恩典国际圣经学院

第五课

Lesson 5


Focus 5 – Limited Atonement 重点5 - 有限的代赎

(1) We study “limited atonement” and “unconditional election” in a different order. We want to understand what scripture says about Jesus’ atoning sacrifice before addressing the Biblical teaching about election.

我们按不同的次序来学习“有限的代赎”和“无条件的拣选”。我们想要在论述圣经关于拣选的教导之前先明白圣经所说关于耶稣所献的赎罪祭。

(2) “Limited atonement,” also called “particular redemption” or “definite atonement”, asserts that Jesus’s substitutionary atonement was definite and certain in its purpose and in what it accomplished. This implies that only the sins of the elect were atoned for by Jesus’s death. Calvinists do not believe, however, that the atonement is limited in its value or power, but rather that the atonement is limited in the sense that it is intended for some and not all. Hence, Calvinists hold that the atonement is sufficient for all and efficient for the elect. The doctrine is driven by the Calvinistic concept of the sovereignty of God in salvation and their understanding of the nature of the atonement. At the Synod of Dort, both sides agreed that the atonement Christ’s death was sufficient to pay for all sin and that it was only efficacious for some (it only actually saved some). The controversy centered on whether this limited efficacy was based on God’s election (the view of the Synod and of later Reformed theologians) or on the choice of each person and God’s foreknowledge of that choice (the view of Arminius).

“有限的代赎”也被称为“特选的救赎”或“确切的救赎”,宣称耶稣替代的救赎在目的和成就方面是确切的和必然的。这表明仅有被拣选的人的罪被耶稣的死赎回了。不过加尔文主义者不认为救赎本身的价值或能力是有限的,救赎的有限是因为它是为一部分人预备的而不是所有的人。因此,加尔文主义者认定救赎足够拯救所有人但仅对被拣选的人有效。这个教义是由加尔文主义者关于神在救恩中的主权和他们对救恩的本性的理解上推导而来。在多特会议上,双方都同意救恩-基督的死是足够偿还所有的罪并且仅仅对一部分人有效(实际上救恩仅救赎一部分人)。分歧在于这个有限的有效性是基于神的拣选(大会和之后的改革宗神学家的观点)还是基于每个人的选择和神对这样选择的预知(阿民念者的观点)。

(3) The main Biblical point which Professor Calvin focused on to arrive at “limited atonement” is God’s sovereign power. We read that in the paragraph above - The doctrine is driven by the Calvinistic concept of the sovereignty of God in salvation and their understanding of the nature of the atonement.

加尔文教授所注重并得出“有限的救赎”观点的主要圣经根据是神至高的全能。我们在上述段落中读到 - “这个教义是由加尔文主义者关于神在救恩中的主权和他们对救恩的本性的理解上推导而来。”

(4) Truly the LORD has sovereign power. He has absolute power. Satan and all his angels combined are not more powerful than the LORD.

神的确有至高的全能。祂有绝对的能力。撒旦和它的使者加在一起也不能比神更有能力。

We see God’s absolute power in the creation of the universe.

我们可以从宇宙的创造中得知神绝对的能力。

We see God’s absolute power in the second coming of Christ and the end of our world.

我们可以从基督的二次再来和世界的终结中得知神绝对的能力。

(5) We will discuss some of the great expressions of God’s power and whether those expressions are absolute / sovereign.

我们将讨论一些对神能力的表述,并看这些描述是否是绝对/至高的。

Through the miracles of Egypt?

透过在埃及行的神迹?

In the hardness of Pharaoh?

在法老的刚硬里?

The Exodus from Egypt?

从埃及地出来?

With any of the prophets of the Old Testament?

与旧约中任意一个先知在一起时?

In the work of Jesus?

在耶稣的事工中?

(6) Are there any other instances in Scripture that this teacher may have missed an expression of God’s absolute power that you would like to discuss?

圣经中是否还有其它关于神绝对能力的表述的例子是此教师没有提及到的?你们可以提出讨论。

(7) Regarding the application of God’s absolute power we could address some of the unanswerable questions – questions that Scripture has chosen not to address.

对于神绝对能力的(教义),我们可以从一些没有答案的问题上看到,就是圣经本身没有涉及的问题上。

Why did God tolerate Satan?

神为什么会容忍撒旦?

Why allow Satan to even tempt Adam and Eve?

为什么要允许撒旦试探亚当和夏娃?

Why allow all of the worst examples of sin in the world to take place?

为什么允许所有各样可怕的罪行在世界上发生?

Why allow false doctrine to exist?

为什么允许错误的教义存在?

(8) This teacher proposes that while God has absolute power he has chosen not to work through absolute power applied in our world. He has chosen not to act with power in a coercive or forced way.

本教师认为,神具有绝对的能力的同时,祂选择不把绝对的能力应用在我们的世界上。祂选择不以强制或逼迫的方式使用能力。

(9) God has chosen to use his sovereign power to mold and direct the affairs of this world. God has chosen not to force people to act.

神选择使用祂绝对的能力来影响和引导这个世界上的事。神选择不强迫人做事。

(10) What do we see from Scripture that God has chosen to use to act in the lives of people?

我们从圣经中可以看到神选择怎样在人们的生活中做事?

Exodus 33:18, 34:5-7 Then Moses said, “Now show me your glory.” … 34:5 Then the Lord came down in the cloud and stood there with him and proclaimed his name, the Lord. 6 And he passed in front of Moses, proclaiming, “The Lord, the Lord, the compassionate and gracious God, slow to anger, abounding in love and faithfulness, 7 maintaining love to thousands, and forgiving wickedness, rebellion and sin. Yet he does not leave the guilty unpunished; he punishes the children and their children for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation.”

出埃及记33:18,34:5-7

18 摩西说:「求你显出你的荣耀给我看。」

34:5-7 耶和华在云中降临,和摩西一同站在那里,宣告耶和华的名。6耶和华在他面前宣告说:「耶和华,耶和华,是有怜悯有恩典的 神,不轻易发怒,并有丰盛的慈爱和诚实,7为千万人存留慈爱,赦免罪孽、过犯,和罪恶,万不以有罪的为无罪,必追讨他的罪,自父及子,直到三、四代。」

(11) Professor Calvin asserts about atonement: “Limited atonement,” also called “particular redemption” or “definite atonement”, asserts that Jesus’s substitutionary atonement was definite and certain in its purpose and in what it accomplished. This implies that only the sins of the elect were atoned for by Jesus’s death. Calvinists do not believe, however, that the atonement is limited in its value or power, but rather that the atonement is limited in the sense that it is intended for some and not all…. At the Synod of Dort, both sides agreed that the atonement Christ’s death was sufficient to pay for all sin and that it was only efficacious for some (it only actually saved some).

加尔文教授对救赎的声明: “有限的代赎”也被称为“特选的救赎”或“确切的救赎”,宣称耶稣替代的救赎在目的和成就方面是确切的和必然的。这表明仅有被拣选的人的罪被耶稣的死赎回了。不过加尔文主义者不认为救赎本身的价值或能力是有限的,救赎的有限是因为它是为一部分人预备的而不是所有的人。在多特会议上,双方都同意救恩-基督的死是足够偿还所有的罪并且仅仅对一部分人有效(实际上救恩仅救赎一部分人)。

(12) We perceive two points from Calvin’s assertion summarized in the paragraph above.

我们可以从上一段加尔文的声明中可以总结出两点。

First, Jesus’ death on the cross was powerful enough to accomplish salvation of all people.

首先,耶稣在十字架上的死足够有功效可以救赎所有的人。

Second, God only meant and planned this Jesus’ death apply to those who were elected by God to be saved. Jesus’ work of atonement was limited to the chosen.

其次,神仅愿意且计划耶稣的死仅应用在被神拣选得救的人身上。耶稣救赎的工作仅限于被拣选的人。

(13) We assert that those two points do not reflect what Scripture says about the power of Jesus’ atonement and for whom his atonement was given.

我们申明以上两点并不能显示出圣经上所说的耶稣的救赎能力和祂的救赎是对哪些人有效的。

John 1:29 The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him and said, “Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!

约翰福音1:29 次日,约翰看见耶稣来到他那里,就说:「看哪, 神的羔羊,除去世人罪孽的!

2 Corinthians 5:18-19 All this is from God, who reconciled us to himself through Christ and gave us the ministry of reconciliation: 19 that God was reconciling the world to himself in Christ, not counting men’s sins against them. And he has committed to us the message of reconciliation.

哥林多后书5:18-19 一切都是出于 神;他借着基督使我们与他和好,又将劝人与他和好的职分赐给我们。19这就是 神在基督里,叫世人与自己和好,不将他们的过犯归到他们身上,并且将这和好的道理托付了我们。

1 John 2:2 He is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not only for ours but also for the sins of the whole world.

约翰一书 2:2 他为我们的罪作了挽回祭,不是单为我们的罪,也是为普天下人的罪。

(14) What do the above passages have to say about the summary two statements that we show again following in italics?

上述的经文是如何说明以下两点所总结的内容的呢?

First, Jesus’ death on the cross was powerful enough to accomplish salvation of all people.

首先,耶稣在十字架上的死足够有功效可以救赎所有的人。

Second, God only meant and planned this Jesus’ death apply to those who were elected by God to be saved. Jesus’ work of atonement was limited to the chosen.

其次,神仅愿意且计划耶稣的死仅应用在被神拣选得救的人身上。耶稣救赎的工作仅限于被拣选的人。

(15) We see in both Scripture and in life that some will reject the great gift that Jesus has earned for everyone on the cross.

我们可以看出在圣经里和在生活中都显明有人将拒绝耶稣在十字架上为每个人所赚得的伟大礼物。

(16) It is sadly true that many will reject the Word and the gift. But the sinful reaction does not limit the intention of the gift. They are rejecting God and his gift.

很多人将拒绝这道和这个礼物,这实在是令人痛心的。但是人出于罪的回应并不能限制这个礼物原本的好意。这样的人是在拒绝神和祂的礼物。

(17) There is only one example in Scripture in which it appears that God used his almighty will to convert someone – the conversion of Saul. Truly God does put all people into situations which move them to address their spiritual life. Yet even then, God is not applying his absolute power.

圣经中仅有一个例子似乎是说明神使用了祂绝对的意志来归正人—— 就是扫罗的归正。的确,神确实把人都置于特定的情形下使之面对自己的灵性生命。但即便是这样,神也没有使用祂绝对的能力。

(18) How might Satan like the assertion that Jesus’ atonement is limited?

对耶稣的救赎是有限的这样的断言,撒旦会有多喜悦?

(19) How might “limited atonement” affect our outreach to unbelievers?

“有限的救赎”会怎样影响我们接触不信的人?

(20) How might “limited atonement” affect those who are straying and how we minister to them?

“有限的救赎”会怎样影响到那些迷失的人以及我们将如何服事他们?

(21) How might “limited atonement” harm the weak soul or the new Christian?

“有限的救赎”会怎样伤害软弱的心灵或新基督徒?

(22) How does “limited atonement” limit the sacrifice of Jesus?

“有限的救赎”会怎样限制耶稣的牺牲?