第十一章 圣周星期二下午 — 星期四晚上
Chapter 11 Holy Week Tuesday Afternoon -- Thursday Evening
Jesus spent Tuesday morning of Holy Week in the temple. There he condemned the Jewish leaders. Two days later these same men would have Jesus arrested and on Friday put him to death. In these last days Jesus continued educating the disciples by his words and his actions. Most importantly he left his church with a visible reminder of his love and salvation – the Lord’s Supper.
Destruction of the Temple and of the Earth Foretold （Matt. 24:1-25:46; Mark 13:1-37; Luke 21:5-36） 圣殿的毁灭及对世界的预言（马太福音24:1-25,46;马可福音13:1-37;路加福音21:5-36）
The Lord of the temple left the temple for the last time in the middle of a huge dispute. His disappointed disciples tried to see the brighter side. “Look, Teacher! What huge stones! What impressive buildings!” （Mark 13:1）。
The Jewish historian Josephus described the temple in detail. Some stones were 40 feet long, 14 feet wide, and 20 feet high. The beautiful building had white marble pillars and silver and gold doors. Jesus, however, could see the false teaching that took place around the temple. He predicted its total destruction. Later, Jesus and his disciples stopped on the Mount of Olives and looked back at the temple across the valley. The disciples then asked when the temple would be left deserted. They also wondered when the world would come to an end.
Jesus was not willing to give the exact times. Indeed, in his state of humiliation, Jesus said that even he did not know （Matt. 24:36）。 But he did give them signs which would show when the end was near. It is almost as if Jesus looked at the hills and valleys and could see their destruction. Then his eyes saw the temple which would be destroyed. Finally he looked off again into the distance.
For the most part, Matthew 24:4-14 describes the Last Days at the end of the world. Before Judgment Day there will be crises in the church （false Christs, persecutions, a falling away from the true faith）， in nature （famines, earthquakes） and in society （wars and rumors of war）。 Meanwhile, Matthew 24:15-28 speaks mostly of the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple. Forty years later, in April of A.D. 70, the Roman emperor Titus attacked Jerusalem. By August the city was destroyed and the temple was burned. Before this happened, however, many of the Christians in Jerusalem fled and found refuge in Pella, a city east of the Jordan. Finally, in Matthew 24:29-31 Jesus’ thoughts returned to Judgment Day and his own glorious return.
Jesus pointed out that believers must always be alert and use their lives wisely. The parables of The Thief in the Night, The Faithful and Evil Servants, The Ten Virgins, and The Talents all describe these truths.
The local shepherds grazed their sheep and goats together by day, but separated them at night. Jesus used this picture to describe Judgment Day. He, as Judge, King, and Shepherd, will on that day separate the believers who proved their love for him by their works （the sheep） from unbelievers （the goats）。 The believers will be received into heaven, while the unbelievers will be sent to hell.
Rulers and Judas Conspire Against Jesus （Matt. 26:1-5,14-16; Mark 14:1-2,10-11; Luke 21:37- 22:6） 官长和犹大密谋害耶稣（马太福音26:1-5;马可福音14:1-2;路加福音21:37-22:6）
Earlier that day Jesus, the “Light” of the world, had shown his enemies to be the children of darkness （see the “woes” discussed in the last chapter）。 Darkness cannot stand the Light, so the rulers sought to put out the true Light, Jesus. However, since the Jewish leaders were aware how popular Jesus was, they were prepared to wait until the Passover festival was over before arresting him. God had a different plan, however. Jesus predicted that in two days he would be betrayed and soon face death.
While Christ and 11 of the disciples spent Tuesday night outside the city （Luke 21:37-38）， Judas found an excuse to go into Jerusalem. There he sold his Lord and his soul for 30 pieces of silver.
What happened inside Judas? Some people say that, like the other disciples, Judas failed to understand the nature of Christ’s kingdom. As Jesus got less popular, his disciples hopes were smashed. Finally Judas decided to get out while he could, hopefully with a few dollars to his name.
While this may be correct, the Bible points out only one weakness in Judas – the love of money or greed （John 12:6; Matt. 26:15）。 This spiritual sickness grew in Judas until Satan took complete control of his soul. Satan usually finds the believer’s weakest spiritual link and attacks in that area.
The 30 silver coins which Judas received amounted to 120 days’ wages. The Scriptures were fulfilled （Zech. 11:12-13; Ps. 41:9）。
Wednesday of Holy Week 圣周的星期三
If the day we studied in Chapter 5 was Jesus’ busiest, then Tuesday of Holy Week must have been a close second. Wednesday, however, was a quiet day of teaching and prayer, a divine calm before the storm. The Bible does not mention any events of this day.
Thursday of Holy Week 圣周星期四
Preparation for the Passover Meal （Matt. 26:17-19; Mark 14:12-16; Luke 22:7-13） 预备逾越节的晚宴（马太福音26:17-19;马可福音14:12-16;路加福音22:7-13）
Jesus and the disciples spent Wednesday night in Bethany. The next morning the disciples began thinking about where they would eat the Passover meal. Jesus told Peter and John where to go and what to do. In Jerusalem they would find a man carrying water. This would be unusual because carrying water was women’s work. This man would show them a house where they could prepare the Passover meal.
What was Jesus thinking about on that Thursday? He knew his time had come. Recall that on Tuesday he had prophesied, “As you know, the Passover is two days away and the Son of Man will be handed over to be crucified” （Matt. 26:2）。 Jesus was to be handed over on the Passover day. Some 1476 years earlier the Children of Israel had been slaves in Egypt. When a series of plagues could not persuade the Egyptian pharoah to release the Israelites, God sent to earth an angel of death.
The story is told in detail in Exodus 12: On the tenth day of the month the Jews selected perfect lambs （normal and healthy）。 Four days later they killed the lambs and put the blood on their doors. The meal that night （now the 15th day, since to the Jews evening marked the beginning of a new day） was the roasted lamb and bread without yeast. That night the angel of death passed over the houses marked with blood, but stopped at the others. The angel killed the oldest son in each. After this the Israelites were set free. From then on the Passover was celebrated to remember how God had saved them.
On Palm Sunday, the tenth day of the Jewish month, Jesus rode into Jerusalem to give himself as the sinless lamb of God. Now, four days later （Wednesday sundown to Thursday sundown）， Jesus was prepared to offer himself as the passover sacrifice. Through his blood the world would be freed from the slavery of sin （see 1 Pet. 1:19）。
Arguments at the Passover Meal （Matt. 26;20; Mark 14:17; Luke 22:14-18,24-30） 逾越节晚宴中的争论（马太福音26:20;马可福音14:17;路加福音22:14-18;24-30）
At dinner time Jesus and his disciples went into the upper room in the Jerusalem home. There they celebrated the Passover. The famous Leonardo da Vinci painting “The Last Supper” is very beautiful, but it does not picture the scene properly. The thirteen people did not sit up at a table. Rather they laid on their left sides on large couches and ate from a central table or tables. Based on the customs of the day, we can make the following diagram:
The disciples began the evening arguing about which of them was the greatest. Such arguments were often a problem among the disciples （Mark 9:33-34; Matt. 20:20-24）。 Jesus handled the matter just like he did a few days earlier （Matt. 20:25-28）。 However, Jesus promised the disciples rewards, not for service, but for faithfulness.
Jesus Washes the Disciples’ Feet （John 13:1-17） 耶稣为门徒洗脚（约翰福音13:1-17）
Before Jews began to eat the Passover meal a servant or slave would wash their feet. This time Jesus himself rose, took water and towel in hand and began the washing. He did this out of love and for an example of humility. When he came to Peter, the disciple first refused to let Christ wash his feet. When Christ told him that this was his will, Peter then demanded even more washing.
Judas’ Exposure and Withdrawal （Matt. 26:21-25; Mark 14:18-21; Luke 22:21-23; John 13:18-35） 犹大被揭穿并离开 （马太福音26:21-25;马可福音14:18-21;路加福音22:21-23;约翰福音13:18-35）
At last the Passover meal was served. A joyful mood prevailed as the lamb, bread without yeast, and bitter herbs were being eaten. But Jesus then made a shocking announcement: “One of you will betray me – one who is eating with me” （Mark 14:18）。 The disciples then became serious. Who was the betrayer?
If the diagram is correct, from across the table Peter motioned and whispered to John. John, in turn, rolled over onto his right side putting his head on Jesus’ chest. “Lord, who is it?” he asked （John 13:25）。 Jesus pointed out the traitor Judas. While Peter and John could now identify the betrayer, the rest of the disciples did not know who it was. Judas left immediately.
Jesus spoke to his believing disciples. He reminded his followers of his unity with the Father, said he soon would be glorified, and pointed out his coming sacrifice and return to heaven. Lastly, Jesus encouraged the disciples to love one another.
Institution of the Lord’s Supper （Matt. 26:26-29; Mark 14:22-25; Luke 22:19-20） 设立主的晚餐（马太福音26:26-29;马可福音14:22-25;路加福音22:19-20）
There have been different interpretations of the verses describing the Lord’s Supper, but we must simply accept what Jesus said.
After the Passover supper had been eaten, Jesus took a piece of the bread, said a prayer of thanksgiving, broke the bread and gave it to the disciples saying “Take and eat; this is my body … .” Moments later he took a cup of wine, again gave thanks, and passed it to the disciples saying, “Drink from it, all of you. This is my blood … （Matt. 26:27-28）。
When we add the words of St. Paul （1 Cor. 10:16-17; 11:23-29） to the Gospel accounts we learn about the nature of the Supper. Jesus blessed the bread and wine. That is to say he set them aside for a holy use. What he gave and what the disciples received were bread and wine together with his own body and blood. This was the same body that would die on the cross, the same blood given for mankind’s salvation （Luke 22:20）。 Nowhere did Jesus show that the bread and wine were transformed into the body and blood and were no longer bread and wine （again see 1 Cor. 10:16）。 Nor did he say that they merely represented his life-giving body and blood.
The Bible not only describes the nature of the Lord’s Supper, but also gives its meaning. Christ said that the Supper was a new covenant or one-sided agreement between God and man ”for the forgiveness of sins“ （Matt. 26:28）。 By his death on the cross Jesus would pay for the sins of mankind. Sinners receive the blessing of his death （forgiveness of sins, life and salvation） by taking part of the meal.
Christ also said that his followers should repeat the Supper often to remember him. In this way they would declare his death until he comes on Judgment Day （1 Cor. 11:24-26）。
Jesus Foretells What the Disciples Will Do （Matt. 26:31-35; Mark 14:27-31; Luke 22:31-39; John 13:36-38） 耶稣预言门徒们将要做的事情（马太福音26:31-35;马可福音14:27-31;路加福音22:31-39;约翰福音13:36-38）
Earlier that evening Jesus had spoken about going away. Peter remember that and so now he questioned the Lord about this. Jesus looked at the 11 disciples and then quoted Zechariah 13:7 showing that soon they would be scattered. After that time they would find him in Galilee. Where Jesus was going, they could not follow, but Peter refused to accept this statement. He had to be told that in a few hours, before a rooster crowed two times, he would deny Jesus three times. Jesus’ departure would mark a change in the disciples’ lives. Earlier they had preached among the people and were received kindly by them. Soon these people would meet the disciples again as they witnessed for Christ. This time they would meet them with a sword.
Jesus’ Farewell Address （John 14:1 -16:33） 耶稣最后的话（约翰福音14:1-16:33）
The time had come for Jesus to say good-by to his disciples. There was much to say but little time to say it. The final words were words of comfort.
John’s Gospel, chapters 14-16, contains Jesus’ famous sermon on love. Perhaps it is best to show it with a series of circles. The center circle shows the unity of the Trinity, the relationship of Father, Son and Holy Spirit （Comforter）。 Surrounding the Trinity is the circle of believers. Jesus spoke of the Triune God’s relationship to them and their duties to one another. Finally he warned the believers about the unbelievers who, in turn, surrounded them. In times of persecution the faithful must turn their hearts toward God.
Christ would leave for heaven. However, through the working of the Holy Spirit in their hearts, the disciples would remember their time with the Lord and understand the meaning of his teachings.
Jesus’ Prayer For Others （John 17:1-26） 耶稣为其他人祷告（约翰福音17:1-26）
Jesus had taught his disciples, and now he prayed for them as well. His prayers followed the same order as his sermon. He prayed for the glory which is his because he was God’s son. Then he prayed for his faithful disciples. So far he had been with them and had protected them in person. In the future they would be protected by the Sanctifier （the Holy Spirit）。 Through the ministry of the disciples many others would believe. Jesus prayed for the unity of the whole church （the believers）。
Jesus had now said enough. It was time to suffer and die.