恩典国际圣经学院

第五课 - 孔子
lesson 5 - Confucius

Introduction

介绍

Confucius was born in 550 B.C. and is considered by eastern Asians to be the greatest philosopher. And though Confucius does not represent a religion, much of his teachings dealt with morality and behavior. Much of his philosophies are still imbedded in much of Chinese culture as his works had been taught in Chinese education for several centuries. The reason we are studying Confucius’ teachings under a “world religion” study is because much of his philosophy is common to the world’s religions. When man, apart from the revealed knowledge of God (the Bible), tries to determine right and wrong and common behaviors, all he has as his guide is his conscience and the natural knowledge of God that God has placed inside of every human being.

孔子生于公元前550年,被东亚人视为最伟大的哲学家。 尽管孔子并不代表一种宗教,但他的很多教导都涉及道德修养的内容。他的作品几个世纪以来都是中国教育的内容,所以他的很多哲学都蕴含在中国文化中。我们在“世界宗教”的课程中学习孔子,是因为他的很多哲学观点都是世界宗教所共有的。当人没有从圣经中的神得着启示,却又试图对正误和普通行为做出判断时,他的唯一引导就只有自己的良知和神放在每个人心中对神的自然知识。

Read the following…

读以下经文—

Romans 2:14-16 Indeed, when Gentiles, who do not have the law, do by nature things required by the law, they are a law for themselves, even though they do not have the law. They show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts sometimes accusing them and at other times even defending them.

罗2:14-16—-14没 有 律 法 的 外 邦 人 若 顺 着 本 性 行 律 法 上 的 事 , 他 们 虽 然 没 有 律 法 , 自 己 就 是 自 己 的 律 法 。 15这 是 显 出 律 法 的 功 用 刻 在 他 们 心 里 , 他 们 是 非 之 心 同 作 见 证 , 并 且 他 们 的 思 念 互 相 较 量 , 或 以 为 是 , 或 以 为 非 。 16就 在 神 藉 耶 稣 基 督 审 判 人 隐 秘 事 的 日 子 , 照 着 我 的 福 音 所 言 。

Confucius was born in the province of Lu, in Northern China. His father died at a young age. He began studying under the village tutor and at the age of 15 dedicated his whole life to study. At age 20, he married but soon divorced his wife. He had a son and daughter but a rather poor relationship with both. It was already in his twenties when he gathered a group of loyal disciples. During the Chou Dynasty (1100 B.C. to 256 B.C.) China was divided up into feudal lords and the moral and social order was in a state of rapid decline, which paved the path for the philosophies of Confucius.

孔子生于中国北方的鲁国,他的父亲英年早逝。他起初跟着私塾老师学习,15岁时开始全身心投入学习;他20岁结婚,但不久就和妻子离了婚。他有一儿一女,但与子女的关系都很差。二十几岁时,他收纳了一群忠实弟子跟他学习。周朝时(公元前1100年——公元前256年),中华大地被封建地主割据,道德和社会秩序迅速下滑,为孔子的哲学奠定了基础。

Confucius sought political office to create these reforms, but it was ultimately his influential followers who would create those reforms after his death in 479 B.C. Centuries later, Confucianism became the official religion of China and it ultimately shaped Chinese culture. The values he espoused dealt with education, family loyalty, work ethic, value of traditions, conformity to traditional standards, honoring of ancestors, and unquestioning obedience to superiors. All of these values are still entrenched in Chinese culture today.

孔子期望利用政治势力开展这些改革,但最终却是在他死后,于公元前479年,由他有影响力的弟子们开创了这些改革。几个世纪以后,孔子的儒家学说在中国成为正式的宗教,最终塑造了中国文化。他倡导的价值观涉及教育、家庭忠贞、职业伦理、传统价值、与传统标准保持一致、纪念祖先以及无条件服从上级。所有这些价值观在今天的中国文化中仍然很牢固。

There is much that Christians can agree with Confucius, but there are also some glaring differences of which we can’t agree. The remaining part of the study will discuss these similarities and differences.

孔子的很多教导都是基督徒所认同的,但也有一些明显的差别是基督徒不认同的。在这课的学习中,我们将对它们之间的异同加以讨论。

Confucianism replaces Animism

儒家学说代替泛灵论(万物有灵)

Animism – a belief that gods and spirits dwell in natural formations.

泛灵论——相信神灵住在自然物中

• Alongside of the animistic worldview of the time-period, there was a strong belief in ancestor worship, which taught that the spirits of the dead needed to be honored and cared for by the living family members. This is still a very popular view today, especially amongst the Buddhists living in China.

• 与同时期的泛灵论世界观一样,孔子的哲学也有强烈的祭祖观念,里面说,死者的灵魂需要被活着的家人尊敬和照顾。这种观念在今天仍然很普遍,尤其在中国的佛教徒中间很常见。

Could this be because God has placed eternity inside of each human being? Read the following…

这会不会是因为神把永生放在了每个人心里 的缘故?读以下经文—

Ecclesiastes 3:11He has made everything beautiful in its time. He has also set eternity in the human heart; yet no one can fathom what God has done from beginning to end.

传道书3:11  神 造 万 物 , 各 按 其 时 成 为 美 好 , 又 将 永 生 ( 原 文 是 永 远 ) 安 置 在 世 人 心 里 。 然 而   神 从 始 至 终 的 作 为 , 人 不 能 参 透 。

As much as Confucius tried to avoid “spiritual matters” within his philosophy, he couldn’t escape the much entrenched view of ancestor worship. Whether he really believed in it or not, is another issue. Most historians label Confucius as an agnostic who may have believed in spirits and the supernatural but was either uninterested in them or maybe uncertain as to whether they even existed. Confucius was much more interested in the affairs of humanity now, rather than what was to come later in life. This is ultimately the same sort of philosophy within a Christ-less Jewish faith. They are far more interested in earthly matters than they are concerned about things that most of them don’t even believe exist.

尽管孔子试图在他的哲学中避免谈论“属灵的事情”,但他还是不能逃避根深蒂固的祭祖观念。至于他是否真地相信它,又是另一回事。大多数历史学家把孔子看为一个不可知论者,他可能相信灵和超自然能力的存在,但不是对它不感兴趣,就是不确定它们真地存在。他对现时人类的事情要比对人死后的事情感兴趣得多。从根本上讲,这与里面没有基督的犹太人信仰同属一个哲学。他们对现时世界的事感兴趣地多,并不追求属灵的事,实际上大多数人根本不相信神灵的存在。

“To devote oneself earnestly to one’s duty to humanity, and while respecting the spirits, to keep aloof from them, may be called wisdom.” (Analects 6:20)

论语6·20 樊迟问知,子曰:“务民之义,敬鬼神而远之,可谓知矣。”

解释:樊迟问孔子怎样才算是智慧,孔子说:“专心致力于(提倡)老百姓应该遵从的道德,尊敬鬼神但要远离它,就可以说是智慧了。”

Now consider what the Bible calls wisdom…

现在来思考一下圣经里怎样说智慧—

Proverbs 1:7 The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge, but fools despise wisdom and instruction.

箴言1:7 敬 畏 耶 和 华 是 知 识 的 开 端 ; 愚 妄 人 藐 视 智 慧 和 训 诲 。

1 Corinthians 1:18,19 For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God. 19 For it is written:“I will destroy the wisdom of the wise;the intelligence of the intelligent I will frustrate.”

林前1:18-19—-18因 为 十 字 架 的 道 理 , 在 那 灭 亡 的 人 为 愚 拙 ; 在 我 们 得 救 的 人 , 却 为 神 的 大 能 。19就 如 经 上 所 记 : “我 要 灭 绝 智 慧 人 的 智 慧 , 废 弃 聪 明 人 的 聪 明 。”

The divine being, according to Confucius philosophy, does not play a significant role. Confucius philosophy is very ego-centric and relies on self-effort, something that is very prevalent in all world religions. The goal of life was to live a very pious and moral life.

孔子哲学认为,神的作用并不重要。孔子哲学很注重个人中心,而且依靠的是自己的努力,这一点在所有的世界宗教里都很普遍。他们的人生目标是过一个尽责且有道德的生活。

Consider that view with the wise words of King Solomon…

思考那种观点以及所罗门王的智慧话语—

Proverbs 14:12 There is a way that appears to be right,but in the end it leads to death.

箴言14:12 有 一 条 路 , 人 以 为 正 , 至 终 成 为 死 亡 之 路 。

  1. What is that “way that appears to be right?”

    那条“人以为正的路”是什么?

    This is where there is a sharp contrast between the Philosophy of Confucius and Christianity. Confucius focused his efforts on improving humanity through what was called filial piety, mutual respect for fellow man, whereas Jesus came to focus a person’s life on eternity.

    这就是孔子哲学与基督教之间明显的差异所在。孔子的焦点是努力通过所谓的孝道和对人的相互尊重来改进人类,而耶稣的焦点却是在人的永恒生命上。

    Read the following…

    读以下经文—

    Luke 12:13,14 Someone in the crowd said to him, “Teacher, tell my brother to divide the inheritance with me.”Jesus replied, “Man, who appointed me a judge or an arbiter between you?”

    路12:13,14—-13众 人 中 有 一 个 人 对 耶 稣 说 : “夫 子 ! 请 你 吩 咐 我 的 兄 长 和 我 分 开 家 业 。” 14耶 稣 说 :“ 你 这 个 人 ! 谁 立 我 作 你 们 断 事 的 官 , 给 你 们 分 家 业 呢 ?”

  2. What did the man in the crowd want Jesus to do?

    人群中的那个人想让耶稣为他做什么?

  3. What did Jesus teach the man by saying he wasn’t the one to settle family disputes over money?

    耶稣说他不是可以为他分家业的人,耶稣这样说是要他明白什么?

    John 6:26-29 Jesus answered, “Very truly I tell you, you are looking for me, not because you saw the signs I performed but because you ate the loaves and had your fill. Do not work for food that spoils, but for food that endures to eternal life, which the Son of Man will give you. For on him God the Father has placed his seal of approval.” Then they asked him, “What must we do to do the works God requires?” Jesus answered, “The work of God is this: to believe in the one he has sent.”

    约6:26-29—-26耶 稣 回 答 说 :“ 我 实 实 在 在 的 告 诉 你 们 , 你 们 找 我 , 并 不 是 因 见 了 神 迹 , 乃 是 因 吃 饼 得 饱 。 27不 要 为 那 必 坏 的 食 物 劳 力 , 要 为 那 存 到 永 生 的 食 物 劳 力 , 就 是 人 子 要 赐 给 你 们 的 , 因 为 人 子 是 父 神 所 印 证 的 。” 28众 人 问 他 说 : “我 们 当 行 什么 , 才 算 做 神 的 工 呢 ?” 29耶 稣 回 答 说 :“ 信 神 所 差 来 的 , 这 就 是 做 神 的 工 。”

  4. How does Jesus correct the thinking of those who were trying to make him their physical provider of the things of this world and point them to the things of eternity?

    那些人试图让耶稣供应他们在这个世界上的物质需要,耶稣怎样改正了他们的观念,让他们注目永恒的事情?

    • But does not Jesus teach us to “Love our neighbor as ourselves?” Yes, however, what makes Christianity so different from world religions is that Jesus allowed room for man to justify himself by being a good neighbor because God’s requirements are perfection, which man falls far short of attaining. Read the following…

    • 但耶稣不是教导我们要“爱人如己”吗?耶稣是这样教导的,但基督教与世界宗教的大不同在于,耶稣允许人自己尝试通过成为好邻舍的方式成为义人,但因为神对人的要求是人必须达到完美才能称义,而人靠自己的努力根本达不到这个要求。读以下经文—

    Luke 10:25-37 On one occasion an expert in the law stood up to test Jesus. “Teacher,” he asked, “what must I do to inherit eternal life?”“What is written in the Law?” he replied. “How do you read it?” He answered, “‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength and with all your mind’[c]; and, ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’” “You have answered correctly,” Jesus replied. “Do this and you will live.” But he wanted to justify himself, so he asked Jesus, “And who is my neighbor?”

    路10:25-37—-25有 一 个 律 法 师 起 来 试 探 耶 稣 , 说 : “夫 子 ! 我 该 作 什么才 可 以 承 受 永 生 ?” 26耶 稣 对 他 说 :“ 律 法 上 写 的 是 什么 ? 你 念 的 是 怎 样 呢 ?” 27他 回 答 说 : 「 你 要 尽 心 、 尽 性 、 尽 力 、 尽 意 爱 主 ─ 你 的 神 ; 又 要 爱 邻 舍 如 同 自 己 。 」 28耶 稣 说 : 「 你 回 答 的 是 ; 你 这 样 行 , 就 必 得 永 生 。 」 29那 人 要 显 明 自 己 有 理 , 就 对 耶 稣 说 : “谁 是 我 的 邻 舍 呢 ?”

    In reply Jesus said: “A man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, when he was attacked by robbers. They stripped him of his clothes, beat him and went away, leaving him half dead. A priest happened to be going down the same road, and when he saw the man, he passed by on the other side. So too, a Levite, when he came to the place and saw him, passed by on the other side. But a Samaritan, as he traveled, came where the man was; and when he saw him, he took pity on him. He went to him and bandaged his wounds, pouring on oil and wine. Then he put the man on his own donkey, brought him to an inn and took care of him. The next day he took out two denarii and gave them to the innkeeper. ‘Look after him,’ he said, ‘and when I return, I will reimburse you for any extra expense you may have.’ “Which of these three do you think was a neighbor to the man who fell into the hands of robbers?” The expert in the law replied, “The one who had mercy on him.”Jesus told him, “Go and do likewise.”

    30耶 稣 回 答 说 : “有 一 个 人 从 耶 路 撒 冷 下 耶 利 哥 去 , 落 在 强 盗 手 中 。 他 们 剥 去 他 的 衣 裳 , 把 他 打 个 半 死 , 就 丢 下 他 走 了 。 31偶 然 有 一 个 祭 司 从 这 条 路 下 来 , 看 见 他 就 从 那 边 过 去 了 。 32又 有 一 个 利 未 人 来 到 这 地 方 , 看 见 他 , 也 照 样 从 那 边 过 去 了 。 33惟 有 一 个 撒 玛 利 亚 人 行 路 来 到 那 里 , 看 见 他 就 动 了 慈 心 , 34上 前 用 油 和 酒 倒 在 他 的 伤 处 , 包 裹 好 了 , 扶 他 骑 上 自 己 的 牲 口 , 带 到 店 里 去 照 应 他 。 35第 二 天 拿 出 二 钱 银 子 来 , 交 给 店 主 , 说 : 你 且 照 应 他 ; 此 外 所 费 用 的 , 我 回 来 必 还 你 。 36你 想 , 这 三 个 人 那 一 个 是 落 在 强 盗 手 中 的 邻 舍 呢 ?” 37他 说 :“ 是 怜 悯 他 的 。” 耶 稣 说 : “你 去 照 样 行 罢 。”

  5. Why is it important to understand that this man who came to challenge Jesus was considered an “expert in the law?”

    那个来挑战耶稣的人被认为是个“律法师”,我们了解这一点为什么很重要?

  6. Why do you think Jesus chose a Samaritan in his parable to illustrate “loving your neighbor as yourself”?

    你认为耶稣在解释“爱人如己”的比喻时为什么要选择一个撒玛利亚人作例子?

    Ethics according to Confucius

    孔子的伦理观(道德标准)

    Li – reverence, courtesy, or the standard of conduct

    礼——尊敬、礼貌,或者行为的准则

    Jen – Fundamental virtue of Confucian teaching – goodness and benevolence toward all people no matter their rank or class. In the analects, Confucius summarizes the principle of Jen in this statement, often called the silver rule: “Do not do to others what you would not like them to do to you” (Analects 15:23). Li provides the structure for social interaction. Jen makes it a moral system.

    仁——孔子教学的基本美德——无论阶级地位如何,以善良和慈悲对待所有的人。在论语中,他用一句话总结了仁的原则,常被视为 金科玉律:“己所不欲勿施于人”(论语15:23)。礼提供了社交的方式,仁提供了道德准则。

    Chun-Tzu – Every man is to be accompanied by five virtues: self-respect, generosity, sincerity, persistence, and benevolence. As a son, he is always loyal; as a father, he is just and kind; as an official, he is loyal and faithful; as a husband, he is righteous and just; and as a friend, he is faithful and tactful.

    君子——每个人都要具备五个美德:自尊、慷慨、真诚、恒心和仁爱。作为儿子,他永远是忠诚的;作为父亲,他永远是仁慈的;作为官员,他是忠诚守信的;作为丈夫,他是正义公正的;作为朋友,他是守信、机智的。

    • While all of the philosophies of Confucius appear to be noble and admirable, not even Confucius could live up to his own standards. He had two children that he was estranged to and was married and divorced. Of course, these aren’t reasons for a person not to aspire towards lofty goals. It is rather a reminder to all of us that even Confucius needed a Savior from sin.

    • 虽然孔子的所有哲学显得都很高尚、令人钦佩,但连孔子本人也没有达到他自己的标准。他有两个孩子,但他却跟他们很疏远;他虽然结了婚但却又离了婚。当然,这些不是一个人不应该追求高尚目标的原因,而是要提醒我们所有人,连孔子都需要一位救主拯救他脱离罪恶。

    Nature of Man

    人的本性

    Confucius: “The Master said, ‘Is goodness indeed so far away? If we really wanted goodness, we should find that it was at our side.’” (Analects 7:29)

    孔子:《论语》7·29 子曰:“仁远乎哉?我欲仁,斯仁至矣。”(这个“仁”表示“仁爱”或“善举”) 孔子说:“仁难道离我们很远吗?只要我想达到仁,仁就来了。”

    (从本章孔子的言论来看,仁是人天生的本性,因此为仁就全靠自身的努力,不能依靠外界的力量,“我欲仁,斯仁至矣。”这种认识的基础,仍然是靠道德的自觉,要经过不懈的努力,就有可能达到仁。这里,孔子强调了主观能动性对人提升道德修养的重要意义。)

    Jesus:Jesus replied, “Very truly I tell you, no one can see the kingdom of God unless they are born again…”Jesus answered, “Very truly I tell you, no one can enter the kingdom of God unless they are born of water and the Spirit. Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit gives birth to spirit. (John 3:3,5-6)

    耶稣:(约3:3,5-6) 3耶 稣 回 答 说 : 「 我 实 实 在 在 地 告 诉 你 , 人 若 不 重 生 , 就 不 能 见 神 的 国 。 」5耶 稣 说 : 「 我 实 实 在 在 的 告 诉 你 , 人 若 不 是 从 水 和 圣 灵 生 的 , 就 不 能 进 神 的 国 。 6从 肉 身 生 的 就 是 肉 身 ; 从 灵 生 的 就 是 灵 。

  7. What does Confucius teach us about man’s nature?

    孔子说人的本性是怎样的?

  8. What does Jesus teach us about man’s nature?

    耶稣说人的本性是怎样的?

    • Like all world religions, the innate goodness of man can be developed through various disciplines. For Confucius, those disciplines entailed ceremony, music, archery, charioteering, writing, and mathematics in order to develop man’s full potential. This is very typical of all world religions…, there is a process by which man becomes better and greater and more acceptable. This is the consequence of NOT knowing the truth about God’s Word and relying on the conscience to dictate a religious view of ourselves, which will always be based on the character of a person.

    • 与世界其它所有宗教一样,孔子也认为,人内在的善可以通过各种训练得到改善。孔子认为,那些训练存在于礼仪、音乐、箭术、驾驭马车、写作以及数学中,让人的潜力得到完整的开发。这一点在世界所有宗教中都很典型—人借助这种训练,便可以变得越来越好、越来越伟大、越来越被接纳。这种做法是人不认识神话语的真理、依靠良心而记录人自己宗教观的结果,它的根本一直都是对人品格的训练。

    Confucius: “The master said, ‘The ways of the true gentleman are three. I myself have met with success in none of them.”

    孔子:“子曰:‘君子道者三,我无能焉:仁者不忧,知者不惑,勇者不惧。’ 14-28。”(【译文】 孔子说:“君子之道有三个方面,我都未能做到:仁德的人不忧愁,聪明的人不迷惑,勇敢的人不畏惧。”)

    Apostle Paul:“ So I find this law at work: Although I want to do good, evil is right there with me. For in my inner being I delight in God’s law; but I see another law at work in me, waging war against the law of my mind and making me a prisoner of the law of sin at work within me. What a wretched man I am! Who will rescue me from this body that is subject to death? Thanks be to God, who delivers me through Jesus Christ our Lord! So then, I myself in my mind am a slave to God’s law, but in my sinful nature a slave to the law of sin” (Romans 7:21-25).

    使徒保罗:21我 觉 得 有 个 律 , 就 是 我 愿 意 为 善 的 时 候 , 便 有 恶 与 我 同 在 。 22因 为 按 着 我 里 面 的 意 思 ( 原 文 是 人 ) , 我 是 喜 欢 神 的 律 ; 23但 我 觉 得 肢 体 中 另 有 个 律 和 我 心 中 的 律 交 战 , 把 我 掳 去 , 叫 我 附 从 那 肢 体 中 犯 罪 的 律 。 24我 真 是 苦 啊 ! 谁 能 救 我 脱 离 这 取 死 的 身 体 呢 ? 25感 谢 神 , 靠 着 我 们 的 主 耶 稣 基 督 就 能 脱 离 了 。 这 样 看 来 , 我 以 内 心 顺 服 神 的 律 , 我 肉 体 却 顺 服 罪 的 律 了 。(罗7:21-25).

    • Notice that Confucius came to the same conclusion that every man ought to come to, including the apostle Paul, that while we aspire to be good, we cannot be perfect; and while we aspire to avoid all evil, this we can’t do either. But Confucius’ conclusion has no happy ending because he has no Savior. Paul, on the other hand finds victory in the midst of self-defeat, through the cross of Jesus Christ, as does every other Christian.

    • 请留意,孔子得出的结论跟我们每个人应该得出的结论是一致的,甚至连使徒保罗也一样,那就是,虽然我们渴望行善,但却达不到完美;虽然我们渴望避免一切的邪恶,但还是做不到。然而,孔子最终无法拥有一个快乐的结局,因为他没有救主;可保罗不一样,他在个人的失败中找到了成功,就像任何一个基督徒一样,他们透过耶稣基督的十字架就可以成功。

    • St. Augustine once said “That within every man there is a God-shaped vacuum that only God can fill.” He also said “That the soul of man is restless until it rests in God.” Because Confucius didn’t have much use for the afterlife or the existence of God, his philosophies fell short of addressing evil in the world and how to deal with tragedy in one’s life. The Christian recognizes that whether disaster is self-inflicted by man, or whether it comes through natural consequences upon this earth, like a hurricane or an earthquake that may kill thousands, Christians recognize that in a fallen world it has severe consequences. But our refuge and strength comes from the promises of God to eternally restore us in the life to come. Because Confucius did not address these sort of areas in his philosophies, ancient animism and ancestral worship filled the vacuum for where his teachings were void from addressing. Read the following…

    • 圣徒奥古斯丁曾经说:“神造人时,在每个人心里留了一个空间,而这个空间只有神自己才能填满。”他还说:“人的灵魂若不安息在主里面,就无法得到真正的安息。”孔子的哲学对人死后的情形或神的存在没什么用处,他也没有提到世间的邪恶,以及如何处理生活中遇到的灾难。基督徒认为,世间的灾难不管是因为个人所致,还是自然界对地球造成的结果,(如飓风和地震让很多人失去生命),人都会遭遇到这个堕落世界带来的很多严重后果。但神的应许是我们的避难所和力量,他要在我们未来的新生命中永远地修复我们。孔子的哲学没有提到这些,他用古代的万灵论和祭拜祖先填补了这方面的空白。读以下经文——

    2 Corinthians 5:1-4 For we know that if the earthly tent we live in is destroyed, we have a building from God, an eternal house in heaven, not built by human hands. Meanwhile we groan,longing to be clothed instead with our heavenly dwelling, because when we are clothed, we will not be found naked. For while we are in this tent, we groan and are burdened, because we do not wish to be unclothed but to be clothed instead with our heavenly dwelling, so that what is mortal may be swallowed up by life.

    林后5:1-4—-1我 们 原 知 道 , 我 们 这 地 上 的 帐 棚 若 拆 毁 了 , 必 得 神 所 造 , 不 是 人 手 所 造 , 在 天 上 永 存 的 房 屋 。 2我 们 在 这 帐 棚 里 叹 息 , 深 想 得 那 从 天 上 来 的 房 屋 , 好 像 穿 上 衣 服 ; 3倘 若 穿 上 , 被 遇 见 的 时 候 就 不 至于赤 身 了 。 4我 们 在 这 帐 棚 里 叹 息 劳 苦 , 并 非 愿 意 脱 下 这 个 , 乃 是 愿 意 穿 上 那 个 , 好 叫 这 必 死 的 被 生 命 吞 灭 了 。

  9. What is Paul talking about when he says that “we groan?”

    保罗说“我们叹息劳苦”是什么意思?

  10. What, then, is the comfort that Christians have when life gets difficult?

    那么,当基督徒的生活变得艰难时,他的安慰是什么?

    • Another criticism of Confucius was that his philosophies really left man without true purpose to achieve in this life because he did not explain the origin of the universe or what man’s purpose for being virtuous was really all about. As Christians, our purpose comes from this knowledge. Read the following…

    • 对孔子的另一个批评是,他的哲学事实上让人在这个生活中没有真正可以追求的目标,因为他没有解释宇宙的起源,以及人需要讲道德的真正目的是什么。作为基督徒,我们的目的来自这种认识。读以下经文——

    Psalm 139:14 I praise you because I am fearfully and wonderfully made;your works are wonderful,I know that full well.

    诗篇139:14 我 要 称 谢 你 , 因 我 受 造 , 奇 妙 可 畏 ; 你 的 作 为 奇 妙 , 这 是 我 心 深 知 道 的 。

    Isaiah 51:1 “Listen to me, you who pursue righteousnessand who seek the Lord: Look to the rock from which you were cutand to the quarry from which you were hewn.”

    赛51:1 你 们 这 追 求 公 义 、 寻 求 耶 和 华 的 , 当 听 我 言 ! 你 们 要 追 想 被 凿 而 出 的 磐 石 , 被 挖 而 出 的 岩 穴 。

    • Confucius philosophy never answers the question, “What happens after death.” As mentioned earlier, Confucius was an agnostic and didn’t concern himself with matters pertaining to the next life. But the result of that being absent makes life quite vain and empty. Read the following…

    • 孔子的哲学从来没有回答这个问题:“人死后会发生什么事情。”正如前面所讲,孔子是一个不可知论者,不关心人死后的事情。但缺少这一内容的结果是,人生变得很空虚无用。读以下经文——

    1 Corinthians 15:12-14 But if it is preached that Christ has been raised from the dead, how can some of you say that there is no resurrection of the dead? If there is no resurrection of the dead, then not even Christ has been raised. And if Christ has not been raised, our preaching is useless and so is your faith.

    林前15:12-14—-12既 传 基 督 是 从 死 里 复 活 了 , 怎么 在 你 们 中 间 有 人 说 没 有 死 人 复 活 的 事 呢 ? 13若 没 有 死 人 复 活 的 事 , 基 督 也 就 没 有 复 活 了 。 14若 基 督 没 有 复 活 , 我 们 所 传 的 便 是 枉 然 , 你 们 所 信 的 也 是 枉 然 ;

  11. What does Paul say about our faith if there is no afterlife?

    保罗说,如果没有复活,我们所信的就是怎样?

    • Christianity offers a comprehensive or all-encompassing view of a person’s life from cradle to grave. Confucius addresses only what the conscience is already telling us, “Do more,” “Be better” “Be fair” “Be generous.” But it fails to answer the critical question: “What happens when I am not?” Only Christianity can answer that question…

    • 基督教对人从婴儿到坟墓的总过程提出了面面俱到的观点,而孔子只提到了人的良心已经告白的事情,“多做”、“做得更好”、“要公正”、“要慷慨”。他没有回答那个极其重要的问题:“当我做不到的时候会怎样?”只有基督教能回答这个问题——

    2 Corinthians 5:21 God made him who had no sin to be sin for us, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.

    林后5:21 神 使 那 无 罪 ( 无 罪 : 原 文 是 不 知 罪 ) 的 , 替 我 们 成 为 罪 , 好 叫 我 们 在 他 里 面 成 为 神 的 义 。

Christianity vs World Religions
大纲
Outline
第一课 - 看犹太教历史,追溯基督教根源
lesson 1 - Tracing the Roots of Christianity back to Historic Judaism
第二课 -- 正统派教会—简要概述圣经中的基督教及其不同形态
lesson 2 -- Orthodoxy – a brief overview of Biblical Christianity and its various forms
第三课 -- 罗马天主教—简要概述罗马天主教的内部教导
lesson 3 -- Roman Catholicism – a brief overview of the teachings within Catholicism
第四课 - 伊斯兰教
lesson 4 - Islam
第五课 - 孔子
lesson 5 - Confucius
第六课 - 印度教
lesson 6 - Hinduism
第七课 - 佛教
lesson 7 - Buddhism
第八课 - 道教
lesson 8 - Taoism
第九课 - 摩门教
lesson 9 - Mormonism
第十课 - 耶和华见证人
lesson 10 - Jehovah’s Witnesses
第十一课 - 新时代运动
lesson 11 - New Age Movement
第五课 - 孔子
lesson 5 - Confucius