恩典国际圣经学院

第八课 - 道教
lesson 8 - Taoism

Introduction

介绍

Taoism (pronounced “Daoism”) is steeped in as much mystery as the previous two world religions – Hinduism, and Buddhism. It is speculated that Lao Tzu is its founder. The Chinese words, “Lao Tzu” mean “wise old man” and most historians don’t even believe Lao Tzu to be a real person, but a title for the works of what would become Taoism.

道教跟前两个世界宗教(印度教和佛教)一样,都具有神秘感。据推测,它的创始人是老子。“老子”一词的意思是“有智慧的老人”,这让大多数历史学家不相信老子真有其人,认为他只是道家著作的名称。

Followers of Lao Tzu trace its history back to about 500 B.C. and the basic text of Taoism is called the “Tao Te Ching.”

老子的跟随者把老子的历史追溯到公元前约500年, 道教的主要文献被称为《道德经》。

The purists of Taoism would tell you that its origin did not begin as a religion, but spun into a religion, especially in Korea and Japan where many of their false gods were adopted into the philosophy of Taoism. But whether a person claims Taoism to be a religious belief system or just a philosophy to bring balance to a person’s life…, it still tries to address the meaning of life and man’s purpose here on earth, which is why we as Christians will look at a very brief overview of Taoism under the title “World religions.” Over time, Lao Tzu came to be venerated as a deity, along with many other immortals in this religion/philosophy.

对道教的探索让人了解到,它的起源并不是宗教,而是被编纂成了宗教,尤其在韩国和日本,连很多假神也被吸收进道家的哲学中。但不管人把道教说成是宗教信仰,还是一种哲学(把平衡带入人生命的哲学),它试图阐释的还是生命的意义,以及人在地上生存的目的。这就是我们基督徒要在“世界宗教”的课程中简要浏览它的原因。随着时间的流逝,人们逐渐把老子尊为神,还把这个宗教/哲学中的很多其他人当成了不朽的存在。

Lao Tzu’s most famous quote: “The journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step.”

老子话语中被引用最多的是:“千里之行,始于足下。”

Influence of Taoism in China

道教在中国的影响

It’s difficult to determine the exact influence that Taoism has had on Chinese life but the statistics that this writer came across were these:

道教对中国人的生活产生的影响很难具体说出,但下面的数据能让我们看出它的影响范围:

• 50% of China does not associate with a belief system

50%的中国人不把它和信仰联系在一起;

• 30% associate with Taoism

30%的人和道教有联系;

• 18% Buddhists

18% 是佛教徒

• 6% claim to be followers of Confucius

6% 称自己是孔子的弟子;

• 6% Christian

6% 是基督徒

Interesting side note: China’s Protestant community, which had just one million members in 1949, has over 58 million Protestants (not including Catholic Christians or Christians from underground churches). Prof Yang, a leading expert on religion in China, from Purdue University said that he believes that number will swell to around 160 million by 2025. That would likely put China ahead even of the United States, which had around 159 million Protestants in 2010 but whose congregations are in decline.

有趣的附注:中国的清教徒人数在1949年只有100万人,现在已超过5800万人(不包括天主教徒或家庭教会的基督徒)。来自美国普度大学的中国宗教界知名专家杨博士说,他相信,到2025年,人数会上涨到约1.6亿。那可能会让中国甚至超过美国,因为美国的新教徒人数在2010年大约是1.59亿, 但他们的人数在下降。

“By my calculations China is destined to become the largest Christian country in the world very soon,” said Fenggang Yang, a professor of sociology at Purdue University. But rooting out ancient beliefs that contradict the Christian faith will prove to be very difficult, because 56% of China still practices ancestral worship.

“根据我的计算,中国在不久的将来,一定会成为世界上基督徒数量最多的国家。”普度大学社会学教授杨冯刚教授说。然而,要根除与基督信仰相抵触的古老信仰会异常困难,因为56%的中国人仍然崇拜祖先。

Facts about Taoism

有关道教的事实

  1. Key to life is living in harmony with Tao, which means “the way”

    生命的关键是要与道和谐,道的意思是“道路”。

  2. “Tao” is the source of everything but it’s not a god or personal creator

    “道”是万物的源头,但它不是神或个人的创造者。

  3. Tao is composed of two equal yet opposite components which are in complete harmony with one another – yin and yang. Yang is the strong, positive, active, and masculine side (light side of the symbol), while Yin is the weak, negative, and feminine side (dark side of the symbol). The Yang has a little bit of Yin in it (dot or circle in diagram) while the Yin has a little bit of Yang in it (dot or circle in diagram). This is what ultimately creates harmony in life and makes everything ultimately relative.

    道有两个相等却相对的组成部分,阴和阳,二者完全相互融合。阳是强壮、积极并且男性/阳性的一面(图案中的白色),而阴是软弱、消极而且女性/阴性的一面(图案中的黑色)。阳里面有一小部分是阴(就是图案中的点或圈),阴里面也有一小部分是阳(图案中的点或圈)。这就是最终制造生命和谐、使一切最终相互关联的所在。

  4. According to Taoism, our problem is that we are imbalanced. Christians would call this sin, but the Taoist philosophy denies such terminology to depict human beings, but rather adopts Buddhism, Hinduism, and Confucius philosophy of cause and effect to describe the imbalance. What Taoists call “imbalance” that is relative to “Tao” or “The way”, Hindus and Buddhists call “Karma”.

    道教认为,我们之所以存在问题,是因为我们不能保持平衡。基督徒把它称为罪,但道教的哲学拒绝使用这种词来描述人类。道教把与“道”或“道路”相关的现象称为“失衡”,而印度教和佛教把它称为“卡玛”(因果报应,因缘)。

  5. Taoism, like Hinduism and Buddhism, also subscribes to this idea that everything is illusory and not real. An agent sage once dreamt for instance that he was a butterfly and then awoke from his dream and realized he was a human being. But then he began to question the reality of being a human being; maybe he’s dreaming and is truly a butterfly. Everything is relative to a person’s circumstances in life.

    道教与印度教和佛教一样,也同意一切皆虚幻的观点。例如,曾经有位圣人梦见自己是只蝴蝶,醒来后意识到他是一个人,但之后他就开始对人的真实性产生疑问;或许他当时在做梦,也或许他真是一只蝴蝶。他们认为,一切都是相对于一个人的生活环境而言的。

  6. Everything is relative to your circumstances. A person is NOT supposed to bring imbalance into their life by manipulating the circumstances around him caused by natural forces or “Tao” but rather accept those circumstances, maybe even embrace them, but not give too much credit to them either. This is illustrated in an ancient Tao fable of a farmer…

    一切都是相对于你的环境而言的。一个人绝不应该通过控制他周围由自然力或“道”形成的环境,而把不平衡带进他的生活;相反,他要接受那些环境,甚至拥抱他们,不过也不需要给它太多功劳。有一个关于塞翁的古老道教寓言故事对这一观点做了很好的阐述——

A man named Sei Weng owned a beautiful mare which was praised far and wide. One day this beautiful horse disappeared. The people of his village offered sympathy to Sei Weng for his great misfortune. Sei Weng said simply, “That’s the way it is.” A few days later the lost mare returned, followed by a beautiful wild stallion. The village congratulated Sei Weng for his good fortune. He said, “That’s the way it is.” Sometime later, Sei Weng’s only son, while riding the stallion, fell off and broke his leg. The village people once again expressed their sympathy at Sei Weng’s misfortune. Sei Weng again said, “That’s the way it is.” Soon thereafter, war broke out and all the young men of the village except Sei Weng’s lame son were drafted and were killed in battle. The village people were amazed as Sei Weng’s good luck. His son was the only young man left alive in the village. But Sei Weng kept his same attitude: despite all the turmoil, gains and losses, he gave the same reply, “That’s the way it is.”

有一个名叫塞翁的人养了一匹漂亮的母马,获得远近人们的称赞。一天,这匹漂亮的母马突然不见了。村里的人听到这个坏消息后都来安慰塞翁,但塞翁却说:“事情本该如此啊!”几天后,他丢的那匹马又回来了,还带回来一匹漂亮的骏马。村民们又赶来祝贺他运气好。他说:“事情本该如此啊!”又过了一段时间,塞翁的独生儿子在骑那匹骏马时,从马上摔了下来,跌断了腿。村民们又过来安慰他,但塞翁又说:“事情本该如此啊!”在那之后,战争爆发了。除了塞翁的儿子之外,村里所有的年轻人都被抓去当兵战死。村民为塞翁的好运感到惊奇,因为他的儿子是村里唯一存活的年轻人。然而塞翁仍然一如既往:在经历这一切的灾难、得失后,他还是用同样的方式回答说:“事情本该如此啊!”

• The key to that fable, which sums up the key philosophy to Taoism, is that a person dare not try to manipulate circumstances through his own manipulation of things, but rather accepts circumstantial incidents in his life and finds the perspective or balance of them, by sort of shrugging off the reactions that were common to the farmer’s neighbors. This practice is called, Wu Wei, which simply means “do nothing,” which provides alignment with Tao (natural way).

那个寓言的中心意思总结了道教的主要哲学:一个人不应该通过自己对事物的控制来操纵环境,而应该接受他生活中的环境和事情,找到那个正确的角度或它们的平衡,不要去理睬塞翁的邻居们做出的一般反应。这种做法被称作无为,简单地说,就是“什么也不做”,这样才是与道(自然方式)一致的。

• Taoist philosophy brought forth the expression, “Mind over matter,” because everything in life must have context. According to Taoists, much of society’s problems are that they are out of balance with Yin and Yang. If only people practiced a bit more Yin, instead of so much Yang, we’d all be better off. Yang is the competitive nature in humans that is often dominated by desire. Yin is the solution to these problems because that means we are practicing more humility and aren’t as competitive.

• 道教的哲学产生了这样的说法:“思想在物质之上”,原因是社会上的一切事物都有它的存在环境。道教认为,社会上的很多问题产生的原因都是因为阴和阳失去了平衡。如果人们能多实践一些阴,而不是那么多阳,我们的情况就会好得多。阳代表的是人被欲望控制而表现出的争强好胜的本性;阴是这些问题的解决方法。这就意味着我们需要更加谦卑,不应该那么好胜。

The Attraction of Taoism

道教的吸引力

• Simplistic approach to life; people all over the world have either knowingly or unknowingly adopted Taoism’s simplistic approach to life and its relaxed nature.

对待生活的简单方式;全世界的人都在有意无意地采纳道教对待生活的简单方式和它的轻松特点。

o Qigong (a Taoist breathing technique) has been adopted all over the world as a type of therapy to help relax the individual. This type of therapy gently stretches and massages muscles and tendons, and helps with circulation through joints and tissues. They believe that the more relaxed that your body is, the more your mind becomes calm and strong. Again, it’s all about the imbalance of your life.

o 气功(道家的呼吸技巧)已被全世界采纳为一种帮助人达到放松的治疗方法。这种方法让身体轻柔地舒展,并且按摩肌肉和肌腱,通过活动关节和组织来促进血液循环。他们相信,只要身体越放松,头脑就会越平静,越坚定;而这完全又是生命失衡的问题。

o Followers of Tao spent many, many years, trying to extend man’s life here on earth because they viewed a shortened life to be the cause of the chaos (not sin) that takes place in the human body that causes it to become sick and eventually die. Ironically, through their experimentation of ingesting mercury and gold and other elements, they often poisoned themselves in attempting to find physical cures for the chaos in the body. So eventually Taoism turned its attention to physical exercises and breathing techniques and acupuncture and martial arts to bring the body back into harmony with itself from the chaos going on inside of it.

o 道教信徒花了很多很多年的时间尝试延长人在地上的寿命。他们认为,人的寿命之所以会缩短,是因为人的身体里面产生了混乱(不是罪),这种混乱导致人生病,又最终让人死亡。具有讽刺意味的是,他们为了找到治愈身体混乱的方法,在做试验时,因为吃了汞和金等元素,常常把自己毒死。最终,道教开始把注意力转向锻炼身体、训练呼吸技巧、针灸和武术,让身体从里面的混乱转变成与自身的和谐。

Scrutinizing Taoism in light of the Holy Scriptures

对比圣经,仔细查看道教

John 14:5-6 Thomas said to him, “Lord, we don’t know where you are going, so how can we know the way?” Jesus answered, “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.

约14:5-6—-5多 马 对 他 说 : “主啊 , 我 们 不 知 道 你 往 哪 里 去 , 怎 么 知 道 那 条 路 呢 ?” 6耶 稣 说:“ 我 就 是 道 路 、 真 理 、 生 命 ; 若 不 藉 着 我 , 没 有 人 能 到 父 那 里 去 。—”

  1. Do you remember what “Tao” means? How does Jesus refute “Tao”?

    你记得“道”是什么意思吗?耶稣怎样驳斥“道”?

    1 Timothy 4:7-8 Have nothing to do with godless myths and old wives’ tales; rather, train yourself to be godly. For physical training is of some value, but godliness has value for all things, holding promise for both the present life and the life to come.

    提前4:7-8—-7只 是 要 弃 绝 那 世 俗 的 言 语 和 老 妇 荒 渺 的 话 , 在 敬 虔 上 操 练 自 己 。 8操 练 身 体 , 益 处 还 少 ; 惟 独 敬 虔 , 凡 事 都 有 益 处 , 因 有 今 生 和 来 生 的 应 许 。

  2. What’s Paul’s solution for the imbalance in a person’s physical life?

    保罗怎样解决一个人身体方面的不平衡?

    2 Peter 3:11-13 Since everything will be destroyed in this way, what kind of people ought you to be? You ought to live holy and godly lives as you look forward to the day of God and speed its coming. That day will bring about the destruction of the heavens by fire, and the elements will melt in the heat. But in keeping with his promise we are looking forward to a new heaven and a new earth, where righteousness dwells.

    彼后3:11-13—-11这 一 切 既 然 都 要 如 此 销 化 , 你 们 为 人 该 当 怎 样 圣 洁 、 怎 样 敬 虔 , 12切 切 仰 望 神 的 日 子 来 到 。 在 那 日 , 天 被 火 烧 就 销 化 了 , 有 形 质 的 都 要 被 烈 火 熔化 。 13但 我 们 照 他 的 应 许 , 盼 望 新 天 新 地 , 有 义 居 在 其 中 。

  3. What difference do you see between the rather fatalistic view of the Taoist that practices Wu Wei, and the words of Peter?

    对比道家很宿命论的观点——无为与彼得说的话,你看到了哪些不同? (所谓宿命论,即认为人的命运是由偶然因素造成的,不可预测,不可预知而又是注定的、不可改变的一种命运观。 )

    1 Timothy 2:1-2 I urge, then, first of all, that petitions, prayers, intercession and thanksgiving be made for all people— for kings and all those in authority, that we may live peaceful and quiet lives in all godliness and holiness.

    提前2:1-2—-1我 劝 你 , 第 一 要 为 万 人 恳 求 、 祷 告 、 代 求 、 祝 谢 ; 2为 君 王 和 一 切 在 位 的 , 也 该 如 此 , 使 我 们 可 以 敬 虔 、 端 正 、 平 安 无 事 地 度 日 。

  4. What difference do you see between the rather fatalistic view of the Taoist that practices Wu Wei, and the words of Paul to Timothy?

    对比道家很宿命论的观点——无为,与保罗对提摩太说的话,你看到了哪些不同?

    Matthew 9:36-38When he saw the crowds, he had compassion on them, because they were harassed and helpless, like sheep without a shepherd. Then he said to his disciples, “The harvest is plentiful but the workers are few. Ask the Lord of the harvest, therefore, to send out workers into his harvest field.”

    太9:36-38—-36他 看 见 许 多 的 人 , 就 怜 悯 他 们 ; 因 为 他 们 困 苦 流 离 , 如 同 羊 没 有 牧 人 一 般 。 37于 是 对 门 徒 说 : “要 收 的 庄 稼 多 , 作 工 的 人 少 。 38所 以 , 你 们 当 求 庄 稼 的 主 打 发 工 人 出 去 收 他 的 庄 稼 。”

  5. What difference do you see between the rather fatalistic view of the Taoist that practices Wu Wei, and the words of our Savior?

    对比道家很宿命论的观点——无为与我们救主说的话,你看到了哪些不同?

    Philippians 4:12-13 I know what it is to be in need, and I know what it is to have plenty. I have learned the secret of being content in any and every situation, whether well fed or hungry, whether living in plenty or in want. I can do all this through him who gives me strength.

    腓4:12-13—-12我 知 道 怎 样 处 卑 贱 , 也 知 道 怎 样 处 丰 富 ; 或 饱 足 , 或 饥 饿 ; 或 有 余 , 或 缺 乏 , 随 事 随 在 , 我 都 得 了 秘 诀 。 13我 靠 着 那 加 给 我 力 量 的 , 凡 事 都 能 做 。

  6. There is something very similar yet very different from Taoist thinking when it comes to these words from the apostle Paul. Can you mark both the similarities and the big difference?

    有关使徒保罗的这些话,道家思想中也有一些与它很相似却又很不同的地方。你能标出其中的相似与不同之处吗?

Final Remarks

结语

• Taoism seeks to find meaning in a meaningless life without Christ. It attempts to make sense out of life without acknowledging sin or the Creator of life, the only true God. God speaks to us through Isaiah and says, “Surely the arm of the Lord is not too short to save, nor his ear too dull to hear. But your iniquities have separated you from your God; your sins have hidden his face from you, so that he will not hear” (Isaiah 59:1,2). Outside of faith in Jesus Christ, the only “Tao” or “Way” of salvation, God won’t hear the people of this world, which means the people of this world won’t know God either, which also means that the people of this world will be reluctant to admit sin and its root causes in our life.

道教试图在一个没有基督的无意义生活中寻找意义。它试图在不承认罪,不承认生命的创造者——独一真神的情况下,让生命变得有意义。神透过以赛亚对我们说:“耶 和 华 的 膀 臂 并 非 缩 短 , 不 能 拯 救 ; 耳 朵 并 非 发 沉 , 不 能 听 见 。但 你 们 的 罪 孽 使 你 们 与   神 隔 绝 ; 你 们 的 罪 恶 使 他 掩 面 不 听 你 们 。 ”(赛59:1-2)在相信耶稣基督——唯一的“道”或救赎之“路”的方法以外,神不听这个世界上的任何人。也就是说,这个世界上的人也不会认识神,不会情愿承认自己的罪和罪在我们生活中的根源。

• Balance in life is important, but Taoism didn’t reach that conclusion based on some “wise old man,” it reached that conclusion because of the awareness of sin in man’s heart, which God made known to us through the conscience. God’s Word tells us again and again about the importance of moderation in life. We are to adorn ourselves as Christians with humility and give our neighbor the shirt off of our backs, when presented with the opportunity. But balance can’t save imbalanced creatures! This, only our Savior can do, by becoming sin for us and removing the eternal curse of death that hung over our heads from conception. And he removed this curse by becoming a curse for us. For Scripture states…

生活中的平衡是很重要,但道教得出这一结论的根据并不是一些“智慧老人”,而是因为意识到了人心里的罪恶,这罪是神透过良心揭示给世人的。神的话多次告诉我们,在生活中保持节制与适度很重要。基督徒要以谦卑装饰自己,要在邻舍没有衣服时,找机会把自己的衣服脱下来给他。但平衡不能拯救不平衡的生物!因为救赎只有我们的救主才能做到。他为了我们让自己成为罪人,把悬在我们头顶的永远死亡的咒诅、我们自成胎之日起就伴随我们的咒诅挪走了。他为了挪走我们的咒诅,让自己成为那个被诅咒的人,正如经上所记—–

Galatians 3:13 Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us, for it is written: “Cursed is everyone who is hung on a tree.”

加3:13 基 督 既 为 我 们 受 ( 原 文 是 成 ) 了 咒 诅 , 就 赎 出 我 们 脱 离 律 法 的 咒 诅 ; 因 为 经 上 记 着 : 凡 挂 在 木 头 上 都 是 被 咒 诅 的 。

2 Corinthians 5:19,21 God was reconciling the world to himself in Christ, not counting people’s sins against them… 21 God made him who had no sin to be sin for us, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.

林后5:19,21

19这 就 是 神 在 基 督 里 , 叫 世 人 与 自 己 和 好 , 不 将 他 们 的 过 犯 归 到 他 们 身 上 , 并 且 将 这 和 好 的 道 理 托 付 了 我 们 。

21神 使 那 无 罪 ( 无 罪 : 原 文 是 不 知 罪 ) 的 , 替 我 们 成 为 罪 , 好 叫 我 们 在 他 里 面 成 为 神 的 义

Christianity vs World Religions
大纲
Outline
第一课 - 看犹太教历史,追溯基督教根源
lesson 1 - Tracing the Roots of Christianity back to Historic Judaism
第二课 -- 正统派教会—简要概述圣经中的基督教及其不同形态
lesson 2 -- Orthodoxy – a brief overview of Biblical Christianity and its various forms
第三课 -- 罗马天主教—简要概述罗马天主教的内部教导
lesson 3 -- Roman Catholicism – a brief overview of the teachings within Catholicism
第四课 - 伊斯兰教
lesson 4 - Islam
第五课 - 孔子
lesson 5 - Confucius
第六课 - 印度教
lesson 6 - Hinduism
第七课 - 佛教
lesson 7 - Buddhism
第八课 - 道教
lesson 8 - Taoism
第九课 - 摩门教
lesson 9 - Mormonism
第十课 - 耶和华见证人
lesson 10 - Jehovah’s Witnesses
第十一课 - 新时代运动
lesson 11 - New Age Movement
第八课 - 道教
lesson 8 - Taoism