恩典国际圣经学院

第六课

Lesson 6


Focus 6 - “Unconditional election” 重点6 - “无条件的拣选”

(1) “Unconditional election” asserts that God has chosen from eternity those whom he will bring to himself not based on foreseen virtue, merit, or faith in those people; rather, his choice is unconditionally grounded in his mercy alone. God has chosen from eternity to extend mercy to those he has chosen and to withhold mercy from those not chosen. Those chosen receive salvation through Christ alone. Those not chosen receive the just wrath that is warranted for their sins against God.

“无条件的拣选”声称神在永恒里拣选了一切将要属于祂的,不是基于预见这些人将有的善行,功德或信心;而是因为祂的拣选是无条件的基于祂自己的恩典。神在永恒里即把恩典赐予祂所拣选的人并且对没有被拣选的人拒绝给予恩典。这些被拣选的人唯独透过基督得到救恩。那些没有被拣选的人因着他们抵挡神的罪获得应得的、公正的愤怒。

(2) “Unconditional election” as summarized above is at the heart of Professor Calvin’s assertions regarding the salvation of the sinner.

“无条件的拣选”,正如上述总结,是加尔文教授对罪人的救赎问题的核心主张。

(3) Two Biblical points guide Calvin’s assertions: First, God’s power is absolute; and Second, God has elected believers to be his own.

两点圣经根据使加尔文推导出这样的主张:

首先,神的能力是绝对的;并且

其次,神已经拣选了信徒归祂自己。

(4) While we will use the term “elected” in this discussion, the Greek term which some translations state as “election” in the English, is better translated “chosen.” We will show you the Greek a little later in this focus.

我们在论述中使用的词汇“拣选的”,其希腊文形式有时被翻译为英文的“拣选”,但更好的翻译是“挑选”。稍后我们会在这一课的内容中介绍一点相关的希腊文。

(5) On the basis of those two points Professor Calvin concludes that God’s election has chosen God’s people. God has the power and he has chosen. “Unconditional election” asserts that God has chosen from eternity those whom he will bring to himself not based on foreseen virtue, merit, or faith in those people; rather, his choice is unconditionally grounded in his mercy alone.

在这两点基础之上,加尔文教授总结出神的拣选是挑选出属神的人。神有权能并且祂也做出挑选。“无条件的拣选”声称神在永恒里拣选了一切将要属于祂的,不是基于预见这些人将有的善行,功德或信心;而是因为祂的拣选是无条件的基于祂自己的恩典。

(6) Also based upon God’s sovereign power and choosing Professor Calvin concluded that God also elects some to condemnation. As stated above - God has chosen from eternity to extend mercy to those he has chosen and to withhold mercy from those not chosen. Those chosen receive salvation through Christ alone. Those not chosen receive the just wrath that is warranted for their sins against God.

同样是根据神的全能和挑选,加尔文教授总结出神也拣选了一些人受咒诅。如上所述 - 神在永恒里既把恩典赐予祂所拣选的人也对没有被拣选的人拒绝给予恩典。这些被拣选的人唯独透过基督得到救恩。那些没有被拣选的人因着他们抵挡神的罪获得应得的、公正的愤怒。

(7) The phrase “double predestination” summarizes Professor Calvin’s assertions about election.

词语“双重预定”总结了加尔文教授对拣选的主张。

(8) This teacher strongly disagrees with Professor Calvin’s assertion of double predestination. Double predestination is not Biblical even though God certainly has sovereign power and God has predestined believers.

本教师绝不同意加尔文教授的双重预定的主张。双重预定不合乎圣经,虽然神的确有全能并且神也预定了信徒。

(9) The Lord’s Word does speak about predestination, election, and that God chooses his people. We will list a number of the texts which speak this way, but we will only examine three closely.

主的道确实提到了预定、拣选和神选择了属祂的人。我们在下面列出一些相关经文,但我们仅对其中三处做详细的查考。

(10) Please read those passages above as you have time and ask any questions about them you wish in one of our sessions. While reading them notice two important things about each passage.

首先请找时间阅读以上经文,然后可以在我们的学习期间的任何时候提出你的任意问题。在读每处经文的时候都请留意两点。

First, all of them are addressed to believers in the LORD. God assures believers that they are elected, chosen by God.

首先,所有的经文都是向在主里的信徒说的。神确保信徒,他们是被拣选的,被神所选。

Second, not a one of them speaks about God condemning some to hell. They all speak about believers and to believers. One of the passages we will examine more closely, Acts 13:48 demonstrate both of the above points.

其次,上述所有经文都没有谈到神咒诅人下地狱。他们都是向信徒们谈论关于信徒的事。其中有一处经文我们要更详细的查考,使徒行传13:48节证实了以上两点。

(11) In a discussion of double predestination there is another passage to consider which has large importance in this discussion.

在讨论关于双重预定的时候,另有一处经文对我们的讨论非常重要,是需要思考的。

1 Timothy 2:3-7 This is good, and pleases God our Savior, 4 who wants all men to be saved and to come to a knowledge of the truth. 5 For there is one God and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, 6 who gave himself as a ransom for all men—the testimony given in its proper time. 7 And for this purpose I was appointed a herald and an apostle—I am telling the truth, I am not lying—and a teacher of the true faith to the Gentiles.

提摩太前书2:3-7 这是好的,在 神我们救主面前可蒙悦纳。4他愿意万人得救,明白真道。5因为只有一位 神,在 神和人中间,只有一位中保,乃是降世为人的基督耶稣;6他舍自己作万人的赎价,到了时候,这事必证明出来。7我为此奉派作传道的,作使徒,作外邦人的师傅,教导他们相信,学习真道。我说的是真话,并不是谎言。

(12) To answer the following questions about the above text only use the Word of God. What does the text say? Do not use an interpretation or speculation that goes beyond what the Word says.

仅用神的话语来回答以下关于上述经文的问题。经文说的是什么?请不要使用任何超出经文本身的解释和推论。

(13) What is God’s will expressed in that passage, especially verse 4?

在这段经文中表达了神的旨意是怎样的,尤其是第4节?

(14) For whom is that will to be applied?

这旨意是应用在哪些人身上的?

(15) Is there any mention that some are elected to hell? Does the text contain an implied thought that some are elected to hell?

是否提到了有些人要被拣选下地狱?经文是否包含有些人要被拣选下地狱的暗示?

(16) Because of verse four can we say first that God wants all people to be saved and then assert about the same passage that God has predestined some to hell? What does the text say that guides your answer?

根据第四节我们是否能说,首先、神愿意所有人得救,其次、根据同一处经文断言神也预定了一些人下地狱?经文本身所说的将怎样引导你的回答?

(17) Also remember the discussion from Focus 5 in which we examined verses which professed that Jesus came to save the whole world (John 1:29, 2 Corinthians 5:18-19; and 1 John 2:2).

同时请记得在重点5课程中,我们查考了一些经文已经表明耶稣来是要拯救全世界(约翰福音1:29,哥林多后书5:18-19;和约翰一书2:2)

(18) With those three passages plus the 1 Timothy 2:3-7 passage in mind, we can tell Professor Calvin that double predestination is not a Biblical teaching and move on. Yet we will examine three passages that are used to support predestination to hell.

根据这三处经文及提摩太前书2:3-7节,我们可以得出加尔文教授的双重预定论不是合乎圣经的教导的结论并继续学习了。然而我们还将查考三处被使用来支持预定下地狱的经文。

(19) The following text from Acts is similar to the ones listed above that you were invited to read on your own.

下述从使徒行传中摘录的经文与上面我们请你自己阅读的经文相似。

Acts 13:48 When the Gentiles heard this, they were glad and honored the word of the Lord; and all who were appointed for eternal life believed.

使徒行传13:48 外邦人听见这话,就欢喜了,赞美 神的道;凡预定得永生的人都信了。

(20) First, this text from Acts, like the others, speaks to believers. Believers are being assured of their place in the family of God and that the power of the Lord Jesus is with them. Christians are not orphans nor left on their own in this world of temptation. That Christians are chosen by God is meant to be a comfort as we live in a challenging world, one where Satan is active.

首先这段经文取自使徒行传,同其余经文一样也是向信徒说的。信徒得以确信他们在神家中的地位并且从主耶稣而来的能力与他们同在。基督徒不是孤儿也不是单靠自己来面对这个世界上的试探。基督徒得以被神挑选的信息,对于生活在这个充满挑战、撒旦四处活动的世界上的我们意味着安慰。

(21) Second, we note that there is nothing in this passage or the context of the verses before or after that implies that others are chosen, appointed, predestined, or elected to hell.

其次,我们注意到无论在这段经文中还是经文的背景里,在经文之前或之后都没有关于其余的人被选择、预定或拣选下地狱。

(22) Romans, chapter nine, is used extensively to support double predestination. Do note that there is no direct statement that says that some people are predestined or elected to hell in any part of the chapter.

罗马书第九章常被用来支持双重预定论。但注意在那一章里的任何地方都没有直接的陈述说有人被预定或拣选下地狱

(23) Some Christians summarize chapter 9 by asserting that the chapter speaks about the sovereign choice of God. This teacher does not prefer that summary. A better summary which better reflects the context of the chapter is that God’s grace and mercy apply to the Gentiles even though Israel was first given the promises of God and the promise of the Savior.

有一些基督徒总结第九章说,这一章经文谈论了神全能的选择。本教师并不认可这一结论。更好的总结也是更好的反映这一章的背景的总结是:神的恩典和仁慈临到了外邦人身上,尽管以色列人首先持有神的应许和救主的应许。

(24) Chapter 9:1-5 summarizes that Israel has a great, historical call. They have been God’s people by promise.

第九章1-5节总结了以色列人持有一个伟大的,历史性的使命。他们藉着应许成为神的子民。

(25) In 9:6 the Spirit points out that it was not the Word that had failed or misdirected the people. God’s word will accomplish that for which it is sent – it is God’s power for salvation. The Word had not failed but Israel had relied upon the lineage of Abraham for their relationship with God. In other words, the Jews extensively relied upon their own works for salvation. Yet the main truth about Abraham that God wanted the people to know was Abraham’s faith. All who trust their physical connection to Abraham and their Jewish heritage, are not God’s offspring. All who trust God as Abraham did are truly Abraham’s offspring and Israel.

在九章6节,圣经指出不是神的话落空了或是误导了人。神所说过话语必在其对应的事上成就——这是神救赎的能力。神的话并没有落空而是以色列人凭着和亚伯拉罕的血缘关系来建立他们和神的关系。换句话说,犹太人大大的仰赖自己的努力来换得救恩。然而神愿意人认识到的关于亚伯拉罕的真理是亚伯拉罕的信心。所有信靠身体上和亚伯拉罕的关联和犹太传统的人都不是神的后裔。所有像亚伯拉罕一样信靠神的人是真的亚伯拉罕的后裔和真以色列人。

Romans 9:8  In other words, it is not the natural children who are God’s children, but it is the children of the promise who are regarded as Abraham’s offspring.

罗马书9:8 这就是说,肉身所生的儿女不是 神的儿女,惟独那应许的儿女才算是后裔。

9:11 Yet, before the twins were born or had done anything good or bad— so that God’s purpose according to His choice would stand, 12 not by works but by him who calls—she was told, “The older will serve the younger.” 13 Just as it is written: “Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.”

9:11-13 双子还没有生下来,善恶还没有做出来,只因要显明 神拣选人的旨意,不在乎人的行为,乃在乎召人的主。12神就对利百加说:「将来,大的要服事小的。」13正如经上所记:雅各是我所爱的;以扫是我所恶的。

(26) Verse 11 addresses that God’s choice is connected with God’s mercy not with human works. There is no comment about election to hell. The Greek of verse 11 does not mention election at all.

11节阐述了神的选择是和神的恩典相关而不是和人的行为有关。这里没有谈到拣选下地狱。11节的希腊文根本就没有提到拣选。

(27) The original Greek uses ἐκλογή (eklogē), which is a noun that translated “choice” or “chosen” above. Some translations like to put the term “election” into the verse, but that is not from the original.

这一节中希腊文名词ἐκλογή (eklogē)的意为“选择”或“被选”。有一些译本将“拣选”这个词汇放在译文中,但并不是出于原文中。

(28) Even the other term (ἐκλεκτός (eklektos), ) that some will translate as “elect” has as its primary translation into English as “chosen.”

另一个词汇(ἐκλεκτός (eklektos), )有些人将之翻译为“拣选”,但其英文的对应主要意思为“被选”。

(29) While the translation “chosen” and “elect” can have similar meaning, in English the two terms have very different impact. The term “chosen” is a gentle term that tells us the individual or thing chosen has been selected from others. The person or thing is special, but has a gentle beginning. The term “elect” has a governmental connection as in a political “election.” The person or thing is selected in an administrative way and the other possibilities are set aside.

尽管“被选”和“拣选”的翻译含有相似的意思,但在英文中这两个词汇有非常不同的作用。词汇“被选”较温和,表达的是特定的个体或事物被从其余事物中选出来。这个人或事物是特别的,但有一个温和的根源。词汇“拣选”和政治活动有关,比如政党的“选举”。个人或事物是以行政的形式被选出来,其余的备选单位则被放弃。

(30) This teacher recommends that the term “election” or “elected” does not correctly translate what the Holy Spirit has inspired nor is it the primary meaning of the Greek. God’s people are chosen on the basis of the Gospel, not on the basis of an administrative decision.

本教师建议词汇“拣选”即没有正确的翻译出圣灵的启示也不是该词希腊文的主要含义。神的子民是按福音的缘故被选而不是一个行政选举的决定。

(31) Continuing in the discussion of verse 11: God’s purpose for choosing is based upon God’s mercy not upon the individual’s works. From God’s merciful heart, a heart that loves sinners who can’t come to faith on their own, arises his choosing.

继续对11节的讨论:神选择的目的是基于神的恩典而不是个人的行为。因神慈爱的心肠,就是神爱罪人的心,这样的罪人不能够靠自己进入信心中,生发出自己的选择。

(32) As stated before, nowhere in the chapter is anyone elected for hell, not is there anyone chosen for hell. The context of chapter nine is that Israel’s works were not going to save them. As long as they relied upon works they would not be saved.

如前所述,这章经文中没有任何地方提到任何人是被拣选下地狱,也没有提到任何人是被选择下地狱。第九章经文的背景是以色列人的行为不能够救他们。只要他们还是仰赖行为,他们就不能够得救。

9:11 Yet, before the twins were born or had done anything good or bad— so that God’s purpose according to His choice would stand, 12 not by works but by him who calls—she was told, “The older will serve the younger.” 13 Just as it is written: “Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.”

9:11-13 双子还没有生下来,善恶还没有做出来,只因要显明 神拣选人的旨意,不在乎人的行为,乃在乎召人的主。12神就对利百加说:「将来,大的要服事小的。」13正如经上所记:雅各是我所爱的;以扫是我所恶的。

(33) Some assert that the phrase “Esau I hated,” is an example of the election of Esau to unbelief.

有些人声称“以扫是我所恶的。”这段话是拣选以扫成为不信者的例子。

(34) The sentence “Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated” was written by Malachi in first chapter of his prophecy (Malachi 1:2,3). Israel had been exiled because they turned away from God (586 BC). In 539 BC Israel was allowed to returned to Judea. With Ezra’s leadership the temple had been rebuilt (516 BC). Under Nehemiah’s leadership the walls of Jerusalem had been rebuilt. Now at the time of Malachi, about 445 BC, Israel was showing unbelief again. The people and the priests were giving bad sacrifices (Malachi 1:6-2:9). The people of Israel are being unfaithful by marrying pagan women (2:10-16). The people who should have been the LORD’s had robbed God (3:6-16). The people of God, the priests and the leaders thought that they were God’s people but many of them were not.

“雅各是我所爱的;以扫是我所恶的。”这个句子出自玛拉基的预言第一章(玛拉基书1:2,3)以色列人因为背离神而被掳(公元前586年),在公元前539年,以色列人被准许回到犹太地。在以斯拉的带领下圣殿得以被重建(公元前516年)。在尼希米的带领下耶路撒冷的城墙得以重建。之后到了玛拉基的时代,约在公元前445年,以色列人再次表现出了不信。人们和祭司献上污秽的祭物(玛拉基书1:6-2:9)以色列人背信并娶事奉外邦神的女子为妻(2:10-16)。人们夺取原本属神的供物(3:6-16)。属神的人,祭司和领袖以为自己是神的子民,但他们中的多数都不是。

(35) Like Paul’s day the people of Israel thought they were God’s people because they were of the line of Abraham. Ishmael and Isaac were Abraham’s children but only the son of the promise was a son of Abraham according to faith. In verses 9:11-13 are part of the same thought. Both Esau and Jacob were Abraham’s sons, but only Jacob was a son of Abraham according to the promise. Esau may have been a physical son, but he was not a son of faith.

如同保罗所处的时代,以色列人以为他们是神的子民,因为他们属于亚伯拉罕的子孙。以实玛利和以撒都是亚伯拉罕的子女但只有应许的儿子是亚伯拉罕从信心而得的儿子。在9:11-13节也是同样的理念。以扫和雅各都是亚伯拉罕的子孙,但只有雅各是亚伯拉罕从应许中得的儿子。以扫可能是肉身的儿子,但他不是信心中的儿子。

(36) The result of Esau’s unbelief was that he was rejected by God. His physical sonship made no difference. Esau was not chosen or elected to unbelief. The Holy Spirit’s words in Romans 9:11-13 summarize all of Esau’s life in a few words. He was the first born, but that made no difference. He was of the lineage of Abraham but that made no difference. He was not a son of the promise.

以扫不信的结果是他被神拒绝。他肉身的儿子身份并不能改变什么。以扫不是被选择或拣选而不信。圣灵在罗马书9:11-13节中的话用几个词总结了以扫的一生。他是首先生的,但并不能改变什么。他有亚伯拉罕的血统,但并不能改变什么。他不是应许的儿子。

(37) This same thought about son of the promise and physical sons continues in the next section.

关于应许的儿子和肉身的儿子的同样的理念在下一节中继续。

(38) Verses 14-16 are at the heart of what some assert is predestination to hell.

14-16节是关于预定下地狱的主张的中心。

Verse 14 - 16 reads: 14 What then shall we say? Is God unjust? Not at all! 15 For he says to Moses, “I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.” 16 It does not, therefore, depend on man’s desire or effort, but on God’s mercy.

14-16节写道:14这样,我们可说什么呢?难道 神有什么不公平吗?断乎没有!15因他对摩西说:我要怜悯谁就怜悯谁,要恩待谁就恩待谁。16据此看来,这不在乎那定意的,也不在乎那奔跑的,只在乎发怜悯的 神。

(39) To fully address those verses we need to look at two Old Testament references. We will address verse 15 first, the quote from Exodus 33 verse 19.

为了完全的阐明这些经文,我们需要参考两处旧约经文。我们先从15节入手,这是引用了出埃及记33章19节。

Exodus 33:18-20 18 Then Moses said, “Now show me your glory.” 19 And the Lord said, “I will cause all my goodness to pass in front of you, and I will proclaim my name, the Lord, in your presence. I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion. 20 But,” he said, “you cannot see my face, for no one may see me and live.”

出埃及记33:18-20 摩西说:「求你显出你的荣耀给我看。」19耶和华说:「我要显我一切的恩慈,在你面前经过,宣告我的名。我要恩待谁就恩待谁;要怜悯谁就怜悯谁」;20又说:「你不能看见我的面,因为人见我的面不能存活。」

(40) Moses has requested to see God’s glory (verse 18). God will not give him a direct look at his glory, but will proclaim his glory to Moses (verses 19-20). God proclaims his name in chapter 34.

摩西请求观看神的荣耀(18节)。神并没有让摩西直接看到祂的荣耀,而是将祂的荣耀表明给摩西(18-20节)。神在34章显明了祂的名。

Exodus 34:5-7 Then the Lord came down in the cloud and stood there with him and proclaimed his name, the Lord. 6 And he passed in front of Moses, proclaiming, “The Lord, the Lord, the compassionate and gracious God, slow to anger, abounding in love and faithfulness, 7 maintaining love to thousands, and forgiving wickedness, rebellion and sin. Yet he does not leave the guilty unpunished; he punishes the children and their children for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation.”

出埃及记34:5-7 耶和华在云中降临,和摩西一同站在那里,宣告耶和华的名。6耶和华在他面前宣告说:「耶和华,耶和华,是有怜悯有恩典的 神,不轻易发怒,并有丰盛的慈爱和诚实,7为千万人存留慈爱,赦免罪孽、过犯,和罪恶,万不以有罪的为无罪,必追讨他的罪,自父及子,直到三、四代。」

(41) The glory that God wanted Moses to see and remember is not his sovereign, absolute power, but his mercy and compassion. Yes, the Lord will finally deal with sin. He speaks of punishment finally in 34:7b. Yet his most important qualities are his mercy as expressed in 33:19 and 34:6-7a.

神愿意让摩西看到并记住的荣耀不是祂的至高、绝对的能力,而是祂的慈爱和怜悯。是的,神终将对付罪。祂最后在34:7b处谈到刑罚。然而祂最重要的性质是在33:19节和34:6-7a节显明的祂的慈爱

(42) Consider together the LORD’s emphasis on compassion with his justice as expressed in in Romans 9:4. Rephrasing 9:4 is God unjust for punishing some of the Jews?

同时思考主对怜悯的强调和在罗马书9:4节中所表达的公义,重新组织9:4节的文本显示出神刑罚一些犹太人是不公义的吗?

(43) We look to Ezekiel 18 in which God’s justice arises in connection with Israel. Israel again is concerned about being the children of Abraham and thinking they deserve God’s blessing. Israel is not concerned with faith in the LORD. While we could reference a good portion of the chapter we will focus on five verses.

我们查看以西结书18章,在这里神在和以色列有关的事上施行公义。以色列再一次自认为是亚伯拉罕的子孙并以为他们配的神的祝福。以色列没有在主里有信心。在这一章里许多可参考的经文中,我们着重5条经文。

Ezekiel 18:25-29 “Yet you say, ‘The way of the Lord is not just.’ Hear, O house of Israel: Is my way unjust? Is it not your ways that are unjust? 26 If a righteous man turns from his righteousness and commits sin, he will die for it; because of the sin he has committed he will die. 27 But if a wicked man turns away from the wickedness he has committed and does what is just and right, he will save his life. 28 Because he considers all the offenses he has committed and turns away from them, he will surely live; he will not die. 29 Yet the house of Israel says, ‘The way of the Lord is not just.’ Are my ways unjust, O house of Israel? Is it not your ways that are unjust?

以西结书 18:-25-29 「你们还说:『主的道不公平!』以色列家啊,你们当听,我的道岂不公平吗?你们的道岂不是不公平吗?26义人若转离义行而作罪孽死亡,他是因所作的罪孽死亡。27再者,恶人若回头离开所行的恶,行正直与合理的事,他必将性命救活了。28因为他思量,回头离开所犯的一切罪过,必定存活,不致死亡。29以色列家还说:『主的道不公平!』以色列家啊,我的道岂不公平吗?你们的道岂不是不公平吗?」

(44) Israel accused God of being unjust because He would forgive the repentant sinner and hold guilty the impenitent, even if they had been righteous at one time. Ezekiel assures Israel that the Lord is just and will forgive all who repent and will hold guilty all who will not repent, even if that person had been God’s servant.

以色列人指责神不公平,因为祂要赦免悔改的罪人并保留不悔改的人的罪咎,尽管这样的人也曾是义人的,以西结让以色列人确信主是公正的并会赦免所有悔改的人,并保留不悔改的人的罪咎,即便他曾是个基督徒。

(45)Ezekiel 18 is similar to Jesus’ parable of the workers in the vineyard (Matthew 20:1-15). Some worked only a short time and some worked all day. Each received the same pay for their work. Those who had worked all day were angry because they thought they deserved more. It wasn’t that the master was unfair. He was generous.

以西结书 18章与耶稣所讲的葡萄园工人的比喻有相似之处。(马太福音20:1-15)有一些人仅仅工作了一小段时间,而有一些人整天都在工作。结果每个人得到的工价都一样。那些整天都工作的人感到很生气因为他们以为自己配得更多。这不是说主人不公平,祂是宽宏、慷慨的。

Matthew 20:13-15 “But he answered one of them, ‘Friend, I am not being unfair to you. Didn’t you agree to work for a denarius? 14 Take your pay and go. I want to give the man who was hired last the same as I gave you. 15 Don’t I have the right to do what I want with my own money? Or are you envious because I am generous?’

马太福音20:13-15 家主回答其中的一人说:『朋友,我不亏负你,你与我讲定的不是一钱银子吗?14拿你的走吧!我给那后来的和给你一样,这是我愿意的。15我的东西难道不可随我的意思用吗?因为我作好人,你就红了眼吗?』

(46) God was not unjust. In Romans 9 God is being generous to the Gentiles and some in Israel didn’t like that generosity. In Ezekiel 18 God was being generous to those of Israel who had sinned and repented. Both in Romans 9 and Ezekiel 18 God was generous and just, he forgave all who repented and turned from the sin.

神并不是不公义。在罗马书9章神仁慈的对待外邦人,但有一些以色列人并不喜悦这样的仁慈。在以西结书18章,神也曾这样以恩慈对待那些犯了罪后悔改的以色列人。在罗马书9章和以西结书18章神都是仁慈和公义的,祂赦免一切悔改、转回离开罪的人。

(47) God’s generosity is not a proclamation that some are predestined to unbelief and hell.

神的仁慈不是宣布说有人要被预定不信和下地狱。

(48) Beginning with 9:17 Paul brings up Pharaoh in this discussion.

从9:17节开始,保罗在讨论中提到法老。

Romans 9:17-18 For the Scripture says to Pharaoh: “I raised you up for this very purpose, that I might display my power in you and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.” 18 Therefore God has mercy on whom he wants to have mercy, and he hardens whom he wants to harden.

罗马书9:17-18 因为经上有话向法老说:「我将你兴起来,特要在你身上彰显我的权能,并要使我的名传遍天下。」18如此看来, 神要怜悯谁就怜悯谁,要叫谁刚硬就叫谁刚硬。

(49) Pharaoh is the main example of someone who was hardened by God. Yet God did not harden him until Pharaoh had already hardened himself. Also notable – God’s purpose in hardening Pharaoh was showing his greatness to Israel, not sending Pharaoh to hell. Nowhere in Scripture do we hear of God hardening the hearts of any people because God had predestined them to hell.

法老是被神刚硬的主要例子。然而神并没有在他自己刚硬之前就使之刚硬。同样值得注意的是——神使法老刚硬的目的是向以色列人显出祂的大能而不是要使法老下地狱。我们在圣经中找不到神刚硬任何人是因为神预定了他们要下地狱的例子。

(50) Nothing written before Romans 9:20 or following support predestination to hell.

在罗马书9:20之前或之后的经文都不支持预定下地狱。

Romans 9:20-22 One of you will say to me: “Then why does God still blame us? For who resists his will?” 20 But who are you, O man, to talk back to God? “Shall what is formed say to him who formed it, ‘Why did you make me like this?’” 21 Does not the potter have the right to make out of the same lump of clay some pottery for noble purposes and some for common use? 22 What if God, choosing to show his wrath and make his power known, bore with great patience the objects of his wrath—fitted for destruction? [some translations say “prepared for destruction.”]

罗马书9:20-22 这样,你必对我说:「他为什么还指责人呢?有谁抗拒他的旨意呢?」20你这个人哪,你是谁,竟敢向 神强嘴呢?受造之物岂能对造他的说:「你为什么这样造我呢?」21窑匠难道没有权柄从一团泥里拿一块做成贵重的器皿,又拿一块做成卑贱的器皿吗?22倘若 神要显明他的忿怒,彰显他的权能,就多多忍耐宽容那可怒、预备遭毁灭的器皿,【有些译本译为“预备遭毁灭的”(译注:此处采用和合本圣经,讲义中英文22节末尾从字面上可直译为“合当毁灭的”)】

(51) Israel, trying to make excuses for turning from God asks, For who resists his will?” Paul is not asserting that no one can resist God’s will. Israel is making an excuse for their unbelief. In truth they are doing the same thing Adam and Eve did when tempted by Satan. Eve tried to blame the snake. Adam tried to blame God for giving Eve to him. In our Romans text, Israel is trying to blame God for their unbelief. This verse cannot be used to assert that God’s sovereign will predestines some with heaven and curses others with hell.

以色列人为了给自己转离神找借口问道,“有谁抗拒他的旨意呢?”保罗并没有断言没有任何人可以抗拒神的旨意。以色列人在为他们自己的不信找借口。事实上,正如亚当和夏娃在伊甸园里被魔鬼试探时所做的,以色列人也在做同样的事。夏娃试图归咎于蛇。亚当试图归咎于神把夏娃赐给他。在我们罗马书的经文里,以色列试图把自己的不信归咎于神。这节经文不能用于说明神的全能将预定一些人进天堂和咒诅其余的人下地狱。

(52) When the text says “fitted for destruction,” that is not to say predestined. Unbelievers are fitted for God’s wrath because they have rejected God’s beautiful gift of salvation. In truth, they have fitted themselves for destruction. Those translations which assert that some of Israel are “prepared for destruction,” are not translating accurately.

当经文说“合当毁灭的”并不意味着是预定。不信的人遭到神的忿怒是恰当的,因为他们拒绝了神美好礼物救恩。事实上,他们使自己合当毁灭。那些译为有些以色列人是“预备遭毁灭的”的译本并不是准确的翻译。

(53) One more point regarding Romans 9:30-33.

最后一点关于罗马书9:30-33节的讨论

30 What then shall we say? That the Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have obtained it, a righteousness that is by faith; 31 but Israel, who pursued a law of righteousness, has not attained it. 32 Why not? Because they pursued it not by faith but as if it were by works. They stumbled over the “stumbling stone.” 33 As it is written: “See, I lay in Zion a stone that causes men to stumble and a rock that makes them fall, and the one who trusts in him will never be put to shame.”

30这样,我们可说什么呢?那本来不追求义的外邦人反得了义,就是因信而得的义。31但以色列人追求律法的义,反得不着律法的义。32这是什么缘故呢?是因为他们不凭着信心求,只凭着行为求;他们正跌在那绊脚石上。33就如经上所记:我在锡安放一块绊脚的石头,跌人的磐石;信靠他的人必不至于羞愧。

(54) The above would be a perfect section in which the Holy Spirit could have inserted clearly and plainly that some people are destined to hell by God’s sovereign power. Rather than speaking about faith and righteousness, the Spirit could have said something like this – “Certain Gentiles were saved by God’s choice and certain Jews were chosen by God for hell.” The Spirit does not speak about predestination to hell.

圣灵如果是想清楚明白的表达有人要因神的全能而被预定下地狱,上述内容将会是最好的论述之处。圣灵可能不会在这里提到信心和义而应该说“有一些外邦人因神的选择而得救,有一些犹太人被神选择下地狱”。圣灵并没有说到预定下地狱。

(55) In verse 33 rather than speaking about faith in Jesus, the Spirit could have said something like this – “See, I have chosen out of Zion and the world those who I have predestined for my kingdom and those who are destined for hell.” Instead he states the promise of the coming Savior.

在33节中,与其谈论在耶稣里的信心,圣灵倒不如说“看哪,我已经拣选了锡安和我已经为我的国度所预定的人和那些预定要下地狱的人”然而,保罗在这里阐明将要来的救主的应许。

(56) What are your observations on this larger section?

你对这一大段的内容有什么评论?

(57) The last section to address is Romans 11:7-8. If taken out of context the words can seem to lean towards condemnation to hell. Yet, predestination to Hell is not the context. The focus is on those who continually reject God’s Gospel as we see from the context preceding in verses 1-6.

最后要阐述的是罗马书11:7-8节。如果拿掉背景的话,这些话语看似是趋向于咒诅下地狱的。然而,预定下地狱不是这里的背景。如果我们看到前文1-6节就知道重点是那些一直拒绝神福音的人。

(58) Although the word “chosen” should be used instead of “elect” in verse 7, we have left the translation.

尽管在第7节中应该使用词语“被选”而不是“拣选”,但我们先不考虑翻译的问题。

Romans 11:7-8 What then? What Israel sought so earnestly it did not obtain, but the elect did. The others were hardened, 8 as it is written: “God gave them a spirit of stupor, eyes so that they could not see and ears so that they could not hear, to this very day.”

罗马书11:7-8 这是怎么样呢?以色列人所求的,他们没有得着。惟有蒙拣选的人得着了;其余的就成了顽梗不化的。8如经上所记:神给他们昏迷的心,眼睛不能看见,耳朵不能听见,直到今日。

(59) Why might verses 7-8 sound as election to hell?

为什么7-8节听起来像拣选下地狱?

(60) But, keep the context in mind.

但是,要记得背景。

I ask then: Did God reject his people? By no means! I am an Israelite myself, a descendant of Abraham, from the tribe of Benjamin. 2 God did not reject his people, whom he foreknew. Don’t you know what the Scripture says in the passage about Elijah—how he appealed to God against Israel: 3 “Lord, they have killed your prophets and torn down your altars; I am the only one left, and they are trying to kill me”? 4 And what was God’s answer to him? “I have reserved for myself seven thousand who have not bowed the knee to Baal.” 5 So too, at the present time there is a remnant chosen by grace. 6 And if by grace, then it is no longer by works; if it were, grace would no longer be grace (Romans 11:1-6)

1我且说, 神弃绝了他的百姓吗?断乎没有!因为我也是以色列人,亚伯拉罕的后裔,属便雅悯支派的。2神并没有弃绝他预先所知道的百姓。你们岂不晓得经上论到以利亚是怎么说的呢?他在 神面前怎样控告以色列人说:3「主啊,他们杀了你的先知,拆了你的祭坛,只剩下我一个人;他们还要寻索我的命。」4神的回话是怎么说的呢?他说:「我为自己留下七千人,是未曾向巴力屈膝的。」5如今也是这样,照着拣选的恩典,还有所留的余数。6既是出于恩典,就不在乎行为;不然,恩典就不是恩典了。(罗马书11:1-6)

(61) Rephrasing the first verse of chapter 11 “I ask then: Did God predestine Israel to hell?” God neither predestined Israel to hell nor rejected them. Israel rejected God. On the basis of their own hardness of heart, God increased their stupor.” The warning is to repent or after being patient and looking for repentance, God will deliver you over to your sin.

重新编排11章的第一节“我且说:神预定了以色列人下地狱吗?”神既没有预定以色列人下地狱也没有弃绝他们。以色列人弃绝了神。因他们自己顽梗不化,神给他们昏迷的心。这里的警告是要悔改或是在耐心等候之后盼望悔改,神将救拔你脱离你的罪。

(62) The Biblical purpose of election, also stated as predestination, is God’s assurance to believers of God’s love, power and blessing in our troubled world. The context of each of those passages which speak about election and predestination makes this clear. The Holy Spirit’s mention of election is never used in the context of unbelievers only believers. No matter how much we see going on around us, we know that God’s love for us is tremendous – we are his elected or more accurately, God’s chosen people.

合乎圣经的拣选,也被称为预定,是在这个充满问题的世界中,神向信徒确保神的爱、能力和祝福。上述每处涉及拣选和预定的经文的背景都清楚的表明了这一点。圣灵谈及的拣选从未用在不信者上都是在谈论信徒。不论我们看到周围发生了什么事,我们都知道神对我们的爱是极大地。——我们是祂所拣选的,或更准确的说,是神的选民。

(63) Two Biblical texts express the same truth as predestination without using the terms election or predestination.

有两处经文表述了同样的关于预定的真理,虽然都没有使用词汇“拣选”或“预定”。

Romans 8:35,37-39 Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall trouble or hardship or persecution or famine or nakedness or danger or sword? … 37 No, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him who loved us. 38 For I am convinced that neither death nor life, neither angels nor demons, neither the present nor the future, nor any powers, 39 neither height nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God that is in Christ Jesus our Lord.

罗马书835,37-39 谁能使我们与基督的爱隔绝呢?难道是患难吗?是困苦吗?是逼迫吗?是饥饿吗?是赤身露体吗?是危险吗?是刀剑吗?…… 37然而,靠着爱我们的主,在这一切的事上已经得胜有余了。38因为我深信无论是死,是生,是天使,是掌权的,是有能的,是现在的事,是将来的事,39是高处的,是低处的,是别的受造之物,都不能叫我们与 神的爱隔绝;这爱是在我们的主基督耶稣里的。

(64) We could summarize the above passage, We are elected so nothing shall separate us from the love of Christ…

我们可以这样总结上述经文,我们已蒙拣选,因此没有任何事能使我们与基督的爱隔绝……

2 Corinthians 4:7-11 But we have this treasure in jars of clay to show that this all-surpassing power is from God and not from us. 8 We are hard pressed on every side, but not crushed; perplexed, but not in despair; 9 persecuted, but not abandoned; struck down, but not destroyed.

哥林多后书 4:7-11 我们有这宝贝放在瓦器里,要显明这莫大的能力是出于 神,不是出于我们。8我们四面受敌,却不被困住;心里作难,却不至失望;9遭逼迫,却不被丢弃;打倒了,却不至死亡。10身上常带着耶稣的死,使耶稣的生也显明在我们身上。11因为我们这活着的人是常为耶稣被交于死地,使耶稣的生在我们这必死的身上显明出来。

(65) Rephrasing the 2 Corinthians passage, “we may be hard pressed, perplexed, persecuted and struck down, but we are elected by the Lord to be his people, so we will not be crushed, nor in despair, nor abandoned, or destroyed.”

重新编排哥林多后书的经文,“我们或许遭遇艰难的压力、困惑、逼迫、打倒,但是我们被主拣选为属祂的人,所以我们将不被困住、也不失望、不被弃绝或死亡”

(66) The Biblical teachings of election and predestination are comforts to believers, not law statements to condemn the unbeliever.

合乎圣经的关于拣选和预定的教导应当给信徒以安慰,而不是对不信者定罪的律法条文。

(67) Professor Calvin made several Biblical and logical mistakes when he asserted double predestination.

加尔文教授在他主张双重预定的时候犯了几点圣经和逻辑错误。

  1. He based salvation upon God’s sovereign power and election, not upon Christ’s sacrifice on the cross for sins and God’s mercy given to sinners.

    他将救恩基于神的全能和拣选,而不是基于基督在十字架上为罪所做的牺牲和神对罪人的恩典。

  2. He based salvation upon his misunderstanding of election. Election is an assurance to believers not a condemnation of unbelievers. In Biblical context unbelievers are never connected to election or predestination.

    他将救恩基于他对拣选错误的理解。拣选是对信徒的确保而不是对不信者的咒诅。在经文背景里,不信者从未和拣选和预定有联系。

  3. He used election to answer the question why do some people reject the Lord’s gift and some believe. Scripture proclaims that first, the Lord brings people to faith and second, people reject God against God’s will. Any discussion of the concern why some believe and not others MUST never forget or set aside those two truths.

    他使用拣选来回答为什么有人拒绝主的礼物而有人相信的问题。经文首先说明,是主带领人相信,其次,是人拒绝神抵挡神的旨意。任何对为什么有人相信而不是其他的人相信这个问题的讨论必须不能忘记或丢弃这两点真理。

  4. His logical problem moved him to assert an unbiblical answer. Scripture tells us that people are saved by God, we could say chosen by God. The logical opposite may be that God elects some people to hell but election to hell is not a Biblical truth.

    他的逻辑问题使他得出了不合乎圣经的答案。经文告诉我们人被神拯救,我们可以说被神选择。这个逻辑的对立面可以是神拣选有些人下地狱,但拣选下地狱并不是合乎圣经的真理。

(68) How might the teaching of double predestination crush the weak or new believer?

教导双重预定论会怎样强烈打击软弱的或新信徒?

(69) What joy does Satan get out of predestination to hell?

撒旦会从预定下地狱之中得到怎样的喜悦?