恩典国际圣经学院

第二十课法利赛人和税吏的比喻 葡萄园工人的比喻


第二十课:法利赛人和税吏的比喻 葡萄园工人的比喻 Luke 18:9-14 The Parable of the Pharisee and the Tax Collector 路加福音 18:9-14法利赛人和税吏的比喻 Jesus has been teaching and preaching for almost 3 years. He wants to show what true saving faith is in contrast to those who were confident of their own righteousness by telling this parable. (A parable is an earthly story with a heavenly meaning.) 耶稣已经在世传道及教导三年之久。在这个比喻里,祂要显出真正使人得救之信心与满足于自义之人的对比。(比喻是包含属天寓意的故事)

(9) To some who were confident of their own righteousness and looked down on everybody else, Jesus told this parable: (10) “Two men went up to the temple to pray, one a Pharisee and the other a tax collector. (11) The Pharisee stood up and prayed about himself: ‘God, I thank you that I am not like other men-robbers, evildoers, adulterers-or even like this tax collector. How would you describe the Pharisee’s prayer? Was he really thanking God? What does the Pharisee not give to God? What did the Pharisee think of the tax collector? Why would the Pharisee take notice of the tax collector? (12) I fast twice a week and give a tenth of all I get.’ Can you think of an example when Jesus fasted? (Hint: See lesson 8) What is the Pharisee claiming by tithing? (9)耶稣向那些仗着自己是义人,藐视别人的,设一个比喻,(10) 说:“有两个人上殿里去祷告;一个是法利赛人,一个是税吏。(11)法利赛人站着,自言自语地祷告说:‘ 神啊,我感谢你,我不象别人勒索、不义、奸淫,也不象这个税吏。你怎样形容这个法利赛人的祷告?他真的是在感谢神吗?法利赛人没有把什么归给神?法利赛人是怎么看税吏的?为什么这个法利赛人会注意到这个税吏?(12)我一个礼拜禁食两次,凡我所得的,都捐上十分之一。’你能想起当耶稣禁食时的事例吗?(提示:请看第8课)这个法利赛人是怎样主张十一奉献的? (13) But the tax collector stood at a distance. Was the tax collector in the temple proper? He would not even look up to heaven, but beat his breast and said, ‘God, have mercy on me, a sinner.’ What was the tax collector expressing? What doesn’t the tax collector claim? (13)那税吏远远地站着,这个税吏出现在圣殿里是常见的吗?连举目望天也不敢,只捶着胸说:‘ 神啊,开恩可怜我这个罪人!’这个税吏在表达什么?这个税吏没有提到什么? (14) I tell you that this man, rather than the other, went home justified before God. How can Jesus make this verdict or judgment? What did Jesus know about the tax collector? For everyone who exalts himself will be humbled, and he who humbles himself will be exalted.” How did God humble the Pharisee? How did God exalt the tax collector? (14)我告诉你们,这人回家去,比那人倒算为义了;耶稣为什么能做这样的判断?耶稣对于这个税吏有什么样的认识?因为凡自高的,必降为卑;自卑的,必升为高。”神怎样使这个法力赛人降卑?神怎样升高这个税吏?

NOTES注释 To pray – Periods for prayer were scheduled daily in connection with the morning and evening sacrifices. People could also go to the temple at any time for private prayer. 去祷告-每日早晚献祭时按着定例的祷告时期。

Pharisee – A legalistic and separatistic group who believed God’s grace only extended to those who strictly kept the Law of Moses. They believed traditions were equal to God’s Word. They were often regarded as shining examples of religious devotion and of holy living. 法力赛人-一个严守规条且分别的团体,他们相信神的恩典只会临到那些恪守摩西律法的人。他们把传统与神的话语同等,他们常常被看做虔敬及圣洁生活的榜样。

Tax collector – They are traditionally known as “publicans”. These were local men employed by Roman tax contractors to collect taxes for them. Because they worked for Rome and often demanded unreasonable payments, the tax collectors gained a bad reputation and were generally hated and considered traitors. They could not serve as witnesses or as judges. In the eyes of the Jewish community their disgrace extended to their families. 税吏-他们传统上被称为“税吏”。他们是些本地人,被罗马征税人雇佣来为他们收税。因为他们为罗马而工作并且常索要不合理的款项,这些税吏就落下了坏名声并且被人恨恶,看为叛徒。他们不能作证或作审判。在犹太群体中,他们是家庭的耻辱。

Fast twice a week – Fasting was not commanded in the Mosaic Law except for the fast on the Day of Atonement. However, the Pharisees also fasted on Mondays and Thursdays to show they were truly righteous by going above what God commanded. Day of Atonement – one day of the year set aside for Jewish people to fast and look at the life they have lived. It is a time to examine ones-self. 每周禁食两次-除了赎罪日以外,摩西律法没有要求其他日子的禁食。但是法利赛人在周一及周四都禁食以显示他们因完全遵守神的命令而是完全的。 赎罪日-为犹太人设立的,一年一次的禁食并且回顾自己生活的日子,这是省察自己的时候。

Have mercy on me – The tax collector pleads on the mercy of God for forgiveness. 开恩可怜我-这个税吏恳求神赦免的恩惠。

Justified before God – His sins were forgiven 算为义-他的罪被赦免了

Matthew 20:1-16 The Parable of the Workers in the Vineyard 马太福音 20:1-16 葡萄园工人的比喻 It is getting close to the time when Jesus would soon leave his disciples to return to heaven. He wants the disciples to be prepared and tells them this parable (an earthly story with a heavenly meaning). Jesus is trying to teach the disciples about the work they would have ahead of them. They were partners with God and Christ in the work which builds and extends God’s kingdom. (Remember the kingdom is a spiritual relationship with God.) 耶稣离开祂的门徒升天的时候近了。祂愿意门徒们做好预备就给他们讲了这个比喻(包含属天寓意的故事)耶稣希望教导门徒摆在他们面前的工作。他们是与神与基督同工,一同建造扩展神的国度。(请思想国度是与神的属灵关系) This parable may be difficult to understand. It is important not to read into it, more than what is offered. Think of the landowner as God and the first men who were hired as the Jews who thought it was their obedience to the laws that saved them. We especially want to pay attention to the workers who were hired later. 这个比喻较难明白。要点不是研究它本身多过思考它的寓意。思想家主好像神,先被雇的人好像犹太人,他们自认为所遵行的律法能救自己。我们会特别的注意那些晚些受雇的工人。

(1) “For the kingdom of heaven is like a landowner who went out early in the morning to hire men to work in his vineyard. Can you think of some reasons why Jesus compared the kingdom of heaven to a landowner who hired men to work in his vineyard? (2) He agreed to pay them a denarius for the day and sent them into his vineyard. What does it mean to agree? Was this a fair wage? (3) About the third hour he went out and saw others standing in the marketplace doing nothing. (4) He told them, ‘You also go and work in my vineyard, and I will pay you whatever is right.’ (5) So they went. Did they have a contract? Was this fair? Whom did the workers trust? He went out again about the sixth hour and the ninth hour and did the same thing. Did they have a contract? Was this fair? Whom did the workers trust? (6) About the eleventh hour he went out and found still others standing around. He asked them, ‘Why have you been standing here all day long doing nothing?’ (1) “因为天国好像家主清早出去,雇人进他的葡萄园作工,你能否举出一些理由来说明,为什么耶稣用家主在葡萄园雇工人工作来比喻天国?(2)和工人讲定一天一钱银子,就打发他们进葡萄园去。讲定意味着什么?这个报酬合适吗?(3)约在巳初出去,看见市上还有闲站的人,(4)就对他们说:‘你们也进葡萄园去。所当给的,我必给你们。’他们也进去了。他们订约了吗?是否公平?这些工人信谁?(5) 约在午正和申初又出去,也是这样行。他们订约了吗?是否公平?这些工人信谁?(6)约在酉初出去,看见还有人站在那里,就问他们说:‘你们为什么整天在这里闲站呢?’ (7) “Because no one has hired us,” they answered. He said to them, “You also go and work in my vineyard.” Was there any agreement as to the amount they were to be paid? Did they require a contract? Who do you think the workers in the vineyard are? What is the workers job? (8) When evening came, the owner of the vineyard said to his foreman, “Call the workers and pay them their wages, beginning with the last ones hired and going on to the first.” (7) 他们说:‘因为没有人雇我们。’他说:‘你们也进葡萄园去。’ 他们是否有协议规定了要付的钱?他们需要立约吗?你认为葡萄园的工人代表什么人?这些工人的工作是什么?(8)到了晚上,园主对管事的说:‘叫工人都来,给他们工钱,从后来的起,到先来的为止。’ (9) The workers who were hired about the eleventh hour came and each received a denarius. Was this fair? (10) So when those came who were hired first, they expected to receive more. But each one of them also received a denarius. (11) When they received it, they began to grumble against the landowner. Do you think it was right that they should grumble? Why? (12) “These men who were hired last worked only one hour,” they said, “and you have made them equal to us who have borne the burden of the work and the heat of the day.” (9) 约在酉初雇的人来了,各人得了一钱银子。这样公平吗?(10)及至那先雇的来了,他们以为必要多得;谁知也是各得一钱。 (11)他们得了,就埋怨家主说:你认为他们有权抱怨吗?为什么?(12)‘我们整天劳苦受热,那后来的只做了一小时,你竟叫他们和我们一样吗?’ (13) But he answered one of them, “Friend, I am not being unfair to you. “Didn’t you agree to work for a denarius? (14) take your pay and go. I want to give the man who was hired last the same as I gave you. (15) Don’t I have the right to do what I want with my own money? Or are you envious because I am generous?” What is God trying to teach the disciples about grace? (grace=something that is not deserved.) (13)家主回答其中的一人说:‘朋友,我不亏负你,你与我讲定的,不是一钱银子吗?(14)拿你的走吧!我给那后来的和给你一样,这是我愿意的。(15) 我的东西难道不可随我的意思用吗?因为我作好人,你就红了眼吗?’ 神要教导门徒哪些关于恩典的真理?(恩典=不配得到的东西) (16) So the last will be first, and the first will be last.” (16) 这样,那在后的将要在前,在前的将要在后了

NOTES注释 Kingdom of heaven – This is God’s ruling in the hearts and lives of people. 天国-神在人心生命里掌权。

Denarius – The usual daily wage. A- Roman soldier also received one denarius a day. 一钱银子-通常为一日的工资。一个罗马士兵每日的工资就是一钱银子

Third hour – 9:00 a.m. 己初-早上九点

The sixth hour and the ninth hour – Noon and 3:00 p.m. 午正和申初-中午到下午3点

Eleventh hour – 5:00 p.m. 酉初-下午五点

Question 问题 What type of worker are you? 你是什么类型的工人呢?