恩典国际圣经学院

第六课 - 印度教
lesson 6 - Hinduism

Watch Youtube video on Crash course on Hinduism: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sY6EbisJBHY

了解印度教的国内网站:http://baike.so.com/doc/334436.html

Introduction

介绍

Understanding the roots of Hinduism as well as its religious philosophy is next to impossible. The religion has no founder and therefore no true authority to trace its roots. It was once a religion of polytheism (as many as 33 million gods) that eventually changed to pantheism (everything is god). But one thing that has never changed in its philosophy is how mankind reaches his ultimate goal of oneness with Brahman – through inner enlightenment!

想了解印度教的根源以及它的宗教哲学几乎是不可能的事情。因为这个宗教没有创始人,所以也没有真正的权威可以追根溯源。它曾经是多神教(多达330万个神),最终变成了泛神教(一切都是神);不过它的哲学中有一样东西从来没有变,那就是人类怎样通过内在觉悟而达到与梵天/婆罗门合一的最终目标。

Understanding key terminology in Hinduism

了解印度教中的主要术语

Brahman – The divine totality; so no creator, but rather the total of creation. That’s the pantheistic view of god that everything is god and god is everything.

梵天/婆罗门— 神氏的总和;所以没有创造者,而是创造物的总和。那就是泛神论对神的观点,一切皆为神。

  1. What do the following pictures have in common according to Hinduism?

    根据印度教的观点,下列图片的共同点是什么?

    Atman – The individual soul, like a spark from the huge fire of Brahman.

    阿特曼(灵魂)— 单个的灵魂,就像发自从梵天/婆罗门的巨大火焰中的一个火花。

    Bindi - Indian guru, Muktananda, from the twentieth century said, “Worship your own inner self. God lives within you as you.” The red dot or “Bindi” is a third eye, by which the Hindu worships his own intellect. When they meditate, they close their two eyes and draw their attention to the area of the 3rd eye, where they release all negativity from their life and so concentrate on their inner self where they derive enlightenment from.

    宾迪(眉心痣)—二十世纪的印度大师穆克达难陀说:“敬拜你里面的自己,神以你的形式住在你里面。”那个红点或“宾迪”是第三只眼睛,印度教徒通过这只眼睛崇拜自己的智慧。他们默想时,会闭上双眼,将注意力集中在第三只眼睛的区域,在那里释放生活中所有负面的东西,以便能将精力集中在里面的自己上,以得到开悟。

  2. How does this differ from what Jesus taught about “God living in us”?

    这与耶稣教导的“神住在我们里面”有什么不同?

    Luke 17:20,21 Once, having been asked by the Pharisees when the kingdom of God would come, Jesus replied, “The kingdom of God does not come with your careful observation, nor will people say, ‘Here it is,’ or ‘There it is,’ because the kingdom of God is within you.”

    路17:20,21—-20法 利 赛 人 问 : “神 的 国 几 时 来 到 ?” 耶 稣 回 答 说 : “神 的 国 来 到 不 是 眼 所 能 见 的 。 21人 也 不 得 说 : ‘看 哪 , 在 这 里 ’, ‘看 哪 , 在 那 里’; 因 为 神 的 国 就 在 你 们 心 里 ( 心 里 : 或 作 中 间 ) 。”

    Philippians 2:13 for it is God who works in you to will and to act according to his good purpose.

    腓2:13 因 为 你 们 立 志 行 事 都 是 神 在 你 们 心 里 运 行 , 为 要 成 就 他 的 美 意 。

    Vedas – “knowledge” these are the earliest scripts of Hindu writings dating back to the time period of Moses till the time of King David (1500-1000 B.C.)

    吠陀经— “知识”。这是印度教最早的文献,开始于摩西时代,一直延续到大卫王时代(1500-1000 公元前)。

  3. What were the sacred Scriptures of Jesus’ day?

    耶稣时代的圣经是什么?

    Luke 24:27 And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he explained to them what was said in all the Scriptures concerning himself.

    路24:27 于 是 从 摩 西 和 众 先 知 起 , 凡 经 上 所 指 着 自 己 的 话 都 给 他 们 讲 解 明 白 了 。

    John 20:31 But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.

    约20:31 但 记 这 些 事 要 叫 你 们 信 耶 稣 是 基 督 , 是 神 的 儿 子 , 并 且 叫 你 们 信 了 他 , 就 可 以 因 他 的 名 得 生 命 。

    Hinduism – Hinduism was a name given to the people who first gathered at the Indus River with their false gods. The word Hindu is derived from the word Sindhu, meaning “river.” When the Arabs invaded India around 1200 AD, they began using the term “al-hind” to describe the non-Muslim people who gathered by the river. It was the Portuguese who finally adopted the word Hindu when they came to India in the 16th century.

    印度教—印度教一词是用来称呼那些最初带着假神聚集在印度河边的人。这个词来源于兴都,意为“河流”。在阿拉伯人于公元后1200年入侵印度时,他们开始使用“al-hind”(阿尔-汉德)来描述聚集在河边的非穆斯林。最后是葡萄牙人于十六世纪来到印度时采用了这个词。

  4. When did God’s chosen people take on the name “Christian”?

    神的选民什么时候开始使用“基督徒”这个名称?

    Acts 11:25,26 Then Barnabas went to Tarsus to look for Saul, and when he found him, he brought him to Antioch. So for a whole year Barnabas and Saul met with the church and taught great numbers of people. The disciples were called Christians first at Antioch.

    徒11:25,26 —-25他 又 往 大 数 去 找 扫 罗 , 26找 着 了 , 就 带 他 到 安 提 阿 去 。 他 们 足 有 一 年 的 工 夫 和 教 会 一 同 聚 集 , 教 训 了 许 多 人 。 门 徒 称 为 基 督 徒 是 从 安 提 阿 起 首 。

    Sanatana Dharma – Hindus believe in an eternal law that is set in motion for all of life

    萨纳坦-达尔玛(永久之道)— 印度教徒相信,有一个 永恒的律法在为所有的生命运行。

    • Earliest archeological find from the Indus River valley people is a seal that depicts a female figure nursing a baby. She presumably represents an ancient mother goddess, which is also found in most ancient cultures. This could very well be that those in false religions had a remnant of the truth of God’s promises. God Promised to send a Savior to this world through the seed of the woman in Genesis 3:15.

    • 最早的考古学者从印度河谷发现了一个印章,上面的图案是一个正在给孩子喂奶的妇女。人们猜测,她代表的是古代的女神,这与其它大多数古代文化的发现是一样的。这也很可能是神的应许真理在那些假宗教中的残留。如创世纪3:15记载,神曾应许要差遣一位救主通过女人的后裔来到世界。

    Ritual Impurity – Hindus believe that they can become impure in this life through other people, objects or animals. But these impurities that a person can contract can be spiritually cleansed. Atonement ceremonies may extend over a long period and they consist of performing special tasks such as fasting or drinking hot cow’s urine. Presenting gifts to Brahmins or making long pilgrimages can also bring about this atonement.

    不洁净礼—印度教徒相信,他们在这个世界上会因为其他人、物或动物而变得不洁净,但一个人被传染的这些不洁净可以在灵里得到洁净。他们的洁净与赎罪仪式可能持续很长时间,其中包括一些很特别的事,比如禁食或喝热牛尿。向婆罗门献礼物,或做很长的朝圣也可以赎罪。

  5. What does Jesus teach us about cleansing?

    耶稣对洁净是怎样教导的?

    John 15:1-3 I am the true vine, and my Father is the gardener. He cuts off every branch in me that bears no fruit, while every branch that does bear fruit he prunes so that it will be even more fruitful. You are already clean because of the word I have spoken to you.

    约15:1-3—-1我 是 真 葡 萄 树 , 我 父 是 栽 培 的 人 。 2凡 属 我 不 结 果 子 的 枝 子 , 他 就 剪 去 ; 凡 结 果 子 的 , 他 就 修 理 干净 , 使 枝 子 结 果 子 更 多 。 3现 在 你 们 因 我 讲 给 你 们 的 道 , 已 经干净 了 。

    Brahmanas (900-500 B.C.) mainly consisting of rituals and mantras, repeating the names of divine beings over and over again, throughout the day.

    梵书,婆罗门书(900-500 公元前) (印度教经典《吠陀》的无韵体部分之一,主要包括礼仪和祷文,整天不断重复圣者的名字。

  6. What does Jesus teach us about the repetition of mindless prayers that don’t really say anything?

    有人在祷告时不断重复一些几乎毫无意义的话,耶稣对此是怎样教导的?

    Hindu Caste System

    印度的种姓制度

第一是婆罗门,最高种姓,包括祭司和学者; 第二是刹帝利,包括士兵和勇士; 第三是吠舍,包括商人和专业人士; 第四是首陀罗,最低种姓,包括劳动者和佣人。

Christianity vs. Hinduism Doctrinal & Historical Comparison

基督教与印度教教义及历史对比

Place of Origen Jesus died and rose again just outside of Jerusalem India
起源地 耶稣就在耶路撒冷城外死了,又复活了。 印度
Place of Worship John 4:24 “God is spirit, and his worshipers must worship in spirit and in truth.” Our Savior’s kingdom reigns in the hearts of his people by faith. Temple (Mandir)
敬拜场所 约4:24 “神 是 个 灵 , 所 以 拜 他 的 必 须 用 心 灵 和 诚 实 拜 他 。 」”我们救主的国度通过信心在他子民心里统治。 寺庙,神殿(曼帝尔)
Worship practices Acts 2:42 They devoted themselves to the apostles' teaching and to the fellowship, to the breaking of bread and to prayer.
Baptism brings us into the family of God. Prayer, God’s Word, fellowship, communion is what keeps us in the family of God.
Meditation, Yoga, contemplation, offerings to gods. Devotion to the various gods and goddesses of Hinduism
崇拜方式 徒2:42 都 恒 心 遵 守 使 徒 的 教 训 , 彼 此 交 接 , 擘 饼 , 祈 祷 。
洗礼带我们进入神的家;祷告,神的话,团契,圣餐让我们持受在神的家里。
默想,瑜伽,静观,向各种神献祭。向印度教的各种神以及女神献身。
The Will of God Deuteronomy 11:18,19 Fix these words of mine in your hearts and minds; tie them as symbols on your hands and bind them on your foreheads. 19 Teach them to your children, talking about them when you sit at home and when you walk along the road, when you lie down and when you get up.
God recorded his Holy Will for man both upon his conscience and in the Ten Commandments.
Dharma shastras – Ancient laws that govern the way of life of the Hindu. Some believed that the Dharma Shastras allowed the priestly class, which is the highest class, to keep the lowest class – the Sudras under their control.
神的旨意 申11:18-10----18你 们 要 将 我 这 话 存 在 心 内 , 留 在 意 中 , 系 在 手 上 为 记 号 , 戴 在 额 上 为 经 文 ; 19也 要 教 训 你 们 的 儿 女 , 无 论 坐 在 家 里 , 行 在 路 上 , 躺 下 , 起 来 , 都 要 谈 论 ;
神为人把他的旨意记录在人的良心里,也记在十条诫命里。
摩奴法典—是印度教伦理规范的经典著作。一些人相信,摩奴法典允许最高种姓的祭司阶层统治最低种姓的首陀罗。
Time of Origin Christianity traces its birth to Pentecost, when the risen Christ sent forth his Holy Spirit in about 33 A.D. But Christianity comes out of Abrahamic Judaism dating back to 2000 B.C. and prior to that traces its ancestry in Luke’s gospel back to the first man – Adam (Luke 3:38) Date uncertain. Many (non-Christian) historians insist that Hinduism is the oldest religion, tracing its roots back to 2000 B.C. in the Indus river valley, with writings of the Veda dating back to 1500 B.C.
起源时间 基督教追溯到圣灵降临节的开始,是复活的基督在大约公元33年差遣圣灵的时候。但基督教是来源于亚伯拉罕的犹太教,而犹太教可追溯到公元前2000年,而且路加福音还把它追溯到了人类的始祖亚当(路3:38) 起源日期不确定。很多(非基督徒)历史学家坚持认为,印度教是最古老的宗教,根源可追溯到公元前两千年前的印度河流域,它的文献《吠陀》可追溯到公元前1500年。
Goal of religious belief John 14:6 Jesus answered, "I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.
Escape this world of sin through faith in Jesus Christ and await the resurrection from the dead when Jesus will return to Judge both the living and the dead.
Break the cycle of birth, death, and reincarnation, and attain salvation by entering back into Brahman, which is the very source of the whole life-cycle. So basically go back to nothingness.
宗教信仰的目的 约14:6 耶 稣 说 我 就 是 道 路 、 真 理 、 生 命 ; 若 不 藉 着 我 , 没 有 人 能 到 父 那 里 去 。
通过相信耶稣基督脱离这个罪恶的世界,并且等待耶稣再来并审判活人死人时从死里复活。
打破生死轮回的循环,通过重新进入整个生命循环的中心源头婆罗门而获得救赎,所以基本上回到了虚无。
Consequence for sin 1 John 1:9 If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just and will forgive us our sins and purify us from all unrighteousness.
Impenitent sinners suffer God’s wrath for all eternity; Penitent sinners who confess sin to Jesus are forgiven and make holy through the merits of Jesus Christ.
Hindus don’t really believe in sin but rather Karmic consequences. Through obedience and moral perfection you can upgrade your reincarnation or maybe even end the cycle by entering into Brahman. The opposite true if you have bad Karma.
罪的后果 约一1:9 9我 们 若 认 自 己 的 罪 , 神 是 信 实 的 , 是 公 义 的 , 必 要 赦 免 我 们 的 罪 , 洗 净 我 们 一 切 的 不 义 。
不悔改的罪人永远遭受神的愤怒;悔改的罪人,向耶稣承认自己的罪,得到赦免,而且通过耶稣基督的作为被称为圣洁。
印度教徒并不真地相信罪,只相信因果报应。通过顺服和完善道德,你可以让你的轮回升级,甚至可以通过进入婆罗门而结束循环;但如果你的因果报应很差,那结果就正好相反。
God’s Role in Salvation John 3:17 For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but to save the world through him.
Jesus saves mankind through his role as substitute for the sinner.
Upanishads (scripture) say God chooses who gets salvation. Salvation is attained through good deeds and righteousness, following the “dharma” and avoiding bad karma in life.
神在救赎中的角色 约3:17 因 为 神 差 他 的 儿 子 降 世 , 不 是 要 定 世 人 的 罪 ( 或 作 : 审 判 世 人 ; 下 同 ) , 乃 是 要 叫 世 人 因 他 得 救 。
耶稣通过代替罪人死的方式拯救人类。
《优波尼沙》(印度经典)说,神拣选谁得救赎;救赎是通过好行为和公义、跟随“达摩”法则、避免生活中的坏因果报应而得到。
Names for God God, Jehovah, Immanuel, Jesus, Messiah, Christ, LORD Pantheist sect of Hindus believes god is in everything and therefore everything is in god; Monotheistic sect believes the only life force is Brahman.
神的名字 神,耶和华,以马内利,耶稣,弥赛亚,基督,主 印度教的泛神论支派相信,神在一切事物之中,因此一切事物也都在神里面;一神论支派相信,唯一的生命力是婆罗门。

Vishnu

毗湿奴

Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva are the 3 gods, most often spoken of in the Hindu faith. Vishnu is the preserver and protector of creation and is the embodiment of mercy and goodness. He is said to be the one who preserves the universe and maintains the cosmic order of Dharma

梵天(婆罗门)、毗湿奴和湿婆是印度教中最常提到的三个神。毗湿奴是创造物的维持和保护者,象征慈悲和善良。据说他是宇宙的维护者,维持梵天的宇宙秩序。

Vishnu is often depicted in their statues and art as standing on the coiled serpent (Shesha). Could this be a remnant of the truth dating back to Adam and Eve and their ancestors? Read the following…

在他们的雕像和艺术中,毗湿奴的样子常常是站在一堆缠绕在一起的蛇(舍沙)身上。这是否可能就是亚当夏娃和他们的祖宗残留下来的真理? 读以下经文:

Genesis 3:15 And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and hers; he will crush your head, and you will strike his heel.”

创3:15 我 又 要 叫 你 和 女 人 彼 此 为 仇 ; 你 的 后 裔 和 女 人 的 后 裔 也 彼 此 为 仇 。 女 人 的 后裔 要 伤 你 的 头 ; 你 要 伤 他 的 脚 跟 。

Most of the time, good and evil is said to be evenly matched in this world. But at times, the balance is destroyed and evil demons get the upper hand. Often in response to a request by the other gods, Vishnu then incarnates in a human form to set the balance right again. 10 Vishnu incarnations, with 9 already arriving to this earth, and the tenth still waiting is the general belief of most Hindus.

他们认为,这个世界里的善与恶在大多数时间里都能保持平衡,但这个平衡有时也会被破坏,让邪灵占上风。毗湿奴为了回应其他神的请求,常常以人的样子转到人间来恢复这个平衡。毗湿奴的十次转世中已经有九次临到世界,大多数印度教徒普遍相信并等待着他的第十次转世。

The Eighth Incarnation of Vishnu: Krishna

毗湿奴的第八次转世:克利须那神

Who is Krishna? Why do people dress in robes and chant His name on the streets? What is the philosophy of these Krishna devotees? What’s the meaning of their chant?

谁是克利须那?人们为什么穿着袍子在街上念诵他的名字?克利须那的这些忠心跟随者持有怎样的信念?他们念诵的话是什么意思?

Krishna is a name of the Supreme. It means “all- attractive.” Anything that might attract you has its source in the Supreme. Therefore the Supreme is also known as Rama (rhymes with “drama”). “Rama” means “the highest eternal pleasure.”

克利须那是至尊者的名字,意思是 “有全备吸引力的”。任何可能吸引你 的东西,其源头都在至尊者里面。因此, 至尊者也被认为是拉玛(与“抓玛” 是谐音)。“拉玛”的意思是“最高 的永恒之乐”。

Chanting Hare Krishna is a way of seeking Krishna directly. As for the word “Hare” (pronounced huh-ray), it’s a call to Krishna’s divine energy. Followers of Krishna are trying to exploit that energy. This is what they call “Krishna consciousness.”

念诵哈瑞奎师那是直接寻求奎师那的方法。至于“哈瑞”一词(发音是贺-瑞hurray,英文释义为欢呼声),来呼求奎师那的圣能量。奎师那的信徒在努力取得那种能力,这就是他们所谓的“奎师那知觉运动”。

Krishna consciousness, they say, is already inside of each person, waiting to come out, like fire in a match. Chanting Hare Krishna brings out that natural, pure state of mind. The chant is called a mantra, a vibration of sound that cleanses the mind, freeing it from anxiety and illusion. Krishna and His energy are fully present in the sound of the mantra, so by coming in touch with Krishna a person will become happy.

他们说,奎师那知觉运动已经在每个人的里面,像火柴里的火一样等着出来。念诵哈瑞奎师那可以带来自然而纯洁的心理。这种念诵被称为诵经,是一种声音的震颤,可以洁净心思,把人从焦虑和幻觉中释放出来。奎师那和他的能量完全存在于这种诵经的声音中,通过与奎师那接触,人就可以变得快乐。

Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare

哈瑞奎师那哈瑞奎师那奎师那奎师那奎师那哈瑞哈瑞

Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare

哈瑞拉玛哈瑞拉玛拉玛拉玛哈瑞哈瑞

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pl2IJql7-CU

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P5gxTJi5KOU

(death report of George Harrison乔治哈里森的死亡报告)

Matthew 6:6-8 But when you pray, go into your room, close the door and pray to your Father, who is unseen. Then your Father, who sees what is done in secret, will reward you. 7 And when you pray, do not keep on babbling like pagans, for they think they will be heard because of their many words. 8 Do not be like them, for your Father knows what you need before you ask him.

太6:6—8—-6你 祷 告 的 时 候 , 要 进 你 的 内 屋 , 关 上 门 , 祷 告 你 在 暗 中 的 父 ; 你 父 在 暗 中 察 看 , 必 然 报 答 你 。7你 们 祷 告 , 不 可 像 外 邦 人 , 用 许 多 重 复 话 , 他 们 以 为 话 多 了 必 蒙 垂 听 。 8你 们 不 可 效 法 他 们 ; 因 为 你 们 没 有 祈 求 以 先 , 你 们 所 需 用 的 , 你 们 的 父 早 已 知 道 了 。

Christianity vs World Religions
大纲
Outline
第一课 - 看犹太教历史,追溯基督教根源
lesson 1 - Tracing the Roots of Christianity back to Historic Judaism
第二课 -- 正统派教会—简要概述圣经中的基督教及其不同形态
lesson 2 -- Orthodoxy – a brief overview of Biblical Christianity and its various forms
第三课 -- 罗马天主教—简要概述罗马天主教的内部教导
lesson 3 -- Roman Catholicism – a brief overview of the teachings within Catholicism
第四课 - 伊斯兰教
lesson 4 - Islam
第五课 - 孔子
lesson 5 - Confucius
第六课 - 印度教
lesson 6 - Hinduism
第七课 - 佛教
lesson 7 - Buddhism
第八课 - 道教
lesson 8 - Taoism
第九课 - 摩门教
lesson 9 - Mormonism
第十课 - 耶和华见证人
lesson 10 - Jehovah’s Witnesses
第十一课 - 新时代运动
lesson 11 - New Age Movement
第六课 - 印度教
lesson 6 - Hinduism