恩典国际圣经学院

第二课

Lesson 2


Focus 2 – Overview of Christian Perspectives 重点2 - 总体的基督教观念

Other teachers may prefer to fill out these perspectives differently but the five are an accurate overview of Christianity.

其他的教师可能会列举不同于下述的观点,但这五点确实是全面的基督教观点。

Perspective 1 观点1

(a) Summary Point: The Pope, councils and traditions guide the church.

要点:教皇,大公会议以及传统指导教会。

(b) Historical Start: Roman Catholicism.

历史缘由:罗马天主教

(c) Major Summary: God infuses his grace so that the person can apply faith and works for salvation. God’s grace and our works are necessary for salvation.

主要观点:神注入祂的恩典给人以使人可以行出以致得救的信心和行为。对于得救,神的恩典和人的工作都是必须的。

(d) Will: God’s will starts the process and human will fulfills the process.

意志:神的意志作为起始,人的意志完成过程。

(e) Symbol of personal faith: Penance, godly life, and following the Pope.

个人信心的象征:苦修,圣洁的生活和遵从教皇。

(f) Weakness(es): No certainty of salvation because no one is sure if they have done enough works or have confessed their sins adequately. Great emphasis upon traditions and the guidance of councils and the popes that focus on the Word of God is minimal. Work out godliness not by emphasis on Jesus, but by confession, penance, masses, offerings, indulgences, and relics.

弱点:没有救恩的确据,因为没人能够确定自己是否做了足够的善行或做了足够的忏悔。过于强调传统、大公会议的引导和教皇使得神的话语被忽视。强调虔敬而不是注重耶稣,比如忏悔、苦修、弥撒、奉献、特赦(赎罪券)、圣体。

Perspective 2 观点2

(a) Summary Point: By grace alone, by faith alone, and by Scripture alone is the church guided.

要点:唯独恩典,唯独信心,唯独圣经是教会的向导。

(b) Historical Start: Martin Luther

历史缘由:马丁路德

(c) Major Summary: The word of God is the only source of faith and life. Through Christ Jesus we are saved. We are justified, declared not guilty, by God because of the work of Jesus on the cross for the forgiveness of sins.

主要观点:神的话语是信心和生命的唯一源泉。我们得救是透过耶稣基督。我们靠神称义,被算为无罪,且因着耶稣在十字架上的工作而罪得赦免。

(d) Will: God’s will brings people to faith through Word and sacraments. Christians moved by God’s grace and will, are moved to apply their will as Christians in their lives.

意志:神的意志是藉着圣道和圣礼使人进入信心里。基督徒被神的恩典和意志感动,且被感动得以在生活中按基督徒的意志而活。

(e) Symbol of personal faith: Trust in Christ Jesus as savior and receive that gift of forgiveness through Word and Sacrament. Use the word and sacraments at church and in home. Live in thankfulness to God.

个人信心的象征:相信耶稣基督作为救主,藉着圣道和圣礼接受赦罪的恩典。在教会和家里使用圣道和圣礼。过向神感恩的生活。

(f) Weakness(es): Lutherans are at times accused on not being very interested in Christian life, because we place a large emphasis on having a justified relationship with the LORD.

弱点:路德宗的信徒有时被指责不关注基督徒的生命。这是因为我们非常着重于和主有正常(称义)的关系。

Perspective 3 观点3

(a) Summary Point: The Sovereign God elects those who will believe to have faith.

要点:至高的神拣选那些会相信的并赐予他们信心。

(b) Historical Start: John Calvin and Ulrich Zwingli who began what was known as the Reformed church.

历史缘由:约翰·加尔文和慈运理所开始的改革宗教会。

(c) Major Summary: God applies his sovereign power to call, choose, elect, and predestine those who will believe and those who will be condemned. The LORD also moves Christians godly action and preserves the elect from falling from faith.

主要观点:神使用祂至高的权柄来呼召、选择、拣选并预定那些将会相信的人和将被咒诅的人。神也感动基督徒行出善行并保守被拣选的人不至于失落信心。

(d) Will: God’s Sovereign will is final.

意志:神的至高主权决定一切。

(e) Symbol of personal faith: The elect are seen in their actions.

个人信心的象征:被拣选的人可以从他们的行为上看出来。

(f) Weakness(es): Destiny and fate are a consequence of Calvin’s teachings. Some are predestined for hell and no repentance will change that. The elected cannot fall from faith.

弱点:加尔文的教导将导致宿命论的结果。有人被预定下地狱,无论他悔改与否。被拣选的人将永不会失去信心。

Perspective 4 观点4

(a) Our will chooses to believe or not believe.

我们的意志来决定选择相信或是不信。

(b) Pelagius and then Arminius were the main proponents of the importance of the human will in salvation and Christian life.

伯拉纠和阿民念的拥护者在救恩和基督徒的生活上主要支持自由意志论。

(c) Major Summary: People are born with a good will and need to choose or reject the grace of Jesus and in living their Christian lives.

主要观点:人生来既有好的自由意志并且需要选择是否接受耶稣的恩典与活出基督徒的生命。

(d) Will: Sometimes it is man’s will alone that brings about the Christian faith. For some it is man’s will coupled with God’s will that brings to faith and sustains faith.

意志:有些时候是仅靠人的意志而产生基督徒的信心。对有些人而言,是人的意志与神的意志合作来产生信心及维持信心。

(e) Symbol of personal faith: My will chooses Jesus and Christian life.

个人信心的象征:我的意志来选择耶稣和基督徒的生活。

(f) Weakness(es): The teaching of human, free will to accomplish salvation does not take into account the depth of original sin, nor the sinful nature of all people. With the emphasis on human will, the grace and forgiveness of Jesus can be minimized or even ignored.

弱点:关于人可以由自由意志来获得救恩的教导既没有涉及到原罪的深度,也没有考虑到所有人的罪性。因着强调自由意志,恩典和耶稣的赦罪就被弱化甚至于忽视了。

Perspective 5 观点5

(a) Summary Point: The Holy Spirit is at work in God’s People even today.

要点:圣灵直到今天一直在神的子民中工作。

(b) Historical start: Pentecostalism, the charismatic movement down through the ages.

历史缘由:五旬节派,从古到今的灵恩运动。

(c) Major Summary: The work of the Holy Spirit has a much larger impact in our world than other groups admit or teach.

主要观点:圣灵的工作对我们的世界所有的影响力比其他任何团体所承认或教导的更大。

(d) Will: The Holy Spirit’s Will is active.

意志:圣灵的意志是活泼的

(e) Symbol of personal faith: Speaking in tongues or another of the miraculous gifts.

个人信心的象征:说方言或其它神迹的恩赐。

(f) Weakness(es): Emphasis on the Holy Spirit has then decreased a balanced Biblical emphasis on Jesus and God the Father. The emphasis on the miraculous has been abused in God’s activities in life today. The realization of salvation is based upon a miraculous gift, or a life event. Christ is minimized and the actions of the Christian become the work for salvation.

弱点:因为强调圣灵而降低了圣经对耶稣和父神平衡的教导。对神迹奇事的强调滥用了神今天在人生活中的作为。对救恩的认识建基于神迹的恩赐,或某个生活经历。基督被弱化了并且基督徒的行为成为了得着救恩的工作。