恩典国际圣经学院

附录-新约作者 (Appendix)


附录:新约作者 (Appendix) Appendix: New Testament Authors 附录:新约作者 The Apostle Matthew 使徒马太 Most people who knew Levi, son of Alphaeus (Mark 2:14), would not have thought he would make a good disciple. With Jesus, however, nothing is impossible. 大多数认识亚勒腓的儿子利未(马可福音2:14)的人不会想到他会成为一位优秀的门徒。但是,靠着耶稣,没有难成的事。 Levi was a tax collector. The Romans held power in Israel, so any Jew collecting money for the Roman government was thought to be a traitor. But some Jews still did this work since it was easy to become rich by over-charging the people. Tax collectors were not allowed in Jewish synagogues and were hated by the Israelites. So Levi was one of those tax collectors who were despised by his own people. 利未是一个税吏。罗马人在以色列掌权,因此任何为罗马政府收税钱的犹太人都被认为是背叛者。但是仍有一些犹太人做这个工作,因为这样很容易通过多收税钱而成为有钱人。税吏们不允许进入会堂而且被以色列人所憎恶。因此利未作为其中一个税吏被他自己人所看不起。 Nevertheless, Jesus called Levi to be one of his followers. The Lord even agreed to eat at Levi’s house, surrounded by other people with bad reputations and public sinners (Matt. 9:9-13; Mark 2:13-17; Luke 5:27-32). When questioned about this Jesus replied, “It is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick. I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners” (Mark 2:17). 然而,耶稣召利未成为他的一名跟随者。主甚至在利未家与他一同吃饭,其他名声不好的人和罪人也一同座席(马太福音9:9-13;马可福音2:13-17;路加福音5:27-32)。当人们质疑耶稣为什么要这样做时,他回答,“康健的人用不着医生,有病的人才用的着。我本来不是召义人,乃是召罪人”(马可福音2:17)。 Perhaps at his conversion or baptism Jesus gave Levi the name Matthew, a name he used from then on. Matthew became one of the special twelve disciples called apostles (Matt. 10:2-4; Mark 3:13-19; Luke 6:12-16). Matthew is mentioned one time more in the Bible. He was with the disciples at Jesus’ ascension (Acts 1:11-13). 可能是在与他的谈话中或受洗时,耶稣给了利未“马太”这个名字,他从那时起就开始用这个名字。马太成为被称为使徒的十二名特殊的门徒之一(马太福音10:2-4;马可福音3:13-19;路加福音6:12-16)。圣经中还提到过一次马太。他在耶稣升天时与其他门徒一起在那里(使徒行传1:11-13)。 Just as Matthew once wrote out his tax accounts, so he used his writing skills to write his Gospel. He worked for Rome so he must have known Greek, the most common language of that time. As a Jew he grew up speaking Aramaic, a Hebrew dialect. Matthew may have written his Gospel in Aramaic as well as in the Greek language, from which our translations are made. 马太就像他曾经写税帐一样,用他的写作技巧写出了马太福音。他为罗马人做事,因此他必须掌握希腊语,那是当时最常用的语言。作为犹太人他是说一种希伯来方言亚兰语长大的。马太可能不仅用希腊文还用亚兰文写了他的福音书,我们的翻译是从希腊文而来。 Matthew had to deal with money every day when collecting taxes for Rome. His Gospel shows this knowledge of coins. Only his Gospel tells the parable of the unmerciful servant who owed 10,000 talents (Matt. 18:21-35) and the parable of the laborers in the vineyard who each worked for a denarius (Matt. 20:1-16). Only Matthew recorded the episodes of Judas, moved by grief, throwing the 30 silver coins into the temple (Matt. 27:3-10) and of the Roman soldiers being paid to remain silent about the empty tomb (28:11-15). 当马太为罗马人收税时,不得不每天与钱打交道。他的福音书显示出他钱币方面的知识。只有他的福音书讲了无怜悯心欠10,000银子的仆人的比喻(马太福音18:21-35)和葡萄园中各为一钱银子做工的工人的比喻(马太福音20:1-16)。只有马太记录了关于犹大的篇章,他被悲伤触动,把30银钱丢在殿里(马太福音27:3-10)以及罗马兵丁受了银钱后对空墓穴的事保持沉默(28:11-15)。 According to tradition, after Jesus’ ascension into heaven Matthew labored for a time among the Jews and then among the Gentiles. He most likely was killed for his faith. 根据惯例,在耶稣升天后,马太在犹太人中间劳苦了一段时间然后又到外邦人中去了。他很有可能因为他的信心被杀害了。 The Evangelist Mark 传道人马可 Mark was a Jew by birth (Col. 4:10-11). His Jewish name was John, while his Roman name was Mark (Acts 12:25). Mark’s mother Mary owned a house in Jerusalem, and many Christians gathered there to pray (Acts 12:12). Mark‟s cousin was the missionary Barnabas (Col. 4:10). 马可生来就是犹太人(歌罗西书4:10-11)。他的犹太名字是约翰,而他的罗马名字是马可(使徒行传12:25)。马可的母亲马利亚在耶路撒冷有一间房子,而且许多基督徒在那里聚会祷告(使徒行传12:12)。马可的表兄是传道人巴拿巴(歌罗西书4:10)。 Mark’s career as a Christian worker had a troubled beginning. Paul and Barnabas took Mark with them on their first missionary journey (Acts 12:25). When they arrived at Perga on the coast of Asia Minor, for some reason Mark decided to return home (Acts 13:13). We are not sure why Mark left so suddenly. Maybe he was upset that Paul had replaced his cousin Barnabas as the main leader. Perhaps Mark was afraid of the dangers which lay ahead. Maybe the young missionary helper was just homesick. Whatever the reason it made Paul very upset. When the missionaries were planning a second journey, Paul refused to take Mark along. So Barnabas took Mark and went back to Cyprus to preach while Paul took another helper and went off in a different direction (Acts 15:36-41). 马可作为基督工人的生涯开端并不顺利。保罗和巴拿巴带马可参加他们的第一次传道行程(使徒行传12:25)。当他们到达小亚西亚的港口别加时,由于某些原因马可决定回家去(使徒行传13:13)。我们不确定为什么马可如此突然地离开。也许他对于保罗取代他的表兄巴拿巴成为传道行程的主要领导者感到不高兴。也许马可对即将到来的危险感到害怕。也许这位年轻的传道助手只是想家了。无论是什么原因,它都使得保罗非常不高兴。当传道人们在计划第二次行程时,保罗拒绝与马可同行。因此,巴拿巴带着马可去塞浦路斯传道而保罗带着另一位助手去了另一个不同的方向(使徒行传15:36-41)。 Mark, however, did become a faithful worker, and Paul did not hold a grudge. When Paul was imprisoned in Caesarea, Timothy was with him. Paul then called Mark a “fellow worker for the kingdom of God” and “a comfort”(Col. 4:10-11; Philemon 24). When Paul was imprisoned in Rome he wrote a letter to pastor Timothy asking him to visit him with Mark – “Get Mark and bring him with you, because he is helpful to me in my ministry” (2 Tim. 4:11). 然而,马可成为了一位信实的工人并且保罗也没有对之前的事耿耿于怀。当保罗被关押在凯撒利亚的时候,提摩太与他在一起。保罗称马可是“为神的国与我一同做工的”和“叫我心里得安慰的”(歌罗西书4:10-11;腓利门书24)。当保罗被关押在罗马时,他写了一封信给牧师提摩太要求提摩太带马可来见他——“你来的时候,要把马可带来,因为他在传道的事上于我有益处”(提摩太后书4:11)。 Mark was even closer friends with Peter. Peter may have helped bring Mark to faith for he calls him “my son” (1 Pet. 5:13). Mark also learned many details about Jesus’ ministry from Peter himself. For example, Mark starts his story of Jesus’ ministry when Peter is called to follow Jesus (1:16). One of the earliest miracles reported is the healing of Simon Peter’s mother-in-law (1:30). Shortly thereafter Peter’s home becomes the center of Jesus’ ministry (1:29). So it goes throughout the Gospel. One of the high-points of the Gospel story is when Peter confesses Jesus to be “the Christ” (8:29). Mark also writes of how Jesus predicts Peter’s denial (14:27-31) and how that took place (14:66-72). Finally, Mark quotes the Easter angel as saying “tell his disciples and Peter”(16:7). 马可与彼得是更亲密的朋友。可能是彼得帮助带领马可信主的,因为他称马可“我儿子”(彼得前书5:13)。马可也通过彼得了解到许多关于耶稣传道的细节。例如,马可以彼得被召跟随耶稣作为他写的关于耶稣传道经历的开端(1:16)。他所写到的最早的神迹之一是医治西门彼得的岳母(1:30)。不久之后,彼得的家成为耶稣传道的中心(1:29)。因此这整个过程都是福音。福音故事的其中一个重点是彼得认耶稣是“基督”(8:29)。马可还写了耶稣如何预言彼得的不认主(14:27-31)以及这件事是如何发生的(14:66-72)。最后,马可引用了复活节天使说的“告诉他的门徒和彼得”(16:7)。 When reading Mark’s Gospel, one is reminded of Peter. The story is powerful and full of action, just like the personality of Peter. Finally, some people have noticed that the structure of Mark’s book is similar to Peter‟s sermon in the house of Cornelius (Acts 10:34-43). 当读到马可福音时,想到的一个人就是彼得。这个故事是强有力的而且充满行动,正如彼得的性格一样。最后,一些人注意到马可这部书的结构与彼得在哥尼流家讲道的结构相似(使徒行传10:34-43)。 It is thought that after the deaths of Peter and Paul in Rome, Mark worked for the Lord in Alexandria, Egypt. There in A.D. 68 he was murdered. As a young man Mark ran away from Jesus (Mark 14:51-52). When he was old he gave his life for Jesus. 人们认为彼得和保罗死在罗马之后,马可在埃及的亚历山大为主做工。他公元68年在那里被杀。作为一个年轻人马可逃离耶稣(马可福音14:51-52)。当他长大之后,他将他的生命献给耶稣。 Doctor Luke 医生路加 About 28% of the New Testament was written by Luke (Luke’s Gospel and Acts). However, we know very little about him. We learn only a little about Luke in his own writings, and he is mentioned only 3 times in the writings of the Apostle Paul. 新约大概28%都是路加写的(路加福音和使徒行传)。但是,我们对他了解非常少。我们只通过他的写作和使徒保罗在写作中提到他3次对他有了一点了解。 Luke was the only New Testament author who was not a Jew (see Col. 4:10-11,14). He was a doctor (Col. 4:14), missionary and a historical writer. Above all he was a good Christian. 路加是新约中唯一一个非犹太人作者(参见歌罗西书4:10-11,14)。他是一名医生(歌罗西书4:14),一位传道人也是一位历史作家。更重要的是他是一位好基督徒。 We first meet the missionary Luke on Paul’s second missionary journey. From Luke’s use of the first person (“we”) in Acts 16:11-40 it is clear that he went with Paul from Troas to Philippi. He seems to have stayed there for seven years, perhaps as a leader in the local Christian congregation. He then rejoined Paul on a trip from Philippi to Jerusalem (Acts 20:5-21:18). When Paul was under arrest in Palestine for two years, Luke was by his side (Col. 4:14; Philemon 24). He then sailed with Paul to Rome (Acts 27:1-28:16). Later, while Paul was in prison in Rome a second time, Luke alone was with him (2 Tim. 4:11). It was a great comfort for Paul, who had a “thorn in his flesh”, perhaps a disease (2 Cor. 12:7), to have Dr. Luke present at these times. 我们第一次看到传道人路加是在保罗的第二次传道行程中。从路加在使徒行传16:11-40中使用第一人称(“我们”)来看,很明显他和保罗从特罗阿去过腓立比。他似乎在那里住了七年,可能是在当地基督教会作为一位领导者。然后他加入了保罗从腓立比到耶路撒冷的行程(使徒行传20:5-21:18)。当保罗在巴勒斯坦关押的两年里,路加在他身边(歌罗西书4:14;腓利门书24)。然后,他与保罗乘船去了罗马(使徒行传27:1-28:16)。之后,当保罗第二次被关押在罗马时,路加独自与他在一起(提摩太后书4:11)。医生路加在这些时候出现是对保罗,这位“有一根刺在肉体上”可能是得了疾病的人最大的安慰(哥林多后书12:7)。 Luke was a very good writer and historian. But he was not a witness to the life, death, resurrection and ascension of Jesus and to many of the stories in Acts. From where did he get this information? He says that he did careful research (Luke 1:3). He listened carefully to the reports people told about Jesus, probably interviewed people who knew Jesus well (Mary, disciples, etc.) and read the faithful written stories (Luke 1:1). He also took part in some of the events recorded in Acts. 路加是一位非常好的作者和历史学家。但是他不是耶稣生平、离世、复活和升天以及使徒行传中许多故事的见证人。他从哪里得到这些信息呢?他说他详细考察了(路加福音1:3)。他仔细地听人们讲述耶稣的事,可能还访问过非常了解耶稣的人(马利亚、门徒们等等)并且读了以前人翔实记录的耶稣的事(路加福音1:1)。他也参与过使徒行传中记录的一些事情。 It is not known for sure when or how Luke died. Some say that he lived a long life and preached in Greece before he died there. Others say he died a martyr’s death with the Apostle Paul . 人们不确信路加是何时以及怎样死的。一些人认为他活了很长时间并且死之前在希腊传道。其他人认为他与使徒保罗一起殉道。 The Apostle John 使徒约翰 John was more than a cousin to Jesus, he was the Lord’s best friend and favorite follower. He was probably the only disciple not to die as a martyr. John lived for almost a hundred years. During that time he saw the church persecuted by the ungodly, yet blessed by God. 约翰是主最好的朋友和喜爱的跟随者更是耶稣的表弟。他很可能是唯一一个没有殉道的门徒。约翰将近活了100岁。在他生活的时期,他看到了教会被不圣洁的人逼迫但是被神祝福。 John’s father was Zebedee (Matt. 4:21) and his mother was Salome. Since Salome was Mary’s sister, Jesus and John were first cousins (compare Matt. 27:56 to Mark 15:40; 16:1; John 19:25). Unlike most of the disciples, John and his older brother James were not poor, and they may have had quite a bit of education. Zebedee, for example, owned his own boat, and later John owned his own home in Jerusalem. John also knew the most important Jew in the whole nation – the high priest (Mark 1:20; John 18:16;19:27). 约翰的父亲是西庇太(马太福音4:21),母亲是撒罗米是马利亚的妹妹,耶稣和约翰是亲表兄弟(比较马太福音27:56和马可福音15:40;16:1;约翰福音19:25)。不像大多数门徒,约翰和他的哥哥雅各并不是穷人,他们应该受了很多教育。比如说,西庇太拥有他自己的船,而且之后约翰也在耶路撒冷拥有他自己的房子。约翰还认识整个国家中最重要的犹太人——大祭司(马可福音1:20;约翰福音18:16;19:27)。 John and James were very religious men. They were followers of John the Baptist before Jesus called them to his side. Soon the brothers, along with Peter, became Christ’s closest disciples. They alone witnessed the raising of Jairus’ daughter, Christ’s transfiguration, and his suffering in the Garden of Gethsemane (Mark 5:21-43; Matt. 17:1-8; 26:36-46). 约翰和雅各都是非常敬虔的人。在耶稣召他们跟随他之前,他们就是施洗约翰的跟随者。不久这两兄弟与彼得一起成为基督最亲近的门徒。他们在一旁亲眼看见睚鲁女儿的复活,基督的变像和在客西马尼园中的受苦(马可福音5:21-43;马太福音17:1-8;26:36-46)。 The sons of Zebedee were very loyal to Christ. At times this loyalty did not show itself the way it should have – like when they wanted a whole city destroyed (Luke 9:51-55). This earned them the nickname “Sons of Thunder” which Jesus had given them earlier (Mark 3:17). However, in spite of their faults, they loved the Lord completely. 西庇太的儿子们都非常忠于基督。但是有几次他们的忠诚却没有以应有的方式表现出来——比如他们希望毁灭整个村庄(路加福音9:51-55)。这件事使他们得到了“雷子”的绰号,这是耶稣以前给他们的起的(马可福音3:17)。然而,尽管他们犯了错,他们仍全心敬爱主。 During the three years of his public ministry Jesus formed a great love for John. In his Gospel John calls himself “the disciple whom Jesus loved” (John 13:23; 19:26; 20:2; 21:7, 20). At the Last Supper John sat in the seat of honor next to Jesus (John 13:23). The next day he was the only disciple who remained with Jesus at the cross. While on the cross, Jesus spoke to John asking him to care for Mary (John 19:25-27). John was also a visitor to the empty tomb on Easter Sunday (John 20:2-8). 在耶稣公开传道的三年里,耶稣对约翰形成了伟大的爱。在他的福音中,约翰称他自己“耶稣所爱的门徒”(约翰福音13:23;19:26;20:2;21:7,20)。在主的晚餐时,约翰坐在耶稣旁边的上坐(约翰福音13:23)。第二天他是唯一一个耶稣在十字架上提到的门徒。在十字架上的时候,耶稣对约翰说要求他照顾马利亚(约翰福音19:25-27)。约翰还在复活节的星期天去空墓穴查看(约翰福音20:2-8)。 After Pentecost John and Peter preached the message of Jesus Christ (Acts 3:1-4:31; 8:14-17). They became known as “pillars” of the church (Gal. 2:9). Much later John moved from Jerusalem to Ephesus and helped the churches in Asia Minor (Rev. 1:11). During the persecution of the church by the Roman Emperor Domitian, John was exiled to the rocky island of Patmos, where he lived for several years. 在五旬节之后,约翰和彼得传讲耶稣基督的信息(使徒行传3:1-4:31;8:14-17)。他们成为教会的“柱石”(加拉太书2:9)。很久之后,约翰从耶路撒冷搬到以弗所并帮助在小亚西亚的教会(启示录1:11)。在教会被罗马皇帝图密善迫害时期,约翰被驱逐到岩石岛拔摩岛并在哪里住了几年。 According to tradition, when he returned from exile John was too weak to preach. His helpers carried him to church. There he would simply say, “Little children, love one another!” While this story may not be true, John’s love for God’s children is quite clear from all his writings (see 1 John 2:1,7,12-13,18,28; 3:1 etc.; 2 John 1:13; 3 John 1,2; etc.). 据说,当他放逐返回后,约翰太虚弱而不能传道。他的助手们将他带到教会。在那里他只简单地说了一句,“小子们哪,你们要爱人如己!”然而这个故事可能不是真的,约翰对神儿女的爱在他的书中表明的非常明确(参见约翰一书2:1,7,12-13,18,28;3:1等等;约翰二书1:13;约翰三书1,2等等)。 Before his death about A.D. 98, John wrote his Gospel and the three letters which are named after him. He also wrote down the Revelation he saw in visions while in exile. Throughout his writings the disciple whom Jesus loved pointed to the love God has for all people. 大概公元98年在他死之前,约翰写了约翰福音和三部在他死后被命名的三封书信。他还将他在被放逐时看到的异象写成了启示录。通过他的写作,这位耶稣所爱的门徒指明神对万民的爱。 The Apostle Paul 使徒保罗 St. Paul wrote 13 New Testament books and he is the main person described in the last half of Acts. Thus we know many of the highlights of his life and wonderful missionary work. 圣徒保罗写了新约中的13部书并且他是后半部使徒行传中描写的重要人物。因此我们知道他生平中的许多亮点和奇妙的传道事工。 Saul (later named Paul) was born in Tarsus, a famous city of Greek learning. His parents were Jews (Phil. 3:5; 2 Cor. 11:22), but his father had been given Roman citizenship. So Saul also was a Roman citizen (Acts 22:25-28). He had at least one sister (Acts 23:16). 扫罗(之后称为保罗)生于大数,一个以希腊学术著名的城市。他的父母是犹太人(腓立比书3:5;哥林多后书11:22)。但是他的父亲被给予罗马公民身份(使徒行传22:25-28)。他至少有一个姐姐(使徒行传23:16)。 Saul was a very gifted student (Gal. 1:14). He was sent to Jerusalem to study under the famous teacher Gamaliel (Acts 22:3). He also became familiar with Greek poetry (Acts 17:28; 1 Cor. 15:33; Titus 1:12). 扫罗是一个非常有天赋的学生(加拉太书1:14)。他被送到耶路撒冷在著名文士迦玛列门下学习(使徒行传22:3)。他还成为著名的希腊语诗人(使徒行传17:28;哥林多前书15:33;提多书1:12)。 In time Saul became a Pharisee (Acts 26:5) and a strong defender of the Jewish faith. When Christianity began to grow in Jerusalem, Saul violently opposed it (Acts 7:58; 8:1-3; 9:1-2,13-14; 22:1-5; 26:9-12). Later, of course, he deeply regretted what he did at this time (1 Cor. 15:9; Gal. 1:13; 1 Tim. 1:15). 在扫罗成为法利赛人使徒行传26:5)和犹太信仰坚强捍卫者的时期。当基督教在耶路撒冷兴旺时,扫罗暴力对抗它(使徒行传7:58;8:1-3;9:1-2;13-14;22:1-5;26:9-12)。当然,之后,深深为他在那时所做的事悔改(哥林多前书15:9;加拉太书1:13;提摩太前书1:15)。 Paul’s life changed while he was walking on the road to Damascus. There Christ Jesus met him and brought him to faith (Acts 9:3-19). Soon Saul the persecutor of Christians became Paul the persecuted Christian. 当保罗在去往大马士革的路上时,他的一生发生了转变。在那里基督耶稣见到他并使他信主(使徒行传9:3-19)。不久,迫害基督徒的扫罗成为被迫害的基督徒保罗。 Below are listed the main points of Paul’s early ministry: 以下是保罗早期使命的重点:

  1. He was baptized and preached in Damascus (Acts 9:20-22). 他受洗并在大马士革传讲神(使徒行传9:20-22)。
  2. Paul spent a little less than three years in Arabia (perhaps the thinly populated area southeast of Damascus [Gal. 1:16; 2 Cor. 11:32]). 保罗在阿拉伯(可能是大马士革东南边人口稀少的地区【加拉太书1:16;哥林多后书11:32】)住了将近3年。
  3. He returned to Damascus but soon had to flee from the city (Acts 9:23-25). 他返回大马士革但是不久就不得不从那里逃走(使徒行传9:23-25)。
  4. Since Paul desired to meet Peter (Gal. 1:18) he traveled to Jerusalem, where he stayed for 15 days (Acts 9:26-29). 因为保罗渴望见到彼得(加拉太书1:18),所以他去到耶路撒冷并在那里住了15天(使徒行传9:26-29)。 5.Paul then returned to his home town of Tarsus. During the next eight years he also preached in Syria and Cilicia (Gal. 1:21-24), and may have received some of the punishment recorded in 2 Cor. 11:24-25. 然后保罗返回他的家乡大数。在接下来的8年里,他还在叙利亚和西里西亚传道(加拉太书1:21-24),而且可能在哥林多后书11:24-25中记载了他受到了一些刑罚。
  5. Barnabas invited Paul to work in Antioch where they both labored for the Lord (Acts 11:19-26). 巴拿巴邀请保罗在安提阿他们曾经共同为主劳苦的地方事工。(使徒行传11:19-26)。
  6. Paul and Barnabas helped bring food from Antioch to the Jerusalem Christians (Gal.2:1-10;Acts 11:30). Later they returned to Antioch. 保罗和巴拿巴帮助将食物从安提阿带给耶路撒冷的基督徒们(加拉太书2:1-10;使徒行传11:30)。之后他们返回安提阿。 From Antioch Paul, together with his companions, set out on his first great missionary tour (Acts 13-14). They traveled to Cyprus, then to Asia Minor, where they preached in Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe before returning home. Soon after, Paul went to Jerusalem to tell how God did not command Gentiles to become circumcised Jews in order to become Christians (Acts 15:1-35). 保罗与他的同伴一起从安提阿启程开始他们的第一次传道行程(使徒行传13-14)。他们行至塞浦路斯,然后在他们返回家乡之前去了小亚西亚,在那里他们在以哥念,路司得和特庇传道。之后不久,保罗去了耶路撒冷告诉众人神是如何命外邦人不用成为受割礼的犹太人才能成为基督徒(使徒行传15:1-35)。 Paul’s second missionary tour began at Antioch, went through Asia Minor, into Macedonia and Greece, and then ended in Jerusalem and Antioch (Acts 15:1-18:22). His third trip concentrated on Ephesus, but Paul also re-visited most of his other churches as well. Once again it ended back at Jerusalem where Paul was arrested (Acts 18:23-26:32). 保罗第二次传道行程是从安提阿开始穿过小亚西亚,进入马其顿和希腊,然后在耶路撒冷和安提阿结束了行程(使徒行传15:1-18:22)。他的第三次行程集中于以弗所,但是保罗也再次拜访了其他地方的大多数教会。这次行程再一次在耶路撒冷结束,保罗在那里被捕(使徒行传18:23-26:32)。 After two years as a prisoner in Caesarea Paul was taken to Rome for trial (Acts 27-28). After being released, Paul visited Crete (Titus 1:5), Miletus, Troas, Macedonia, and Corinth (1 Tim. 1:3; 2 Tim. 4:13-20). He also may have fulfilled his goal of preaching in Spain (Rom. 15:24,28). For a second time Paul was put in prison in Rome (2 Tim. 2:9; 4:6-18). He was martyred about A.D.67. 在凯撒利亚被囚禁两年之后,保罗被带到罗马受审(使徒行传27-28)。在被释放后,保罗拜访了克里特(提多书1:5)、米利都、特罗阿、马其顿和哥林多(提摩太前书1:3;提摩太后书4:13-20)。他还可能实现了在西班牙传道的目标(罗马书15:24,28)。保罗第二次被关押在罗马(提摩太后书2:9;4:6-18)。他在公元67年殉道。 What was Paul really like? An early description said that Paul was “short, bald, bow-legged, well built (or energetic), with knitted eye-brows, rather long-nosed, full of grace, appearing sometimes like a man, and sometimes having the face of an angel.” The Bible does tell us that he had health problems (2 Cor. 12:7), possibly eye problems (Gal. 4:13-15). However the most important thing we know of Paul is that he has given us his magnificent writings about Christ: Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, and Philemon. 保罗到底是什么样的人呢?早前的描述说到保罗“矮小、秃顶、罗圈腿、健壮(精力旺盛),有浓密的眉毛、长鼻子,斯文优雅,有时以人的样子显现,有的时候有天使的容貌。”圣经上的确告诉我们他有健康方面的疾病(哥林多后书12:7),可能是眼疾(加拉太书4:13-15)。但是最重要的是我们知道保罗给了我们他关于基督的宏伟著作:罗马书、哥林多前书、哥林多后书、加拉太书、以弗所书、腓立比书、歌罗西书、帖撒罗尼迦前书、帖撒罗尼迦后书、提摩太前书、提摩太后书、提多书和腓利门书。 The Apostle Peter 使徒彼得 Simon was a fisherman. With his brother Andrew he sailed on the Sea of Galilee near his home village of Bethsaida. He was married (Matt. 8:14) but we do not know if he had children. 西门是一个渔夫。他和他的弟弟安德烈在他的家伯赛大附近的加利利海上打渔。他结了婚(马太福音8:14),但是我们不确定他是否有儿女。 One day Andrew came running to Simon with the message, “We have found the Messiah”(John 1:41). As a faithful Jew, Simon had learned the Old Testament prophecies about the promised Savior. He went to meet Jesus, and Jesus said to him, “You are Simon son of John. You will be called Cephas (which when translated, is Peter)” (John 1:42). The Aramaic name Cephas and the Greek name Peter both mean rock. Jesus saw that Peter had a personality and faith like a rock. 有一天,安德烈跑去找西门告诉他一个消息,“我们遇见弥赛亚了”(约翰福音1:41)。作为忠实的犹太人,西门已经学习过旧约中关于应许的救主的预言。他去见耶稣,耶稣对他说,“你是约翰的儿子西门。你要称为矶法(“矶法”翻译出来就是“彼得”)”(约翰福音1:42)。亚兰语名字“矶法”和希腊语名字“彼得”意思都是“岩石”。耶稣看到彼得性格和信心就像岩石一样。 Peter became not only one of Christ’s 12 Apostles, but was also one of Christ’s inner circle. Together with James and John he witnessed the resurrection of Jairus’ daughter (Mark 5:21-43),Jesus’ transfiguration (Matt. 17:1-8) and the Lord’s suffering in the Garden of Gethsemane (Matt. 26:36-46). 彼得不仅成为基督的十二使徒之一,而且也是基督身边的核心人物之一。他与雅各和约翰一起见证了睚鲁女儿的复活(马可福音5:21-43),耶稣的变像(马太福音17:1-8)和主在客西马尼园的受苦(马太福音26:36-46)。 For three years Peter ate, drank, walked and talked with Jesus. He heard Christ’s sermons and parables, and watched the Master’s miracles and saw his love. But Peter showed both strengths and weaknesses. He had a strong faith, a living hope and much energy (Matt. 16:13-19; John 6:66-68). However, he also tended to act before he thought and had too much confidence in himself (Matt. 14:25-31; John 13:36-38). The low point in his life came when not once, but three times he denied even knowing Jesus (Luke 22:54-62). Later Jesus reassured Peter that he still wanted him to serve as an apostle. He told Peter to spread the Gospel to young and old alike (John 21:15-17). 三年间,彼得与耶稣一同吃、喝、行走和谈论。他听到基督的讲道和比喻并看到主的神迹和他的爱。但是彼得显出了他的刚强与软弱。他有刚强的信心,永生的希望和大量的精力(马太福音16:13;约翰福音6:66-68)。然而,他倾向于在思考之前行动并且太过于自信(马太福音14:25-31;约翰福音13:36-38)。他人生中的低潮不止一次,而是三次不认耶稣(路加福音22:54-62)。之后,耶稣确认他仍希望彼得作为使徒服侍众人。他告诉彼得在他年少和年老时将会如何传福音(约翰福音21:15-17)。 After Jesus ascended into heaven, Peter became the leader and spokesman for the believers. He preached the first Pentecost sermon. Later, he visited many of the Christian churches and worked among the Gentiles (Acts, chapters 1-12). His lifelong calling, however, was to present the crucified and risen Savior, Jesus Christ, to the Jews (Gal. 2:7). 在耶稣升天之后,彼得成为了信徒们的领导者和代言人。他做了第一个五旬节讲道。之后,他拜访了许多基督教会并在外邦人当中事工(使徒行传1-12)。然而,他终生的呼召是向犹太人展现被钉十字架和复活的救主,耶稣基督(加拉太书2:7)。 This “pillar” of the church (Gal. 2:9) worked until about A.D. 67. Then he was crucified by the Romans because of his faith in Jesus and his ministry of the Gospel. 这位教会的“柱石”(加拉太书2:9)事工直到公元67年。然后他因为对耶稣的信心和福音的传道而被罗马人钉十字架。 The life of Peter was truly a success story. The Lord found a hard working fisherman, brought him to faith, and then used him to spread and strengthen the Christian Church. Shortly before Peter’s death the Lord moved him to write two books of the Bible. These two letters show the faith and hope of Christians everywhere throughout time. 彼得的一生是真正成功的传奇。主找到了勤劳的渔夫,领他信主并使用他来传道和坚固基督教会。在彼得死前不久,主感动他写了圣经中的两部书。这两封信显示出不同时期各处基督徒们的信心和希望。 James and Jude 雅各和犹大 The Apostles’ Creed states that Jesus Christ was “conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary.” This, of course, is what Scripture says (Matt. 1:18-23). However, after Jesus’ birth, Mary and Joseph seem to have been blessed with several children (Matt. 13:55; Mark 6:3), two of whom were James and Jude. James and Jude grew up with Jesus, saw his sinless life (1 Pet. 2:22) and heard his spiritual wisdom (Luke 2:47). Yet these half-brothers of Jesus at first refused to accept him as the Messiah (John 7:5). This, however, did not surprise Jesus. He said that “Only in his home town, among his relatives and in his own house is a prophet without honor” (Mark 6:4). 使徒信经陈述到耶稣基督是“因圣灵感孕,由童贞女马利亚所生。”当然,这也是圣经中所说的(马太福音1:18-23)。尽管如此,在耶稣出生后,马利亚和约瑟看起来被神祝福又生了几个孩子(马太福音13:55;马可福音6:3),其中两个是雅各和犹大。雅各和犹大与耶稣一同成长,看到了他无罪的一生(彼得前书2:22)并听到了他属灵的智慧(路加福音2:47)。尽管耶稣的这两个同母异父兄弟一开始拒绝接受他为弥赛亚(约翰福音7:5)。但是,耶稣对此并不觉得惊奇。他说“大凡先知,除了本地亲属、本家之外,没有不被人尊敬的”(马可福音6:4)。 After Jesus’ resurrection, however, his brothers James and Jude came to faith (1 Cor. 15:7; Acts 1:14). From that time on they worshiped and served their Savior. James went on to become the head of the Christian church in Jerusalem (Acts 12:17). It was James, for example, who spoke with such wisdom during the Apostolic Council in Jerusalem (Acts 15:12-29). Wise in judgment, bold in confessing Jesus, James became a pillar of the Christian church (Gal. 2:9). His name was used for the whole congregation he served (Gal. 2:12). This faithful servant of Jesus Christ (James 1:1) died a martyr’s death about A.D. 66. His piety and love earned him the name “the just.” 然而,在耶稣复活之后,他的兄弟雅各和犹大信了主(哥林多前书15:7;使徒行传1:14)。从那时起,他们开始敬拜和服侍他们的救主。雅各成为了耶路撒冷基督教会中的领导者(使徒行传12:17)。例如,正是雅各在耶路撒冷的使徒议会上充满智慧的进行讲论(使徒行传15:12-29)。智慧地审判,大胆地承认耶稣,雅各已经成为基督教会的柱石(加拉太书2:9)。他的名字被用于他所服侍的整个教会(加拉太书2:12)。这位忠实的耶稣基督的仆人(雅各书1:1)在大约公元66年殉道。他的敬虔和爱为他赢得了“公正的人”的称号。 The Bible tells us almost nothing about the ministry of Jude. He is mentioned in 1 Cor. 9:5. From this and some references in his letter it seems likely that he labored among Gentiles, perhaps in Asia Minor. 圣经几乎没有告诉我们关于犹大春到的事情。他在哥林多前书9:5被提及。从这一处以及他书信中的一些信息看似他曾在外邦人中,可能是在小亚西亚做工。 < 上页 最后更新于 2014年9月11日 星期四 11:27 MeasureMeasure Get a free Evernote account to save this article and view it later on any device. Create account