you respond to such an argument?

    在天主教的神学中,他们在教导和护卫以行为称义的信心时说,保罗在罗马书3:20中所说的是有关割礼的事。他们会强调犹太人十分想保留割礼的做法,因此说,这里指的不是道德律法或十条诫命。你怎样回应这样的论调?

    Luke 10:25-29On one occasion an expert in the law stood up to test Jesus. “Teacher,” he asked, “what must I do to inherit eternal life?” 26 “What is written in the Law?” he replied. “How do you read it?” 27 He answered, “‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength and with all your mind’[c]; and, ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’[d]” 28 “You have answered correctly,” Jesus replied. “Do this and you will live.” 29 But he wanted to justify himself, so he asked Jesus, “And who is my neighbor?”

    路10:25-29—-25有 一 个 律 法 师 起 来 试 探 耶 稣 , 说 : 夫 子 ! 我 该 作 什么 才 可 以 承 受 永 生 ? 26耶 稣 对 他 说 : 律 法 上 写 的 是 什么 ? 你 念 的 是 怎 样 呢 ? 27他 回 答 说 : 「 你 要 尽 心 、 尽 性 、 尽 力 、 尽 意 爱 主 ─ 你 的 神 ; 又 要 爱 邻 舍 如 同 自 己 。 」 28耶 稣 说 : 「 你 回 答 的 是 ; 你 这 样 行 , 就 必 得 永 生 。 」 29那 人 要 显 明 自 己 有 理 , 就 对 耶 稣 说 : 谁 是 我 的 邻 舍 呢 ?

  12. Could the man really live, if he obeyed all the commandments, all of the time like Jesus said, “Do this and you will live”?

    那个人如果真像耶稣所说:“你这样行,就必得永生。”,在所有的时间里遵守了所有的诫命,他就真地能得到永生吗?

  13. What was the problem with this man? Look closely at verse 29.

    这个人的问题出在哪里?仔细看29节。

  14. Can the moral Law or Ten Commandments ever justify a person?

    道德律或十条诫命真地能让一个人称义吗?

    Romans 3:28For we maintain that a person is justified by faith apart from the works of the law.

    罗3:28 所 以 ( 有 古 卷 : 因 为 ) 我 们 看 定 了 : 人 称 义 是 因 着 信 , 不 在 乎 遵 行 律 法 。

  15. Is this just the law of circumcision or ALL the laws of God?

    这只是割礼的律法还是神的所有律法?

    Romans 4:5 But to the one who does not work, but believes in Him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is reckoned as righteousness,

    罗4:5 惟 有 不 做 工 的 , 只 信 称 罪 人 为 义 的 神 , 他 的 信 就 算 为 义 。

  16. How does God justify the wicked –through works, or through faith, or through faith + works?

    神怎样称恶人为义——透过行为、信心,还是透过信心+行为?

    Romans 5:1 Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ,

    罗5:1 我 们 既 因 信 称 义 , 就 藉 着 我 们 的 主 耶 稣 基 督 得 与 神 相 和 。

  17. Why is there NO peace in Catholic theology, which teaches that your works assist in your justification?

    天主教的神学教导:你的行为协助 你称义。这样的神学中为什么 根本没有平安?

    Ephesians 2:8,9 For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith—and this is not from yourselves, it is the gift of God— not by works, so that no one can boast.

    弗2:8-9 —-8你 们 得 救 是 本 乎 恩 , 也 因 着 信 ; 这 并 不 是 出 于 自 己 , 乃 是 神 所 赐 的 ; 9也 不 是 出 于行 为 , 免 得 有 人 自 夸

  18. Why does Paul repeat the fact that grace and faith are gifts from God?

    保罗为什么要重复这个事实—— 恩典和信心都是从神而来的礼物?

  19. Is the following statement orthodox or heterodox?

    下面的说法是正统教义还是异端?

“We are saved by faith alone, but the faith that saves is never alone.”

“我们单靠信心得救,但得救的信心永远不 单一。”

The Evolution of Catholic Teaching

天主教教导的演变

• As sighted in the previous Bible study, Rome looks to its Pope and its councils, which the Pope oversees, and puts their traditions on the same level as the Holy Scriptures, which is why it is very difficult to debate a Catholic Priest on the theology of the Bible because that’s NOT their only source to determine doctrine. Here’s the time-period of certain non-Biblical dogmas that have made their way in to the Roman Catholic Church…

• 正如我们在之前的圣经学习中看到,罗马仰赖的是它的教皇和由教皇监督的议会,而且把他们的传统和圣经放在同一高度。这就是与天主教神父讨论圣经神学很难的原因,因为他们不把圣经当作确定教义的唯一来源。一些圣经之外的教义进入了罗马天主教会,以下是其中的几点:

Transubstantiation – Priest blesses the Lord’s Supper and then changes the bread and wine into the body and blood of Jesus; teaches that this is a sacrificial meal, rather than a sacrament or sacred act. They believe that Jesus is being re-sacrificed in this meal as a meritorious act towards the Christian’s forgiveness with God.

圣餐变体论——神父祝福圣餐,于是把饼和酒变成耶稣的身体和血;他们教导,这是一次献祭餐,而不是一个圣礼或神圣的行动。他们相信,耶稣在这次献祭餐中被再次献祭,这是一个有功绩的行动,为使基督徒的罪在神面前得到赦免。

Fourth Lateran council – A.D.1215

第四次拉特兰会议——公元1215年

Seven defined sacraments & Sacred Tradition – Rome determined that there were 7 defined sacraments in their church and this is what they say about each of them…

七个规定的圣礼和圣传统——罗马在他们的教会中确定了7个规定的圣礼,下面是他们对每一个圣礼的说法:

Baptism – you are born

圣洗——你出生

Holy Eucharist: You are fed

圣餐:你被喂养

Confirmation: You grow

坚信礼:你成长

Penance: You need healing

补赎(忏悔仪式):你需要医治

Anointing of the Sick: You recover.

病人抹油:你得康复

Matrimony: You need family

婚配:你需要家庭

Holy Orders: You need Leaders

圣秩:你需要领袖

During this same council of Trent it was determined that the church held to 7 sacraments, it was also determined that the Pope was the final authority as interpreter of doctrine and the tradition of the church was on the same level as Holy Scripture. Council of Trent – A.D. 1545-1563

就在这同一个特伦托大公会议期间,确定了教会坚持的7个圣礼,也确定了教皇是解释教义的最终权威,确定了教会的传统与圣经平等。

特伦托会议——公元1545-1563

Papal infallibility – When the pope teaches ex cathedra, out of his official seat as pope, he’s exercising his universal authority as Supreme Teacher of a doctrine on faith or morals, and he’s incapable of error. The decrees of the Pope teaching that Mary ascended to heaven without dying, called the Assumption of Mary and the Immaculate Conception, which teaches that Mary was conceived without sin and remained a virgin until death was also a papal decree. Vatican I – A.D. 1869-1870

教皇无谬论——当教皇坐在他办公室的位子上作权威 的教导时,他在执行他最高教师的普世权柄,教导有关 信心和道德的教义,他不会犯错。教皇教导的 教令中说,马利亚没有死就升天了,这被称为马利亚升天论和圣母无原罪始胎,里面说马利亚成胎时就没有罪。教皇的教令还说她一直到死都是处女。 梵提冈I ——公元1869-1870

Christianity vs World Religions
大纲
Outline
第一课 - 看犹太教历史,追溯基督教根源
lesson 1 - Tracing the Roots of Christianity back to Historic Judaism
第二课 -- 正统派教会—简要概述圣经中的基督教及其不同形态
lesson 2 -- Orthodoxy – a brief overview of Biblical Christianity and its various forms
第三课 -- 罗马天主教—简要概述罗马天主教的内部教导
lesson 3 -- Roman Catholicism – a brief overview of the teachings within Catholicism
第四课 - 伊斯兰教
lesson 4 - Islam
第五课 - 孔子
lesson 5 - Confucius
第六课 - 印度教
lesson 6 - Hinduism
第七课 - 佛教
lesson 7 - Buddhism
第八课 - 道教
lesson 8 - Taoism
第九课 - 摩门教
lesson 9 - Mormonism
第十课 - 耶和华见证人
lesson 10 - Jehovah’s Witnesses
第十一课 - 新时代运动
lesson 11 - New Age Movement
第三课 -- 罗马天主教—简要概述罗马天主教的内部教导
lesson 3 -- Roman Catholicism – a brief overview of the teachings within Catholicism