恩典国际圣经学院

第四课

Lesson 4


Focus 4 – Total Depravity 重点4 - 完全的败坏

(1) The five points of Calvinism were popularized in the 1963 booklet The Five Points of Calvinism Defined, Defended, Documented by David N. Steele and Curtis C. Thomas. The authors of this booklet did not cite whether they had obtained the mnemonic from someone who wrote previously.

加尔文主义的五点纲要因一本小册子而闻名,这本小册子名叫“The Five Points of Calvinism Defined, Defended, Documented”(中译《加尔文主义五特点》赵中辉译)由David N. Steele和Curtis C. Thomas两人于1963年出版。作者在书中并没有指明他们是否是从前人那里获得的这个缩写语(指郁金香)。

(2) The five main, thought provoking points of Calvinism are summarized in the mnemonic TULIP.

T – Total Depravity;

U – Unconditional Election;

L – Limited Atonement;

I – Irresistible Grace; and

P – Perseverance of the Saints.

这五点主要的、激起讨论的加尔文思想论点被总结为易记的缩写语TULIP(英文意为郁金香)

T - 完全的败坏 ;

U - 无条件的拣选;

L - 有限的代赎;

I - 不可抗拒的恩典;以及

P - 圣徒恒蒙保守。

(3) “Total depravity,” also called “total inability,” asserts that as a consequence of the fall of man into sin, every person is enslaved to sin. People are not by nature inclined to love God but rather to serve their own interests and to reject the rule of God. Thus, all people by their own faculties are morally unable to choose to follow God and be saved because they are unwilling to do so out of the necessity of their own natures. (The term “total” in this context refers to sin affecting every part of a person, not that every person is as evil as they could be). This doctrine is derived from Augustine’s explanation of Original Sin. While the phrases “totally depraved” and “utterly perverse” were used by Calvin, what was meant was the inability to save oneself from sin rather than being absent of goodness. Phrases like “total depravity” cannot be found the Canons of Dort, and the Canons as well as later Reformed orthodox theologians arguably offer a more moderate view of the nature of fallen humanity than Calvin.

“完全的败坏”也被称为“完全的无能”,根据人在罪中堕落而引申出的结果,人人都成为罪的奴仆。人按本性不能倾向于爱神而是为自己的利益而活并且拒绝神的管理。因此,所有人按自己的能力在道德上是不能够选择跟随神和得救。因为他们按照自己的本性是不情愿这样做的。(词语“完全”在这里的背景下是指罪污秽了人身体上的每一部分,而不是说每个人都是按照本性所能到达的、极端的败坏)这个教义由奥古斯丁对原罪的解释引申出来。加尔文也曾用过“完全的败坏”、“全然堕落”的词语,他的意思是指人无法在罪中自救而不是指人毫无良善。多特信经中并无词语“完全的无能”,并且信经和之后的改革宗神学家在论证关于堕落的人类的本性方面也比加尔文更缓和。

(4) “… every person is a slave to sin…” We agree with this perspective.

“……每个人都成为罪的奴仆……”我们认可这一观点。

John 8:34 Jesus replied, “I tell you the truth, everyone who sins is a slave to sin.

约翰福音8:34 34耶稣回答说:「我实实在在地告诉你们,所有犯罪的就是罪的奴仆。

(5) “People are not by nature inclined to love God but rather to serve their own interests and to reject the rule of God.” We agree with this statement.

“人按本性不能倾向于爱神而是为自己的利益而活并且拒绝神的管理。”我们认可这一观点。

(6) Arminius who also believed in total depravity wrote, “In this [fallen] state, the free will of man towards the true good is not only wounded, infirm, bent, and weakened; but it is also imprisoned, destroyed, and lost. And its powers are not only debilitated and useless unless they be assisted by grace, but it has no powers whatever except such as are excited by Divine grace.”

阿民念者也相信完全的败坏,他们写道“在这样【堕落】的情形下,人向善的自由意志不仅被伤害、消弱、弯曲及动摇;而且被监禁、破坏和丧失”。并且他的能力也疲惫不堪和无用,除非能够得到恩典的辅助,然而除了从神而来的恩典以外绝无其它的恩典。

(7) So, all three of the main, protestant discussions on the sinful condition of people without Jesus agree that people without Jesus are sinfully corrupt. Yet as our main quote ended, later Reformed orthodox theologians arguably offer a more moderate view of the nature of fallen humanity than Calvin. In modern thinking founded upon Calvin that some are professing that people are not so bound in their sin prior to conversion.

因此,对于没有耶稣之人的罪性,三种主要的新教(神学)都一致认可:人离开耶稣是在罪中败坏的。然而我们在我们所引用的文献中结尾说到“之后的改革宗神学家在论证关于堕落的人类的本性方面也比加尔文更缓和。”在现代,建立在加尔文基础上的有些人宣称人在归正以前并不一定和他们的罪性紧密相连。

(8) Following are Scriptural passages that address the nature of sinful people without the Savior.

下属经文陈述没有救主的情形下罪人的本性。

Genesis 5:1-3 Notice the change in the use of the word “image” in this section.

This is the written account of Adam’s line. When God created man, he made him in the likeness of God. 2 He created them male and female and blessed them. And when they were created, he called them “man.” 3 When Adam had lived 130 years, he had a son in his own likeness, in his own image; and he named him Seth.

创世纪 5:1-3 注意在这一段里对词语“形象”的使用有什么变化。

1亚当的后代记在下面。(当 神造人的日子,是照着自己的样式造的,2并且造男造女。在他们被造的日子, 神赐福给他们,称他们为「人」。)3亚当活到一百三十岁,生了一个儿子,形象样式和自己相似,就给他起名叫塞特。

Why does the change in the use of the word “image” take place?

为什么对词语“形象”的使用会产生变化?

Ephesians 2:1 How is the nature of the person in bondage to unbelief spoken about in this text?

As for you, you were dead in your transgressions and sins, …

以弗所书2:1 这段经文中是怎样表述人的本性和不信紧密相连的?

1你们死在过犯罪恶之中,……

Romans 8:7 How is the nature of the person in bondage to unbelief spoken about in this text?

the sinful mind is hostile to God. It does not submit to God’s law, nor can it do so.

罗马书8:7 这段经文中是怎样表述人的本性和不信紧密相连的?

7原来体贴肉体的,就是与 神为仇;因为不服 神的律法,也是不能服,

1 Corinthians 2:14 How is the nature of the person in bondage to unbelief spoken about in this text?

The man without the Spirit does not accept the things that come from the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him, and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually discerned.

哥林多前书2:14 这段经文中是怎样表述人的本性和不信紧密相连的?

14然而,属血气的人不领会 神圣灵的事,反倒以为愚拙,并且不能知道,因为这些事惟有属灵的人才能看透。

Genesis 8:21 Note next how God speaks about the spiritual nature of humanity even after the flood of Noah’s day. Is there anything different from the spiritual nature of humanity today?

The Lord smelled the pleasing aroma and said in his heart: “Never again will I curse the ground because of man, even though every inclination of his heart is evil from childhood. And never again will I destroy all living creatures, as I have done.

创世纪8:21 注意接下来神怎样谈论在诺亚时代的大洪水之后的人的灵性状况。和现在人们的灵性状况有什么不同吗?

21耶和华闻那馨香之气,就心里说:「我不再因人的缘故咒诅地(人从小时心里怀着恶念),也不再按着我才行的灭各种的活物了。

(9) Please note from the above passages – If the sinful person has the nature described above, what chance does that person have of applying his or her will to their own conversion to Christ?

请注意以上的经文 - 如果在罪中的人具有上述所说的本性,人有多大的可能靠着自己的意志来使自己归向基督?

(10) Those who wish to focus on the will of people to bring to faith have a very serious problem to overcome.

这些想要重点在人靠自已的意志来获得信心的人将有很一个非常严重的问题需要克服。

(11) Some have tried to address this problem by weakening the hold that original sin has on people of unbelief, or even eliminating original sin all together.

有一些想要解决这个问题的人,尝试弱化不信的人具有原罪的观点,或者干脆完全排除原罪的问题。

(12) The four passages above Biblically demonstrate that original sin cannot be eliminated nor can we limit the slavery that comes from original sin or even sin in general.

以上四处经文合乎圣经的阐述了原罪是不可能排除的,也不可能减少由原罪或一般意义上的罪所带来的奴役。

(13) There are three perspectives regarding the nature of original sin.

对于原罪有三点主要观点。

  1. Original sin totally and completely has corrupted the will, the being, and the flesh. This perspective goes too far for then not even Christ could be holy for his flesh would then have been corrupted by sin.

    原罪完全彻底的破坏了意志、自我和肉体。这种观点走的太远,以至于即使基督也不可能是圣洁的,因为他的身体也被罪所败坏了。

  2. Original sin has totally and completely corrupted the will and the being. The bondage of sin goes deep and has tight chains that cannot be broken by human will which is itself corrupted and weakened by sin.

    原罪完全彻底的破坏了意志和自我。罪的捆绑非常深入并紧紧缠绕以至于不可能被业已败坏和消弱的人类意志所打破。

  3. Original sin is a shell around a person who will generally have some will and being that listens to God and his will. Somehow that will and being need to be activated so that the shell can be broken.

    原罪是一层包绕着人的硬壳,人通常有一定的意志和自我可以听从神及祂的旨意。在某种情形下这样的意志和自我将被激活以至于可以把那硬壳打破。

(14) Because of the passages listed that describe the nature of sinful people 2 is the best understanding of original sin. Even though #3 is the most popular of the concepts today, the thoughts of #3 do not do justice to the scriptural passages.

因着上述所列经文说描述的人的本性,第2个观点是对原罪最恰当的理解。尽管第3个观点是现今最常见的观点,但它无法对圣经经文做出合理解释。

(15) Why would Satan encourage that people ignore the depth of sin in their lives, even original sin?

为什么撒旦鼓励人们忽略罪及原罪在人生命中的深度?

(16) Why would Satan encourage a weak understanding of original sin?

为什么撒旦鼓励弱化对原罪的理解。