恩典国际圣经学院

约翰福音第13章和第14章

Lesson 11 The Gospel of John, Chapters 13 and 14


Lesson 11

Lesson 11 第11课 The Gospel of John, Chapters 13 and 14 约翰福音第13章和第14章 Jesus: The Way, the Truth, and the Life 耶稣:道路、真理和生命

The Gospel of John alone records the foot washing, Jesus’ final words to the disciples, and his amazing prayer of intercession for all Christians in chapters 13-17. 只有约翰福音在13-17章中记录了耶稣给门徒洗脚、耶稣对门徒的最后话语,以及他为所有基督徒代祷的祷告。 All people are lost. All people are confused. All people are sorrowful. But they need not be. Jesus came to seek and save the lost. Jesus came to comfort them. Even Jesus’ disciples, during the night when he was betrayed, were confused and sorrowful. One could call these chapters, The Learning Chapters, because of the many questions the disciples ask in them. Jesus has the answers. 所有人都迷失了;所有的人都很困惑;所有人都很悲伤。但他们不必如此,因为耶稣来寻找和拯救失丧的人。耶稣来安慰他们。就连耶稣的门徒,在他被卖的那一夜,也是疑惑忧伤的。我们可以称这些章节为学习章节,因为门徒们在其中提出了很多问题。耶稣知道答案。 We are just like the disciples. Often we feel lost, confused and sorrowful. “Do not let your hearts be troubled.” Let us listen to Jesus: the Way, the Truth, and the Life. 我们就像门徒一样,经常感到迷失、困惑和悲伤。“你们心里不要忧愁。”让我们来听耶稣:道路、真理和生命。

Read John 13:1-17 (Jesus washes the feet of his disciples) 读约翰福音13:1-17(耶稣给门徒洗脚) The celebration of the Passover was about to begin. This would be the most special Passover for Jesus, his disciples, and for the whole world, for this was the hour that the Father had determined for his Son to redeem us. It was time for Jesus to fulfill His destiny. It was time for the cross, time for the suffering and death, and then returning to the Father. It was time to show the world the full extent of His love. 逾越节的庆祝就要开始了。这对耶稣、他的门徒,并全世界来说,是最特别的逾越节,因为这是天父为他儿子所定的救赎我们的时刻。这是耶稣完成他使命的时候,是钉十字架的时候,是遭遇苦难和死亡的时候,是回到父那里去的时候,是向世界充分展示他的爱的时候。 But before humbling himself even to death on a cross, Jesus would teach us all a lesson in humble service by taking the role of a servant and washing the feet of the guests. 但在他自己谦卑地死在十字架上之前,耶稣将以仆人的身份,给我们所有人一个谦卑服侍的教训,并为人洗脚。

  1. Why was Peter at first reluctant to let Jesus wash his feet? 彼得一开始为什么不愿意让耶稣给他洗脚?

  2. What did Jesus mean when he said, “Unless I wash you, you have no part with me?” 耶稣说,“我若不洗你,你就与我无分了。”这话是什么意思呢?

  3. What lesson did Jesus teach his followers by his example of washing their feet? 通过为人洗脚的榜样,耶稣教导他的跟随者一个怎样的功课?

We follow his example by serving each other, visiting the sick, helping the poor, doing acts of kindness, volunteering, helping others in need. We were created not to be served, but to serve others. When we put our faith into practice and love and serve others, we are blessed because we are doing what God made us to do. Sometimes old people living in a nursing home just want to die because they no longer feel needed or useful. Everyone wants to be needed and useful. That’s a blessing which gives purpose to our lives and makes us content. 我们以他为榜样,互相服务,看望病人,帮助穷人,做善事,做志愿者,帮助有需要的人。我们被造的目的不是为了受人的服务,而是为了服务他人。当我们把我们的信心付诸实践,去爱,去服侍别人时,我们就有福了,因为我们正在做神让我们做的事。住在养老院的老人有时只想死,因为他们不再觉得被人需要或者有用。每个人都想被需要和有用。这是一种祝福,它让我们的生活有目的,也使我们感到满足。

Read John 13:18-30 (Jesus predicts his betrayal) 读约翰福音13:18-30 (耶稣预言他将被出卖)

  1. Why did Jesus want his disciples to know in advance that one of them was about to betray him (see verse 19)? 耶稣为什么要门徒预先知道他们中间有一个人要卖他呢?

  2. In verse 26 it says that when Judas received the piece of bread, “Satan entered into him.” What does that mean? 26节说当犹大接到那块面包时,“撒旦便进了他的身体”。那是什么意思?

Read John 13:31-38 (Jesus predicts Peter’s denial) 读约翰福音13:31-38(耶稣预言彼得不认主)

  1. What did Jesus mean when he said, “Now is the Son of Man glorified and God is glorified in him?” (verse 31) 耶稣说,“如今人子得了荣耀,神在人子身上也得了荣耀。”这话是什么意思?(31节)

Look closely at Jesus’ “new command” in verse 34. We might think, “But Lord, the command to love one another was certainly not new. Thousands of years earlier You gave commandments to Moses about how to treat other people that You summarized by saying, “Love your neighbor as yourself” (Matthew 22:39). Lord, how can you say that loving one another is a NEW COMMAND?” 仔细看34节耶稣的新命令。我们也许会想,“主啊,彼此相爱的命令不是什么新内容了。数千年前,你给摩西的诫命中就有关于如何对待他人的教训。你总结说,要“爱人如己” (马太福音22:39)。主啊,你怎么能说彼此相爱是一个新命令呢?” In the sermon on the mount Jesus explains this for us. He said, “If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? Even ‘sinners’ love those who love them. And if you do good to those who are good to you, what credit is that to you? Even ‘sinners’ do that. And if you lend to those from whom you expect repayment, what credit is that to you? Even ‘sinners’ lend to ‘sinners,’ expecting to be repaid in full. But love your enemies, do good to them, and lend to them without expecting to get anything back. Then your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High, because he is kind to the ungrateful and wicked” (Luke 6:32-35). 在登山宝训中,耶稣为我们解释了这一点。他说:“你若单爱那爱你们的人,有什么可酬谢的呢?就是罪人也爱那爱他们的人。你们若善待那善待你们的人,有什么可酬谢的呢?就是罪人也是这样行。你们若借给人,指望从他收回,有甚麽可酬谢的呢?就是罪人也借给罪人,要如数收回。你们倒要爱仇敌,也要善待他们,并要借给人不指望偿还,你们的赏赐就必大了,你们也必作至高者的儿子,因为他恩待那忘恩的和作恶的。” (路加福音6:32-35)。 The old command was “Love your neighbor as yourself.” The new command is, “Love one another AS I HAVE LOVED YOU.” He is commanding a new KIND of love, the kind of unconditional and voluntary love which He has shown to us. The laws of Moses required love out of obedience. The love which Jesus is instructing us to show is a free and voluntary love, a love that is given unconditionally and simply motivated by His love for us. 旧的命令是“爱人如己”,新的命令是,“你们要彼此相爱,像我爱你们一样”。他正在要求一种新的爱,就是他向我们展示的那种无条件的、自愿的爱。摩西律法要求的是出于顺从的爱,但耶稣教导我们要表现的是一种自由和自愿的爱,完全是由他对我们的爱所激发出来的那种无条件的爱。 Unconditional love does not mean that we tolerate sin or approve of things that are wrong. It does, however, mean that we still love the sinner, even while rebuking sin and calling it out. We can show love to the homosexual person without condoning or approving of their sin. We can love the sinner and treat the sinner with kindness, while disapproving and rebuking the sin at the same time. The love that Jesus teaches us is different than the love the world knows and understands. It is not dependent upon another person’s behavior, but upon a heart that is filled with love. 无条件的爱并不意味着我们容忍罪恶或赞同错误的事情。然而,这确实意味着我们仍然爱罪人,即使是在谴责罪恶和对付它的时候。我们可以向同性恋者表示爱但并不认同或认可他们的罪。我们可以爱罪人,用仁慈对待罪人,但同时要反对和谴责罪恶。耶稣教导我们的爱不同于世人所认识和理解的爱。爱不是取决于另一个人的行为,而是取决于一颗充满爱的心。 And how can we have a heart that is filled with love? The apostle John writes: “We love because he first loved us.” (1 John 4:19). We must experience the love of Jesus. He is the source of this new kind of love. 我们怎样才能拥有一颗充满爱的心呢?使徒约翰写道:“我们爱,因为神先爱我们。” (约翰一书4:19)。我们必须经历耶稣的爱,他是这种新爱的源泉。 This love is one of the marks of true Christian discipleship. Jesus says that others will know that we are his disciples when we show this kind of love (v. 35). This is because unconditional love is special and is rarely seen in the world outside of Christianity. In his first epistle, the apostle John writes that love for others is one of the tests for a true Christian. 这种爱是真基督门徒的标志之一。耶稣说,当我们表现这种爱的时候,别人就会知道我们是他的门徒(35节)。这是因为无条件的爱是特别的,在基督教以外的世界里是很少见到的。使徒约翰在他的第一封书信中写道,爱他人是对一个真正基督徒的考验之一。

Chapter Fourteen In Chapter 14 Jesus comforts his troubled disciples, preparing them for his suffering, death, and departure. Though the moment is near when he will drink the Father’s bitter cup of wrath in payment for the world’s sin, Jesus thinks of us and speaks words that will enable us to live in confidence as we face the challenges of living as a Christian. At the end of chapter 13, Jesus was speaking to Peter. But now he turns to address all of his disciples. 耶稣在第十四章安慰他忧伤的门徒,预备他们接受他的痛苦、死亡和离别。虽然耶稣要喝父愤怒的苦杯,为世人的罪付上代价的时刻已经临近,但他想到我们,便开始教导我们,使我们在面对基督徒生活的挑战时,能活得有信心。在第13章的末尾,是耶稣在对彼得说话,但现在他转向了所有的门徒。

Read John 14:1-14 (Jesus comforts his disciples) 读约翰福音14:1-14(耶稣安慰他的门徒)

  1. In verse 1 Jesus said, “Do not let your hearts be troubled.” What were some reasons why the disciples were so troubled that evening? 第1节中,耶稣说:“你们心里不要忧愁。”那天晚上门徒们内心如此不安的原因是什么?

  2. What are some things that trouble our hearts today? 今天困扰我们内心的东西是什么?

    Jesus was not speaking empty words of comfort. Because Jesus loved them, and they could trust His love, there is no need to worry or be afraid. He will make everything work out for the good of those who love him. 
    耶稣并没有在用空话安慰他们。因为耶稣爱他们,所以他们可以信任他的爱,不需要担心或害怕,他会为爱他的人安排好一切。
    
  3. Agree or Disagree? It is impossible for anyone to get to heaven apart from saving faith in Jesus Christ. (Explain your answer) 你是否同意:除了相信耶稣基督得救赎以外,任何人都不能上天堂。(解释你的答案)

    Many people will say, “It doesn’t matter what a person believes, as long as he is sincere. All religions are just different ways to the same place.” This idea has been expressed so often that we may be tempted to think it is true. Wherever the idea originated, it did not originate with Jesus Christ. When the disciples asked him about the way to heaven, he replied, “I am the way.” Notice that Christ says, “I am THE way.”  He does not say, “I am one of the ways,” or “I know the way,” or “I show the way.” No, Christ’s idea about the road to heaven was definitely exclusive – “no other way but me!” Some people may not agree, but this is the clear teaching of Jesus and his apostles. 
    很多人会说:“只要一个人是真诚的,他相信什么并不重要。所有宗教都是在以不同形式通往同一个地方。”这种观点如此频繁地出现,以至于我们可能会忍不住认为它是正确的。无论这个想法起源于何处,它都不是起源于耶稣基督。门徒问他去天堂的路,他说:“我就是道路。”注意!基督说:“我就是(那条)道路。”他没有说:“我是其中的一条路。”也没有说:“我知道那条路”,或者“我可以指路。”没有,基督对如何去天堂的路看法是完全排他的——“除我之外,再没有别的路!”有些人可能不同意,但这是耶稣和他使徒们的明确教导。
    Peter once told the Jewish leaders: “Salvation is found in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given to men by which we must be saved” (Acts 4:12). Through the years people have sought other ways to heaven. The ancient Canaanites sacrificed their own children, and the Hindus tortured their own bodies, hoping that these things would appease the anger of their imaginary outraged gods, and smooth the way into a happy hereafter. And many people today look for the way to heaven in something they do, or say, or offer, or sacrifice.  But these salvation by-character religions have only destroyed hope and bred fear. Forgiveness cannot be purchased. Only Christ can bridge the gulf between the holy God and the helpless sinner. Through his holy life, his innocent death, and his mighty resurrection, he has secured an eternal pardon for all. All other ways are simply dead-ends. Jesus alone is the way – the only way! 
    彼得曾对犹太领袖说:“除他以外,别无拯救,因为在天下人间,没有赐下别的名,我们可以靠着得救。” (使徒行传4:12)。多年来,人们一直在寻找通往天堂的其它途径。古迦南人把自己的孩子献为祭物,印度人折磨自己的身体,希望通过这些方式让他们想象中的神平息愤怒,为以后的幸福铺平道路。今天,许多人通过他们所做、所说的,奉献或献祭的物品来寻找通往天堂的道路。  但这些凭借好品格得救的宗教只会让人失去盼望,生发惧怕,却不能买来宽恕。只有基督才能在圣洁的上帝和无助的罪人之间架起桥梁。通过他圣洁的生命、无罪的死亡和大能的复活,为所有人赢得了永远的宽恕。所有其它的方法都是没有出路的,只有耶稣才是道路——是唯一的道路。
    Yet, thank God, Christ is also an all-inclusive way. Any person can get to heaven through Christ. His way of salvation is universal: “Whoever comes to me, I will never drive away,” Jesus said (John 6:37). So, trust in Jesus alone. 
    然而,感谢上帝!基督也是一种包容一切的方式。任何人都可以通过基督进入天堂。耶稣说:“到我这里来的,我总不丢弃他。” (约6:37) 所以,只要相信耶稣。
    
    
    In verse 8 Philip makes a request that reveals a lack of understanding that Jesus had been showing (revealing) the Father to them all along. Because Jesus is God, whoever see and observes Jesus will be able to see what God is like. Jesus came down from heaven to reveal the Father to us. Through Jesus we can see and know God the Father. 
    在第8节中,腓力提了一个要求,说明他不明白耶稣一直在把父显给他们看(启示父)。因为耶稣就是神,凡看见并顺从耶稣的,就是看见了神的样子。耶稣从天上降下来,把父向我们表明出来。通过耶稣,我们便可以看见并认识父神。
    In verse 12 Jesus says that those who believe in him will do “even greater things” than the works that he had been doing. Can it really be possible that ordinary people, weak and sinful people like us, will do the same things and even greater things than the almighty, sinless Son of God? Yes, this is true, Jesus says. And He emphasizes this truth, perhaps because it is so hard for us to believe.
    在第12节,耶稣说那些相信他的人将会做比他所做的更大的事。普通人,像我们这样软弱有罪的人,真的有可能做同样的事,甚至比全能无罪的神子所做的事更大吗?是的,耶稣说这是真的。而且他强调了这个真理,也许是因为我们很难相信的缘故。
    And what great works are these that Jesus is thinking about? Building churches? Bringing the Gospel to more people all over the world? Suffering for the sake of the truth? Showing compassion and kindness and establishing institutions of mercy, healing, and education (such as hospitals and schools and universities) all over the world? Perhaps. “Even greater” can refer to the greater number of future believers they would win for the kingdom by proclaiming the Gospel through the power of the Holy Spirit. Jesus knew that only in His death and resurrection could He send the Holy Spirit that would enable the disciples to spread the message that would change the lives of millions of people. 
    耶稣的这些话指的是什么样的伟大作为呢?建造教堂?把福音带给全世界更多的人?为真理受苦?还是表达同情和仁慈,并在全世界建立怜悯、治疗和教育机构(如医院、学校和大学)?也许是吧。“甚至更大”可能指他们将通过圣灵的能力来宣讲福音,从而为天国赢得更大数量的信徒。耶稣知道,只有在他死后和复活时,他才能差遣圣灵,使门徒们能够传播改变千百万人生命的信息。
    

Read John 14:15-31 (Jesus promises the Holy Spirit) 读约翰福音14:15-31 (耶稣应许圣灵) Jesus would soon complete his mission and return to heaven. The gospel message of God’s great love and amazing grace would be entrusted to his disciples. They would need power to witness in the face of great persecution. They would need guidance to remain in the truth. They would need a new heavenly Counselor who would help them in their mission of taking the gospel to the whole world. 耶稣将很快完成他的使命,回到天上。神的大爱和奇异恩典的福音信息将托付给祂的门徒。他们将需要能力在巨大的迫害面前作见证。他们将需要指引使自己持守在真理中。他们将需要一位新的天国保惠师(顾问)来帮助他们把福音带到全世界。 So Jesus promised to send them a special Helper who would be with them forever. That Helper is the Holy Spirit, whom Jesus calls the “Spirit of truth”. This is the first of many specific promises about the Holy Spirit that Jesus gave his disciples in the next few chapters. 所以耶稣应许要差遣一个特别的帮助者,他将永远与他们同在。那个帮助者就是圣灵,就是耶稣所称的“真理的圣灵”。这是耶稣在接下来的几章中要给门徒的许多具体应许中的第一个应许,关于圣灵的应许。

  1. Jesus said the world cannot accept the Spirit. Why? See 1 Corinthians 2:14 耶稣说世界不能接受圣灵。为什么?见哥林多前书2:14

  2. What specific examples of this do we see today? 我们今天能看到怎样的具体事例?

    In verse 22 a disciple named “Judas” speaks. Actually, two of Jesus’ twelve apostles were named Judas. One of them was Judas Iscariot, who would betray Jesus. The other Judas was also called by the name Thaddaeus (Matthew 10:3). This is the Judas (not Judas Iscariot) who speaks here in John 14:22. He could not understand why Jesus would show himself to them, but not to the rest of the world. Remember that even the twelve disciples had some false expectations about the Messiah at this time. Like many others, they expected that Jesus would become a glorious earthly King who would bring a new era of peace and prosperity to Israel. The disciples still struggled to understand what kind of Messiah Jesus would be. Only when the Holy Spirit came upon them on the day of Pentecost did they fully understand who the Messiah would be. 
    在第22节,一个叫犹大的门徒说话了。实际上,耶稣十二门徒中有两个叫犹大的。其中一个是要卖耶稣的加略人犹大,另一个犹大也叫达太(马太福音10:3)。这是犹大(不是加略人犹大)在约翰福音14:22中所说的话。他不明白为什么耶稣要向他们显现,却不向世人显现。记住,在这个时候,即使是十二个门徒对弥赛亚也有一些错误的期望。像许多其他人一样,他们期待耶稣会成为地上的一个荣耀的君王,给以色列带来一个和平与繁荣的新时代。门徒们仍然在努力了解耶稣会是一个怎样的弥赛亚。当圣灵在五旬节降临在他们身上时,他们才完全明白了弥赛亚是谁。
    

The Holy Spirit would do two things: a) Remind them of all that Jesus had said; and b) Teach them all. Jesus is very gentle toward weak and floundering believers. That includes you and me. 圣灵会做两件事:a)让他们想起耶稣说过的一切话;b)教导他们所有人。耶稣对软弱和挣扎中的信徒非常温柔,包括你和我。 In John 14:26 Jesus says that the Father will send the Holy Spirit. (“But the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you all things and will remind you of everything I have said to you.”) Then, in John 15:26 Jesus says that he will send them the Holy Spirit (“When the Counselor comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who goes out from the Father, he will testify about me.”) So who will send the Holy Spirit – Jesus, or the Father? Actually, it is both. This is why Christians use the Nicene Creed and confess: “I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son …” 在约翰福音14:26,耶稣说父要差遣圣灵。(但保惠师,就是父因我的名所要差来的圣灵,他要将一切的事指教你们,并且要叫你们想起我对你们所说的一切话”)。然后,在约翰福音15章26节,耶稣说(但我要从父那里差保惠师来,就是从父出来真理的圣灵,他来了就要为我作见证。”)那么,谁来差遣圣灵?耶稣还是天父呢?实际上,是二者。这就是为什么基督徒使用尼西亚信经并承认:我相信圣灵,是神与赐生命的主,是从父与子而来的。

  1. In verse 28 Jesus said, “If you loved me, you would be glad that I am going to the Father …” Why should Jesus’ followers be glad he returned to the Father? 在第28节中,耶稣说:“如果你爱我,你会因为我到父那里去而高兴——”为什么耶稣的跟随者应该为他回到父那里而高兴呢?

    In verses 29-31 Jesus is speaking to the disciples about his death and burial. As the disciples watched Jesus suffer and die and as they laid his lifeless body in the tomb, it might seem to them that the “prince of this world” (Satan) had taken hold of Jesus and defeated him. 
    在29-31节中,耶稣向门徒讲述了他的受死与埋葬。当门徒们看见耶稣受苦和死亡,把他毫无生命的身体放在坟墓里的时候,他们似乎觉得这个世界的王(撒但)已经抓住了耶稣,打败了他。 
    Therefore, Jesus told them, “The prince of this world … has no hold on me.” (John14:30)Although the suffering and crucifixion and burial of Jesus might make it seem that Jesus was weak and powerless against the forces of evil, Jesus wanted them to know that his suffering and death was not a sign of Satan’s power, but of the power of Jesus’ love for the Father, and his desire to do the will of his Father. Jesus would not be under the control of Satan, but under the control of love for the Father and for us.
    所以耶稣对他们说:“这个世界的王将到---他在我里面是毫无所有。”(约14:30)尽管耶稣的痛苦、受难和埋葬可能使它看起来好像在邪恶势力面前软弱且无能为力,但耶稣想让他们知道,他的痛苦和死亡并不能代表撒旦有力量,而是耶稣对天父的爱的力量,以及他想要顺服他父的旨意。耶稣并没有处在撒但的控制之下,乃是在对父和对我们的爱的控制之下。
    Our Lord had no weak spots for Satan to attack. He was holy, and his holy life would be sacrificed to save the world from sin. 
    

    我们的主没有弱点可以让撒旦攻击,他是圣洁的。他的圣洁生命将被作为祭物献上,以拯救世界脱离罪恶。

    The next lesson will focus on the comforting words of Jesus in chapters 15 and 16. In those words he promises the Holy Spirit, and encourages us to do the works of God, even in times of persecution and trouble. 下一课将集中在15和16章耶稣安慰的话上。在这些话里,他应许了圣灵,并鼓励我们即使在受逼迫患难的时候,也要去做神的工。