恩典国际圣经学院

第九章一些普通信件 (Chapter 9)


第九章:一些普通信件 (Chapter 9) Chapter9:Some General Letters 第九章:一些普通信件 1 Peter, 2 Peter, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, and Jude 彼得前书,彼得后书,约翰一书,约翰二书,约翰三书和犹大书 Introduction 引言 The letters in this chapter were written by Peter, John and Jude. These letters, together with the letter of James, are often called the “General Letters.” This does not mean that they are general in their content. They deal with specific problems that arose within the Christian Church. However, they are general in the sense that they are not addressed to named persons or congregations like most of Paul’s letters. These short but powerful letters should be read and studied by all Christians. 在这一章节中的信件是由彼得,约翰和犹大所写。这些信,与雅各的书信一起,通常被称为“普通书信”。这并不意味着他们的内容很普通。他们处理的是在基督教会中产生的具体问题。说他们普通是因为他们不像保罗的大部分书信具体指出写给哪些人或教会。这些简短而有力的信件应该被所有基督徒所阅读和学习。 1 Peter 彼得前书 The Writer 作者 The first letter written by Peter begins with the words, “Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ”(1:1). Later he says he is a pastor and a “witness of Christ‟s sufferings” (5:1). 彼得写的第一封信开始就写道,“耶稣基督的使徒彼得”(1:1)。之后他说他是一位牧师和一个“作基督受苦的见证”(5:1)的人。 Peter wrote this letter with the help of his secretary, Silas (5:12). Years earlier Silas traveled with St. Paul on the second missionary journey described in Acts 15:40-18:22. 彼得在他的助手,西拉的帮助下写了这封信(5:12)。使徒行传15:40-18:22中描述了几年前西拉参加了圣徒保罗的第二次传道行程。 Peter’s Purpose in Writing 彼得的写作目的 In order to understand why Peter wrote this letter we must remember one very important event in his life. On Thursday of Holy Week, the evening before Jesus was crucified, the Savior warned Peter that the disciple would deny knowing him. Jesus added, “Simon, Simon, Satan has asked to sift you [all] as wheat. But I have prayed for you, Simon, that your faith may not fail. And when you have turned back, strengthen your brothers” (Luke 22:31-32). Peter did deny Jesus, but after Christ’s resurrection Jesus made it clear he still had work for Peter as one of his apostles. For the rest of his life Peter remembered Jesus’ words to him: “Strengthen your brothers.” The letter 1 Peter is one way that Peter carried out that command. 为了理解彼得为什么写这封信,我们必须记住他生命中一个非常重要的事件。圣周的星期四晚上,耶稣被钉十字架之前,救主告诫门徒彼得会不认他。耶稣补充到,“西门!西门!撒旦想要得着你们,好筛你们像筛麦子一样;但我已经为你祈求,叫你不至于失了信心。你回头以后,要坚固你的弟兄”(路加福音22:31-32)。彼得的确不认耶稣,但是在基督复活后,耶稣明确告诉彼得他需要彼得作为其中一位门徒来做工。在彼得之后的生活中,他记住耶稣对他说的话:“要坚固你的弟兄”。彼得前书这封信是彼得实践这个诫命的一种方式。 Christian congregations had been planted in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia, all areas in Asia Minor. Peter had preached to people from these areas on Pentecost (Acts 2:9-10) and Paul had reached some on his missionary journeys. But as time passed it was hard for these believers to keep their faith strong. 基督教会已经在本都,加拉太,加帕多家,亚西亚,庇推尼,小亚细亚的所有地区被建立。彼得在五旬节时已经给来自这些地方的人讲了道(使徒行传2:8-10)并且保罗也在他的传道行程中到过了其中的一些地方。但是随着时间的推移,这些信徒们很难保持他们信心的坚固。 The sinful world continued to attack Christianity. People told lies about the followers of Christ, made fun of them, and even said they were not loyal to the government (4:4, 14, 16; 2:13-17). 这个罪恶的世界不断地攻击着基督教。一些人说关于跟从基督的人的谎话,取笑他们,甚至说他们对政府不忠心(4:4,14,16;2:13-17)。 It was to these Christians that Peter wrote his first letter. It was a letter of hope. It was meant to make the Christians stronger while they suffered from living in a pagan world. 1 Peter reminds Christians that while they are here on earth they are just pilgrims or travelers passing through. Heaven is their real home. But while on their way to heaven, they should live proper Christian lives here on earth. They should do nothing to make the persecutions worse. When the Christians do suffer for the Gospel they should do so willingly, knowing that sinners also made Christ suffer. 1 Peter was written about A.D. 64. The apostle was in “Babylon” at the time (5:13). “Babylon” may be a way of referring to the wicked city of Rome. Peter used the word “Babylon” so that if Peter’s letter was found by the enemies of Christ, the Roman Christians would not suffer because of this letter. 彼得的第一封信就是写给这些基督徒的。这是一封充满希望的信。它是为了使基督徒们在遭受因生活在一个外邦人的世界中的苦难时更加刚强。彼得前书提醒基督徒当他们在世上的时候,他们只是经过那里寄居的人或是客旅。天堂才是他们真正的家。但是在他们通往天堂的过程中,他们应该在世上过合主心意的生活。他们不该做任何使迫害更加严重的事。当基督徒因福音受苦难时,他们应该甘心承受,因为知道罪人也使基督受苦难。彼得前书大概写于公元64年。这位使徒当时在“巴比伦”(5:13)。“巴比伦”可能只是以另一种方式来指罗马这座罪恶城市。彼得用了“巴比伦”这个词,因此如果彼得的这封信被基督的敌人们找到,罗马的基督徒们也不会因这封信受苦。 Outline of 1 Peter 彼得前书概要 Theme: The Pilgrims’ Hope 主题: 寄居者的盼望

  1. Greeting (1:1-2) 问安(1:1-2)
  2. The Basis of the Pilgrims’ Hope (1:3-2:10) 寄居者盼望的基础(1:3-2:10)
  3. The Duties of Pilgrims in this World(2:11-3:12) 寄居者在世上的职责(2:11-3:12)
  4. Suffering of Pilgrims in this World (3:13-4:19) 寄居者在世上受苦(3:13-4:19)
  5. Leading the Pilgrims in this World (5:1-11) 在世上带领寄居者(5:1-11)
  6. Farewell (5:12-14) 告别(5:12-14) Summary 概要 Theme: The Pilgrims’ Hope 主题: 寄居者的盼望 Hymn writer T. R. Taylor gives the mood and content of 1 Peter in the words: 赞美诗作家T.R.Taylor用这样的句子写出来彼得前书的情感和内容: I’m but a stranger here, Heaven is my home; Earth is a desert drear, Heaven is my home. Danger and sorrow stand round me on every hand; Heaven is my fatherland, Heaven is my home. 我只是这里的一个寄居者,天堂是我的家; 世界是凄凉的沙漠,天堂是我的家。 危险和悲伤从四面八方围绕着我; 天堂是我父的国,天堂是我的家。 Peter’s letter reminds the Christians that they are in this world for a time but must not become part of it. They are pilgrims on earth headed toward eternal happiness (1:4,17; 2:9-11). As they wait for their final homecoming in heaven, they should keep up their Pilgrims’ Hope (1:3-6). 彼得的这封信提醒基督徒他们会在这个世上一段时间但是一定不要成为它的一部分。他们是这个世界上走向幸福的寄居者(1:4,17;2:9-11)。当他们等待最后回到在天堂的家的时间里,他们应该保持他们寄居者的盼望(1:3-6)。
  7. Greeting (1:1-2) 问安(1:1-2) Peter begins by saying whom he is writing to. These believers, because of the work of the Triune God, enjoy grace and peace. 彼得一开始写道他这封信是写给谁的。这些信徒,因为三位一体神的工作,以恩典和平安为喜乐。
  8. Basis of the Pilgrims’ Hope (1:3-2:10) 寄居者盼望的基础(1:3-2:10) The Christian pilgrim traveling through this life has a “living hope”(1:3) of salvation (1:5). This has been made possible by the death of Jesus Christ (1:18-19) and the certainty of his resurrection (1:21) as revealed in God’s Word (1:10-12). The pilgrim lives a holy life (1:13-16) because he is a member of Christ’s Kingdom (2:9-10). 基督徒寄居者经过这世上时有救恩(1:5)的“活泼的盼望”(1:3)。这一点靠着耶稣基督的死(1:18-19)和如神的道所揭示的(1:10-12)他复活的确据(1:21)成为可能。寄居者过圣洁的生活(1:13-16)因为他是基督国度里的子民(2:9-10)。
  9. Duties of Pilgrims in this World (2:11-3:12) 寄居者在世上的职责(2:11-3:12) Having shown how a Christian belongs to God and heaven, Peter goes on to describe the duties of the pilgrims while on earth. The believer must stay away from worldly lusts (2:11-12), be a law-abiding citizen (2:13-17) or good slave (2:18-20). Jesus himself gives the proper example to follow (2:21-25). The married pilgrim is to be a caring, loving husband or wife (3:1-7), while all believers are to be models of Christian goodness (3:8-12). 在说明了基督徒是如何属于神和天堂之后,彼得开始细述寄居者在世上的职责。信徒必须远离世俗的肉体的私欲(2:11-12),做一个守法的公民(2:13-17)或是好仆人(2:18-20)。耶稣自己就是我们效仿的适合的榜样(2:21-25)。已婚的寄居者要成为有同情心、有爱心的丈夫或妻子(3:1-7),同时所有信徒都要成为基督徒好行为的榜样(3:8-12)。
  10. Suffering of Pilgrims in this World (3:13-4:19) 寄居者在世上受苦(3:13-4:19) Now Peter discusses the reason which caused him to write to the churches in Asia Minor. Christians in this world are persecuted. While they should not encourage suffering (3:13-17), it will come. However, the believer will find comfort in the knowledge of salvation (3:18-22). The Christian, suffering as Christ did, avoids evil (4:1-6) and lives each day thinking about Judgment Day (4:7-11). The Christian can look at the persecution he endures for the Gospel as proof of his faith (4:12-19). 现在彼得开始讨论促使他写信给小亚细亚的教会的原因。基督徒在世上遭到迫害。但是他们不该鼓励受苦(3:13-17),苦难会到来。然而,信徒要在救恩的知识中找到安慰(3:18-22)。基督徒像基督一样受苦,远离罪恶(4:1-6)并每天记着审判日的到来而生活(4:7-11)。基督徒可以把为福音忍受的迫害当作他信心的证据(4:12-19)。
  11. Leading the Pilgrims in this World (5:1-11) 在世上带领寄居者(5:1-11) Finally Peter tells the church leaders to take care of and be good examples to the congregations (5:1-4). Meanwhile, the younger men should obey the leaders. (5:5-6). Everyone must be on guard against Satan and expect suffering (5:8-9). The Lord is salvation (5:10-11). 最后彼得告诉教会的领袖要照顾会众并成为他们的好榜样(5:1-4)。同时,年幼的人应顺服年长的领袖(5:5-6)。每个人都必须警惕撒旦并预备受苦(5:8-9)。主是救恩(5:10-11)。
  12. Farewell (5:12-14) 告别(5:12-14) Having said his peace, Peter brings his letter to a close. Years earlier Christ had told Peter to strengthen his brothers (Luke 22:32). Peter ends by saying that his short letter was written to encourage and witness to the believers. “This is the true grace of God. Stand fast in it”(5:12). 在道过平安之后,彼得结束了他的这封信。几年前,基督已经告诉彼得要坚固他的弟兄(路加福音22:32)。彼得在结尾处说到他这封简短的信件是用来劝勉信徒们和做见证的。“这恩是神的真恩。你们务要在这恩上站立得住”(5:12)。 2 Peter 彼得后书 The Writer 作者 Peter also wrote this second letter. He calls himself “Simon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ” (1:1). He says that he was a witness to Christ’s transfiguration (1:16-18, see Matt. 17:1-8). He calls St. Paul his “brother” in the work of the church (3:15). The writer knew that he would soon die (1:14) just as Jesus had predicted years before (John 21:18-19). 彼得还写了这第二封信。他称自己“作耶稣基督仆人和使徒的西门彼得”(1:1)。他说他是基督变像的见证(1:16-18,参见马太福音17:1-8)。他称圣徒保罗是他在教会事工中的“兄弟”(3:15)。作者知道他不久即将离世(1:14)就像耶稣几年前预言的一样(约翰福音21:18-19)。 Peter’s Purpose in Writing 彼得的写作目的 Peter’s first letter was written to give strength to his Christian brothers who were going through persecution. His second letter was written for the same purpose and for the same readers (3:1-2, see 1 Pet. 1:1). False teachers were coming into the churches. If these teachers were allowed to continue, they would totally change the Christian faith. They would teach their own ideas as Gospel truth (1:16), giving a false meaning to the Holy Scriptures (1:20). They even denied the Savior (2:1) and made fun of the idea that he would come back a second time (3:3-4). 彼得的第一封信是为了使正经受迫害的他的基督徒兄弟们刚强而写的。他的第二封信第二封信是为了相同的目的和同样的读者而写(3:1-2,参见彼得前书1:1)。假文士将会出现在教会中。如果这些假文士被允许继续讲道将会完全改变基督徒的信心。他们会将自己的意志当成福音真理讲给基督徒们听(1:16),错误地讲解关于圣经的意义(1:20)。他们甚至不承认救主(2:1)而且讥诮救主会第二次到来的事(3:3-4)。 Peter felt that it was very important for him to write this letter. He knew that soon he would be put to death (1:13-14). However, he was not worried about himself but about the future of the Christian congregations (1:15). His letter, therefore, was to remind the believers of the truth of God’s Word, and to strengthen them against error (3:17-18). Christ, years earlier, had told him to do this (Luke 22:31-32). 彼得感到写这封信对他来说是非常重要的事。他知道不久他就会被处死(1:13-14)。但是,他并不担心他自己的生死而是担心基督徒教会的未来(1:15)。因此,他的信是要提醒相信神的道真理的信徒们并使他们刚强地抵挡错谬(3:17-18)。几年前,基督已经告诉他要这样做了(路加福音22:31-32)。 Peter was probably crucified in Rome about A.D. 67. 2 Peter was written from that city only a short time earlier. 彼得可能于公元67左右在罗马被钉十字架。彼得后书是在他被钉十字架之前不久在罗马所写。 Outline of 2 Peter 彼得后书概要 Theme: We are Very Sure about the Word of the Prophets 主题: 我们非常确信先知所讲的预言
  13. Salutation (1:1-2) 信头问候(1:1-2)
  14. Remember the True Word (1:3-21) 记住真道(1:3-21)
  15. Keep the Word True (2:1-22) 保持真道(2:1-22)
  16. Be Found in the True Word (3:1-17) 活在真道里(3:1-17) Summary 概要 Theme: We are Very Sure about the Word of the Prophets 主题: 我们非常确信先知所讲的预言 The theme of this letter is taken from 1:19: “And we have the word of the prophets made more certain, and you will do well to pay attention to it, as to a light shining in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts.” 这封信的主题来自1:19:“我们并有先知更确的预言,如同灯照在暗处。你们在这预言上留意,直等到天发亮,晨星在你们心里出现的时候,才是好的”。 This verse gives a short description of the whole letter. Chapter 1 focuses on the revealed word of God. 这一节对整封信做了简短的描述。第一章着重于揭示神的道。 The second chapter warns the readers to pay attention to God’s Word, not to the dark teachings of false prophets. Chapter 3 discusses the dawning day of Christ’s second coming. 第二章警告读者要关注神的话,而不是假先知的黑色教导。第三章讨论了基督二次再来。
  17. Salutation (1:1-2) 信头问候(1:1-2)
  18. Remember the True Word (1:3-21) 记住真道(1:3-21) Six times in this chapter Peter uses the word “knowledge” or “know” (1:2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 12) and three times he tells them to remember what they have learned (1:12,13,15). The apostle wants to remind the believers of the true word of God which they have heard and believed. 在这一章中彼得六次用到了“认识”或“晓得”(1:2,3,5,6,8,12,)并且三次告诉他们要记住他们所明白的道(1:12,13,15)。这位使徒想提醒信徒们记住他们听到和相信的神的真道。 The Christians have knowledge of God (1:3) and, therefore, of his promises (1:4). Such knowledge has separated them from an ungodly life (1:4) and should grow in them, bringing fruits of faith (1:5-11). The believers will remember that their faith is based on the Old Testament prophecies. These prophecies were fulfilled by Christ. The Apostles saw Christ do this and have now told it to the believers (1:12-18). The believers should listen to this teaching rather than made up stories (1:16) or false interpretations of Scripture (1:20). 基督徒认识神(1:3)和他的应许(1:4)。这样的认识使他们远离不圣洁的生活(1:4)并在应该在他们心里增长,带来信心的果实(1:5-11)。信徒们会记住他们的信心是建立在旧约预言的基础上的。这些预言被基督实现了。使徒们看见了基督实现预言并在此时将这件事告诉信徒们(1:12-18)。信徒们应该听这样的教导而不应捏造谎言(1:16)或是错误地解说圣经(1:20)。
  19. Keep the Word True (2:1-22) 保持真道(2:1-22) This section talks about the false prophets: the nature of their teaching(2:1,3,10,18-19), their reasons for doing these things (1:3,13-15), and the final destruction which awaits them and those who follow their teaching (2:1-10,13,20-21). However, God will spare the righteous from damnation (2:5-9). 这一部分谈论的是假先知:他们教导的本质(2:1,3,10,18-19),他们做这些事的原因(1:3,13-15)以及等待他们和跟随他们的人将是灭亡(2:1-10,13,20-21)。但是,神会救义人脱离灭亡(2:5-9)。
  20. Be Found in the True Word (3:1-17) 活在真道里(3:1-17) In chapter 3 Peter’s letter changes. He now talks about the good Christian life of faithful believers. 在第三章中,彼得的书信有所改变。他开始谈论信实的信徒的圣洁生活。 In the beginning, middle and end of this part we find the words “dear friends” (3:1, 14, 17). Once again Peter reminds the churches of God’s true word of grace (3:1-2) and warns them against those who deny Christ’s second coming (3:3-7). He then prays that the Christians will be found faithful on Judgment Day (3:8-15). Peter also mentions letters of St. Paul which also taught the true word (3:15). He was probably thinking of the letters to the Galatians and Ephesians. 在这一部分的开头、中间和结尾处,我们看到了“亲爱的弟兄”这个词(3:1,14,17)。彼得再一次提醒信徒们记住有恩典的神的真道(3:1-2)并警惕那些否认基督第二次到来的人(3:3-7)。然后他祷告基督徒们会在审判日到来的时候被定为是信实的(3:8-15)。彼得也提到了圣徒保罗的书信也是教导的真道(3:15)。他可能想到的是歌罗西书和以弗所书。 1 John 约翰一书 The Writer 作者 Two New Testament letters do not tell who wrote them – Hebrews and 1 John. Yet, there is no question about who wrote 1 John. First, the writer says he was an witness who had seen and heard and touched the Lord Jesus Christ (1:1). We know that John was right next to Jesus during the Last Supper (John 13:25). Second, the letter was written by an older apostle who was given great honor by the other Christians (2:1; 2:12, etc.). John was probably the last apostle alive at this time. Finally, 1 John is very similar in thought and style to John’s Gospel account of Jesus’ life. Compare the following: 新约里的两封书信没有告诉我们作者是谁——希伯来书和约翰一书。但是,对于谁写了约翰一书毫无疑问。首先,作者说他是见过、听过和摸过耶稣的见证人(1:1)。我们知道在主的的晚餐时,约翰就在耶稣旁边(约翰福音13:25)。第二,这封信为一位受到其他基督徒尊敬的年长的使徒所写(2:1,2:12,etc)。约翰可能是这是还活着的最后一位使徒。最后,约翰一书,在记录耶稣生平的观点和写法上与约翰福音非常相似。我们做了以下的比较: 1 John 约翰一书 John’s Gospel 约翰福音 1 John 约翰一书1:2-3 John 约翰福音3:11 1 John 约翰一书1:4 John 约翰福音16:24 1 John 约翰一书2:11 John 约翰福音12:35 1 John 约翰一书2:14 John 约翰福音5:38 1 John 约翰一书3:5 John 约翰福音8:46 1 John 约翰一书3:13 John 约翰福音15:18 1 John 约翰一书3:14 John 约翰福音5:24 1 John 约翰一书3:16 John 约翰福音10:15 1 John 约翰一书3:22 John 约翰福音8:29 1 John 约翰一书4:6 John 约翰福音8:47 1 John 约翰一书4:16 John 约翰福音6:69 1 John 约翰一书5:9 John 约翰福音5:32 1 John 约翰一书5:20 John 约翰福音17:3 John’s Purpose in Writing 约翰的写作目的 John clearly tells us why he wrote this first letter: “We proclaim to you what we have seen and heard, so that you may have fellowship with us” (1:3). “We write this to make your joy complete”(1:4). “I write this to you so that you will not sin”(2:1). “I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God so that you may know that you have eternal life”(5:13). But there was more on John’s mind when he wrote than simply describing the blessings of Christianity. Evil forces were causing the early Christians to fight with one another. This led them to start to doubt their beliefs. The devil wanted them to live a life of sin. 约翰明确地告诉我们为什么他要写第一封信:“我们将所看见、所听见的传给你们,使你们与我们相交”(1:3)。“我们将这些话写给你们,使你们的喜乐充足”(1:4)。“我将这些话写给你们,是要叫你们不犯罪”(2:1)。“我将这些话写给你们信奉神儿子之名的人,要叫你们知道自己有永生”(5:13)。但是约翰所思考的不仅仅是这些,当他写这封信时不是简单地描写基督教的祝福。邪恶的力量正使得早期的基督徒之间互相征战。这导致他们开始质疑他们的信仰。魔鬼希望他们活在罪里。 The false teachers who were threatening the believers (3:7) once had been members of the Church (2:19). They believed that Christ was God, but not that he was truly a man (2:22; 4:3,15; 5:5). Early writers mention a false teacher of that time called Cerinthus. He taught that Jesus was only a man, the son of Joseph and Mary. At his baptism the “heavenly Christ” came down on him. From then on Jesus Christ could perform miracles and reveal the word of God. However, according to Cerinthus, the “heavenly Christ” left Jesus before the events of Good Friday. Christ, therefore, came “by water” but not “by blood” (but see 5:7-8). The results of this false doctrine are far-reaching. If it is true that the Son of God did not suffer and die, then there is no forgiveness of sins (but see 1:7). And, even if sin does really exist, it is not so terrible in God’s eyes (but see 1:8-10). 正威胁信徒信心的假文士们(3:7)已经成为了教会中的成员(2:19)。他们相信基督是神,但是不是完全人(2:22;4:3,15;5:5)。之前的一些作者提到过那个时候一个叫克林妥的假文士。他教导说耶稣只是一个普通人,是约瑟和马利亚的儿子。在耶稣受洗时,“天上的基督”临到他身上。并且从那时起,耶稣基督就能行奇事和揭示神的道了。但是,根据克林妥所说的,“天上的基督”在受难日发生那些事情之前就离开了耶稣。因此,基督“藉着水”到来,而不是“藉着血”(但是请参看5:7-8)。这种错误教导的影响是深远的。如果这是真的,那么神的儿子就没有受难和死,也就没有罪的赦免(但是请参看1:7)。而且就算罪如果真的存在,在神的严重也并不可怕(但是请参看1:8-10)。 John’s first letter, then, presents Jesus Christ as true God and true Man, who died to forgive the sins of man. The apostle says that sin is very serious and he encourages believers to do Christian good works. At the same time he warns the believers against the teachings of the antichrists which lead to eternal death. 约翰的第一封信向我们展现了耶稣基督作为完全神和完全人为赦免人的罪而死。这位使徒说罪是非常严重的而且他鼓励信徒们要做善事。同时他告诫信徒们提防敌基督者的会导致灭亡的教导。 The letter was written for believers whom John knew very well – probably the congregations in western Asia Minor. The year was about A.D. 95. 这封信是写给约翰非常了解的信徒的——可能是小亚西亚西部的教会。时间大概是公元95年。 Outline of 1 John 约翰一书概要 Theme: The Way of Christian Fellowship 主题: 基督徒相交的方式
  21. Introduction (1:1-4) 引言(1:1-4)
  22. Walk in Light not Darkness (1:5-2:17) 在光明中而不是黑暗中行走(1:5-2:17)
  23. Walk in Truth not Falsehood (2:18-27) 在真理中而不是虚慌中行走(2:18-27) 4\ .Walk in Love not Hatred (2:28-5:12) 在爱中而不是恨中行走(2:28-5:12)
  24. Conclusion (5:13-21) 总结(5:13-21) Summary 概要 Theme: The Way of Christian Fellowship 主题: 基督徒相交的方式 The theme of 1 John is seen in the third verse: “We proclaim to you what we have seen and heard, so that you also may have fellowship with us. And our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son, Jesus Christ.” These words remind us of Jesus’ farewell address to the disciples and the prayer he prayed on Maundy Thursday (John 14-17). There Christ spoke of the Triune God’s relationship to true believers. 我们看到约翰一书的主题在第三节中: 看我们将所看见、所听见的传给你们,使你们与我们相交。我们乃是与父并他儿子耶稣基督相交的”。这些话提醒我们耶稣向门徒们的告别和他在圣周四的祷告(约翰福音14-17)。在那时基督谈到了三位一体神与真信徒的关系。
  25. Introduction (1:1-4) 引言(1:1-4) John knows God himself and wishes to proclaim God’s life-giving Gospel to his readers. 约翰自己认识神并希望向他的读者宣告神赐予生命的福音。
  26. Walk in Light not Darkness (1:5-2:17) 在光明中而不是黑暗中行走(1:5-2:17) Light puts an end to darkness. God is light (1:5). He shows man his sin (1:8-10) and lights up the way of salvation (1:7,9; 2:1-2). Christians reject the way of darkness (2:4,9,11) but enjoy the glory of God’s light (2:1214). 光明使黑暗消失。神就是光(1:5)。他告诉人是有罪的(1:8-10)并点亮救恩的路(1:7,9;2:1-2)。基督徒拒绝黑暗的路(2:4,9,11)却喜悦神光的恩典(2:12-14)。
  27. Walk in Truth not Falsehood (2:18-27) 在真理中而不是虚慌中行走(2:18-27) In this part John clearly describes the false teachers who were threatening the Church. Their teaching denies Jesus’ deity (2:22-23). It is a lie and “antichrist”(2:18). Christians accept the truth about Jesus Christ (2:20). 在这一部分中约翰清楚地描述了正威胁着教会的假文士。他们的教导否认耶稣的神性(2:22-23)。这样的教导是谎言和“敌基督的”(2:18)。基督徒明白关于耶稣基督的真理(2:20)。
  28. Walk in Love not Hatred (2:28-5:12) 在爱中而不是恨中行走(2:28-5:12) The Triune God is love (4:8,16). His love is shown in that “Jesus Christ laid down his life for us” (3:16). Believers have been made the “Children of God” (3:1-2) and should not sin (3:4-10). They should love, not hate, their brothers (3:11-16). This is following the example of God’s love (4:7-21). Anyone who rejects the truth that Jesus is true God and Man is antichrist (4:2-3; 5:10-12). 三位一体的神就是爱(4:8.16)。他的爱在“主为我们舍命”(3:16)时就显现给我们了。信徒们成为“神的儿女”(3:1,2)而且不应该犯罪(3:4-10)。他们应该爱,而不是恨他们的弟兄(3:11-16)。这就是照着神的爱的样式行(4:7-21)。任何拒绝耶稣是完全神和完全人这个真理的人都是敌基督的人(4:2-3;5:10-12)。
  29. Conclusion (5:13-21) 总结(5:13-21) The teachings of these antichrists raised questions in the believers’ hearts or confused them. John has written this letter to remind the Christians of the true doctrine of Jesus Christ so they may be certain of their salvation. 这些敌基督者的教导使信徒心中产生疑问或是使他们感到疑惑。约翰写了这封信是为了提醒基督徒耶稣基督的真正教导,这样他们就能确信他们的救恩。 2 John 约翰二书 The Writer 作者 The author of 2 John calls himself as “the elder” (verse 1). Elder is a title given to pastors (1 Peter 5:1). But this writer was not just another elder, he was “the” elder. At the time this letter was written, all the apostles were dead except one –John. He alone could be called “the” elder. Besides, the second letter of John is so similar to 1 John that the author must have been the same. 约翰二书的作者称他自己为“长老”(第一节)。长老是给牧师的称呼(彼得前书5:1)。但是这位作者不是别的长老,他就是“最有名的”长老。在写这封信的那个时期,所有使徒都去世了,除了这一位——约翰以外。只有他能被称为“最有名的”长老。除此以外,约翰的第二封信与约翰一书非常相似,因此作者一定是同一个人。 John’s Purpose in Writing 约翰的写作目的 2 John has been called a summary of 1 John. The same conditions which caused John to write his first letter caused him to write this letter. The false teaching of Cerinthus (denying that Jesus is God) was still widespread (7-9). John’s letter not only warns the reader not to fall into such errors but warns against having anything to do with false prophets (10-11). 约翰二书被称为约翰一书的概要。在促使约翰写第一封信的同样原因之下,他写了这封信。克林妥的错误教导(否认耶稣是神)仍然在被传播(7-9)。约翰的信不仅仅是告诫读者不要陷入这种错误中还告诫他们要提防任何与假先知有关的事(10-11)。 John says in verse 1 that he is writing to a “chosen lady”. He may have been writing to a certain female believer. It is more likely that he was just referring to a Christian congregation (the Greek word for „church‟ is feminine). This particular church is loved by “all who know the truth” (1). In verses 8,10, and 12 the word “you” is plural which would make sense if he is writing to a congregation of believers. Finally, verse 13 talks about a “sister” which probably means the congregation at Ephesus where John was living. 约翰在第一节中说他“写信给蒙拣选的太太”。他可能是写信给一位女性读者。更有可能是他刚刚提到的一个基督教会(希腊语中“教会”这个词是女性词)。这个特指的教会是“一切知道真理之人”(1)所爱的。如果约翰这封信是写给一个教会的所有信徒的就能解释为什么在第8,10和12中“你们”这个词是复数。最后,在13节中谈到了一位“姊妹”有可能指的是在以弗所约翰所住的地方的教会。 2 John was written shortly after 1 John, about A.D 95. 约翰二书是在约翰一书之后不久,大概是公元95年所写。 Outline of 2 John 约翰二书的概要 Theme: “Remain in the Truth” 主题: “仍在真理里”
  30. Salutation (1-3) 信头问候(1-3)
  31. Walk in Christ (4-6) 在基督里行(4-6)
  32. Walk away from Antichrists (7-8) 远离敌基督者(7-8)
  33. Greeting (12-13) 问安(12-13) Summary 概要 The word “truth” appears five times in this short letter. “Deception”, the opposite of truth, is mentioned two times. The believer remains in the truth and enjoys God’s grace, mercy, and peace (1) by walking (living his whole life) in Jesus Christ. This means accepting him as God (1) and living a life of love as he did (5-6). Believers should turn away from deceivers or false prophets (7-11). John hopes to bring this message to the believers personally (12). “真理”这个词在这封简短的书信中出现了五次。“迷惑”这个与真理相背的词,被提到了两次。信徒依靠在耶稣基督里行(活在耶稣基督里)保存真理里并分享神的恩惠、怜悯和平安(3)。这意味着承认他是神(3)并如他一样活出充满爱的生活(5-6)。信徒应该远离迷惑人的人或假先知(7-11)。约翰希望将这个信息亲自带给信徒们(12)。 3 John 约翰三书 The Writer 作者 If 2 John was written by the younger son of Zebedee, then 3 John was also. In both letters the writer calls himself “The elder” (1) and then goes on to speak of walking in the truth and in love. 如果约翰二书是由西庇太的小儿子所写,那么约翰三书也是他写的。在这两封信中,作者都称他自己为“长老”(1)并继续谈论在真理和爱中行。 John’s Purpose in Writing 约翰的写作目的 John’s first two letters were written because of false doctrine troubling the church. This letter, however, is written because of another problem threatening the church – fighting caused by a selfish pastor. 约翰写前两封信是因为错误的教导困扰教会。然而,写这封信是因为另一个威胁教会的问题——有一个自私的牧师引起的争斗。 By the end of the first century faithful missionaries were traveling throughout Asia Minor preaching the Gospel. Some of them, sent by John, came to a certain village or town and were received warmly by Gaius. Diotrephes, the pastor of the local Christian congregation, however, didn’t favor this work of love. He even threatened to excommunicate anyone who supported traveling evangelists. John wrote to Diotrephes, but Diotrephes refused to change his position on the matter. In 3 John the apostle wished to support Gaius. He tells him that soon he will come and settle the matter in person, God willing. 直到一世纪的末期,信实的传道人们都一直在整个小亚西亚地区传讲福音。他们中的一些被约翰差派的人来到一个村子或小镇并受到该犹的热情欢迎。但是当地基督教会的牧师丢特腓却不喜欢这爱的事工。他甚至威胁将任何支持作客旅的传道人的人逐出教会。约翰写信给丢特腓,但是丢特腓拒绝改变他在这件事上的立场。在约翰三书中这位使徒希望支持该犹。他告诉该犹不久他会来到这里亲自按神的意愿解决这个问题。 John wrote this letter from Ephesus. It was about A.D. 95. 约翰在以弗所写了这封信。时间大概是公元95年。 Outline of 3 John 约翰三书概要 Theme: “Work Together for the Truth” 主题: “一同为真理同工”
  34. Greeting (1) 问安(1)
  35. The Blessed Fellowship (2-8) 祝福相交(2-8)
  36. The Disagreement (9-10) 争论(9-10)
  37. Conclusion (11-14) 结论(11-14) Summary 概要 Theme: “Work Together for the Truth” The theme of this letter is taken from verse 8: “work together for the truth.” John teaches that like-minded Christians should share love and hospitality just as they share the truth. 主题:“一同为真理同工”。这封信的主题来自第八节:“一同为真理同工”。约翰教导意念相同的基督徒应该分享爱和友善就像他们分享真理一样。
  38. Greeting (1) 问安(1) John writes to Gaius. Gaius was a common name. We do not know if he was the same man mentioned in Acts 19:29, 20:4, Rom. 16:23, and 1 Cor. 1:14. 约翰写信给该犹。该犹是一个普通的名字。我们不知道这是不是与使徒行传19:29,罗马书16:23和哥林多前书1:14中提到的是同一个人。
  39. The Blessed Fellowship (2-8) 祝福相交(2-8) John has heard of the hospitality which Gaius has shown to the traveling missionaries. John praises Gaius for this. 约翰听到了关于该犹热心地接待作客旅的传道人的事情。约翰赞扬该犹这样做。
  40. The Disagreement (9-10) 争论(9-10) John tells Gaius that he wrote a letter earlier to try and solve the problem caused in the church by Diotrephes. Diotrephes was proud and selfish and that led him into sin. 约翰告诉该犹他之前写过一封信试图解决教会中由丢特腓所引起的问题。丢特腓的骄傲和自私将他引向罪。
  41. Conclusion (11-14) 结论(11-14) Gaius is told to continue in the good deeds he has done. Faithful Demetrius is delivering this letter for John, who also hopes to make a personal visit soon. 该犹给告知继续他所作的善事。信实的低米丢为约翰传递这封信,约翰也希望尽快亲自拜访他们。 Jude 犹大书 The Writer 作者 The second to last book of the Bible begins with the words, “Jude, a servant of Jesus Christ and a brother of James”. Since the writer says “the apostles,” not “we apostles” (17), it seems that he was not the apostle known as Jude or Judas (Luke6:16). Jude and James were sons of Mary and Joseph and half-brothers of Christ. 圣经的倒数第二部书开始写道:“耶稣基督的仆人,雅各的弟兄犹大”。因为作者说“使徒”而没有说“我们使徒”(17),看起来他不是我们熟知的犹大或是加略人犹大(路加福音6:16)。犹大和雅各是马利亚和约瑟的儿子并且是基督同母异父的兄弟。 Why then did not Jude refer to Jesus as his brother? The early Christians remembered the words which the Lord had spoken about his disciples: “Whoever does the will of my Father in heaven is my brother” (Matt. 12:50). They knew that faith and only faith tied a man to Jesus and led him to follow the son of God. 为什么犹大没有提到耶稣是他的弟兄呢?早期的基督徒们记得主曾对他的门徒们说:“凡遵行我天父旨意的人,就是我的弟兄、姐妹和母亲了(马太福音12:50)。他们知道唯独信心能将一个人与耶稣连结起来并使他跟从神的儿子。 Jude’s Purpose in Writing 犹大的写作目的 Jude wanted to write one letter, but ended up writing a different one. He says: “Dear friends, although I was very eager to write to you about the salvation we share, I felt I had to write and urge you to fight for the faith that was once for all entrusted to the saints” (3). 犹大希望写一封信,但是最终写了一封与预先想法不同的一封信。他说:“亲爱的弟兄啊,我想尽心写信给你们,论我们同得救恩的时候,就不得不写信劝你们,要为从前一次交付圣徒的真道竭力地争辩”(3)。 Jude had learned that certain leaders in the congregation or congregations were threatening the believers (4,12,13,19). They believed and taught that freedom in Christ was freedom to sin (4) not freedom from sin. Their teaching did not agree with Scripture. It came from their own evil hearts (8). So Jude wrote to warn the faithful and urge the believers to stand up for the truth (20). 犹大已经了解到一个教会或几个教会中的一些领袖正威胁着信徒的信心(4,12,13,19)。他们相信并且教导基督里的自由就是自由的犯罪(4)而不是从罪里得释放。他们的教导与圣经中的教导不一致。这种教导来自他们罪恶的心(8)。因此,犹大写信告诫信徒要信实并且劝勉他们在真理上要站立得住(20)。 There are many similarities between Jude and 2 Peter 2:1-18; 3:1-3. Probably Jude had read Peter’s letter. It is also possible that both letters were written to the same congregations in Asia Minor. The same errors which Jude condemned later troubled the church in Pergamum (Rev. 2:12-17). Jude‟s letter dates to about A.D. 68. 犹大书和彼得后书2:1-18,3:1-3之间有很多相似之处。可能犹大已经读过彼得的信了。也可能这两封信都是写给一些在小亚西亚相同的教会的。被犹大谴责的同样的谬误之后也困扰了在别迦摩的教会(启示录2:12-17)。犹大的信日期大概是公元68年。 Outline of Jude 犹大书概要 Theme: “Fight for the Faith” 主题: “为真道争辩”
  42. Introduction and Purpose of the Letter (1-4) 引言和这封信的目的(1-4)
  43. God’s Punishment of the Ungodly (5-7) 神对不圣洁的惩罚(5-7)
  44. Warning against False Teachers (8-19) 警惕假文士(8-19)
  45. Call to Faithfulness (20-23) 要有信心(20-23)
  46. Song of Praise (24-25) 颂赞(24-25) Summary 概要 Theme: “Fight for the Faith” 主题: “为真道争辩” The theme of this letter is seen in the third verse where Jude encourages the Christians to “contend” or struggle to keep the faith. Jude was writing to believers, not false teachers. Therefore, his purpose was to warn the faithful, not to condemn the ungodly. 这封信的主题可以在这封信的第三句中看到,那一句中犹大还劝勉基督徒要为保持信心“争辩”或者“争斗”。犹大是写信给信徒而不是给假文士。因此,他的目的是要告诫他们保持信心,而不是定他们不圣洁的罪。
  47. Introduction and Purpose of the Letter (1-4) 引言和这封信的目的(1-4) Jude shows his faith and knowledge of teachings of the Bible in these verses. As a firm believer he is happy to speak about Jesus. As a serious preacher of the Word he must warn against sinfulness (see Ezek. 3:16-21). 犹大在这几节中显明了他的信心和圣经教导的知识。作为一个坚定的信徒,他很高兴谈论关于耶稣的事情。作为一位严谨的神的道的传道人,他必须告诫信徒警惕罪恶(参看以西结书3:16-21)。
  48. God’s Punishment of the Ungodly (5-7) 神对不圣洁的惩罚(5-7) Jude uses his knowledge of Old Testament history to show that God punishes the ungodly. 犹大用他所知道的旧约历史知识展示了神惩罚不圣洁的人。 • Judgment of Israel, Numbers 14 对以色列的审判,民数记14 • Judgment of Evil Angels, Genesis 3 对罪恶天使的审判,创世纪3 • Judgment of Sodom and Gomorrah, Genesis 19:1-29 对索多玛和娥摩拉的审判,创世纪19:1-29
  49. Warning against False Teachers (8-19) 警惕假文士(8-19) In this part Jude makes it clear who the false teachers are. They do not submit to God (8-10); they are greedy like Cain, Balaam and Korah (11); and they do not produce good works (12). But God knows who they are and what they have done (13-19). They will end in the eternal darkness of hell (13). 在这一部分,犹大明确指出谁是假文士。他们不顺服神(8-10);他们像该隐、巴兰和可拉一样贪婪(11);并且他们没有结好果子(12)。但是神知道他们和他们做了什么(13-19)。最终他们会永远地留在黑暗的地狱中(13)。
  50. Call to Faithfulness (20-23) 要有信心(20-23) The cure for false teaching comes from the Triune God. The believers are encouraged to strengthen and exercise their faith in him. 去除错误教导只能靠三位一体的神。犹大鼓励信徒在神里使信心刚强并得到锻炼。
  51. Song of Praise (24-25) 颂赞(24-25) Jude’s closing song of praise takes us back to verse 3. He wanted to write about “salvation.” He now ends his letter by saying clearly that God will give his people eternal salvation. 犹大结尾的颂赞将我们带回到第三节中所讲的内容。他希望写关于“救恩”的内容。在此,在信的结尾他清楚地说道:“神会给他的民永远的救恩。 最后更新于 2014年9月12日 星期五 07:50 MeasureMeasure Get a free Evernote account to save this article and view it later on any device. Create account