恩典国际圣经学院

第一章犹太人和罗马人的耶稣 (Chapter 1)


第一章:犹太人和罗马人的耶稣 (Chapter 1) Introduction 引言 If a person does not look closely, he might think that the New Testament was a collection of 27 separate books that were not related to one another. Some of the writings (the Gospels and Acts) are like history books. There are letters written to churches and individuals (Romans through 3 John). Finally there is a book of visions, full of pictures of the future (Revelation). Also, the New Testament was written by nine different men over a period of more than 50 years. However, the New Testament is a collection of writings that are closely related to one another. Together they form a unity. The New Testament can be compared to a diamond. It has many sides, each angle reflecting light, adding to the brightness of the whole diamond. The light of the New Testament is Jesus Christ. The Gospels show the life and mission of Jesus. The Acts of the Apostles shows the power of Jesus’ word to change life and history. The letters tell about the new life believers live in Christ. Revelation pictures the final life that awaits us with Christ. 如果一个人没有仔细地查看,他可能会认为:新约圣经只是集合了二十七部独立的、彼此没有联系的书。有些篇章(如:福音书和使徒行传)像讲述历史的书;一些书信是写给教会或个人的;最后一部关于异象的书,充满了对未来的描写。而且,新约圣经是9个人在超过50年的时间内分别写成。然而,新约圣经是彼此紧密连结的篇章,是一个整体。新约圣经如同一颗钻石,它那每个不同的侧面反射的光汇聚在一起,形成了整颗钻石的光芒。新约圣经的光就是基督耶稣。福音书展示给我们耶稣的生活和传教工作;使徒行传使我们看到了耶稣的话语改变生命和历史的力量;那些书信告诉我们,获得新生的信徒们在基督里活着;启示录则描绘了在生命的最后时刻,等待着我们的是耶稣基督。 The purposes of the Old and New Testaments are exactly the same – to bring man to faith in Christ Jesus, and to show him how to live as a believer. St. Paul taught this truth to young Timothy when he wrote: 圣经中旧约和新约的目的是完全一样的——引导人信靠耶稣基督,并且向人们显示作为信徒该如何生活。当圣徒保罗教导年轻的提摩太这样的真理时,他写道: . . . from infancy you have known the holy Scriptures, which are able to make you wise for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus. All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness, so that the man of God may be thoroughly equipped for every good work (2 Tim. 3:15-17). ……你是从小明白圣经;这圣经能使你因信基督耶稣有得救的智慧。圣经都是神所默示的,于教训、督责、使人归正、教导人学义,都是有益的,叫属神的人得以完全,预备行各样的善事。(提摩太后书 3:15-17) Chapter 1:Jesus for Jews and Romans 第一章:犹太人和罗马人的耶稣 Matthew & Mark 马太福音和马可福音 Introduction 引言 Before going back to heaven Jesus told the believers, “go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you”(Matt. 28:19-20). Those Christians could teach others about Jesus because they had seen for themselves everything Jesus had done and said during the time of his ministry. In order to preserve a true record of the Savior’s life and mission the disciple Matthew wrote down the message of Jesus for the Jews. Meanwhile John Mark learned from Peter the details of Christ’s saving word and work and wrote his Gospel account for the Romans. 在耶稣升天之前,他告诉他的信徒们:“你们要去,使万民作我的门徒,奉父、子、圣灵的名给他们施洗。凡我所吩咐你们的,都教训他们遵守。(马太福音28:19-20)”那些基督徒们可以教导其他人关于耶稣的事,是因为他们亲眼看到过耶稣传道过程中所做的每件事,听到过他所说的话。为了保存对救主生活和传教的真实记录,门徒马太为犹太人写下了关于耶稣的信息。同时马可从彼得那里了解到基督拯救的话语和工作的细节,向罗马人解释基督的福音。 Matthew 马太福音 The Writer 作者 Nowhere in the Gospel does it say that Matthew wrote it, so we cannot be sure he was the author. But other writers in the early church all agreed that Matthew wrote this Gospel. Also the book itself contains some personal information about the tax collector who turned into disciple. For example, in the story of his calling, the writer says the man’s name was Matthew (9:9) while Mark (2:14) and Luke (5:27) call him Levi. Apparently Matthew used this name to show that he had become a new person. Matthew means “Gift of God” (see also Appendix 1). 马太福音中并没有提到是马太写了这部书,因此我们不能完全确定他就是作者。但是早期教会中的人们都一致认为,这部福音书是马太所写。此外,这部书本身包括一些关于税吏转变成为耶稣门徒的个人信息。例如,在耶稣呼召马太的故事中,作者说那个人的名字是“马太”;但是马可福音和路加福音里写到此处时,使用了马太的另一个名字“利未”。很显然马太特别用这个名字,显出他已经成为新人。马太的意思是“神的恩赐”(参见附录1)。 Matthew’s Purpose in Writing 马太福音的写作目的 Matthew told the story of the Good News of Jesus Christ, the Messiah, for Jewish readers and hearers. He began by tracing the Savior’s family tree back to the great King David and then to the father of the Jews, Abraham (1:1). Next he quoted from the Old Testament almost three dozen times. Sixteen times he told how particular prophecies were fulfilled by Jesus. Matthew mentions Jewish customs, laws, and landmarks without stopping to explain them. In this story of Jesus the disciple showed in detail that the Jewish Pharisees and Scribes opposed God’s plan (3:7-12; 9:11;12:14,24; 15:13; 16:3,12; 21:41 and chapter 23). Some early writers thought that Matthew may have even written this book in the language of the Jews (Aramaic or Hebrew). 马太向犹太的读者和听众们传达了关于耶稣基督、弥赛亚的好消息。他将救主的家谱追溯到伟大的大卫王,再到犹太人之父:亚伯拉罕(1:1)。在接下来的文字中,他引用了将近36次旧约中的内容;他16次讲到耶稣怎样使旧约中具体的预言得以实现。马太提到犹太习俗、律法,和具有重大意义的事情时,不断地对其给予解释。在关于耶稣的故事中,他详细记述了犹太的法利赛人和律法学者如何反对神的计划(3:7-12;9:11;12:14,24;15:13;16:3,12;21:41和第23章)。一些早期的作者甚至认为,这部福音书可能是马太使用犹太语文(亚兰文或希伯来文)写成的。 This book was written for believers as well as unbelievers. It would strengthen the Jewish Christians and show them how the Old Testament spoke about the life and work of Jesus Christ. Unbelievers would hear that Jesus is the promised Messiah who came to save all people from their sin. Matthew did not always tell the events of Jesus’ life in the order in which they took place. Rather he grouped similar events together. 马太福音既适合信徒,也适合非信徒阅读。它通过详细讲解旧约中是怎样记述耶稣基督的生命和工作,来坚固犹太基督徒的信心;同时向非信徒宣告,这位上帝应许的弥赛亚的到来,是为拯救所有人脱离他们的罪。马太并不总是按照时间顺序,而是将类似的事件归类,从各个角度讲述耶稣生活中的事件的。 Bible scholars are not sure when Matthew wrote his Gospel. It may have been written as early as A.D. 52. 圣经学者们并不确定马太福音何时写就,但推测它可能最早于公元52年就已经完成。 Outline of Mathew 马太福音概要 Theme: ”Are You the King of the Jews?” 主题:“你是犹太人的王吗?”

  1. Jesus, the Promised Savior/King (1:1-4:25) 耶稣,应许的救主、君王(1:1-4:25)
  2. Sermon 1: The Sermon on the Mount (5:1-7:29) 讲道 1:登山宝训 (5:1-7:29)
  3. Jesus’ Ministry in Galilee (8:1-9:34) 耶稣在加利利的传道 (8:1-9:34)
  4. Sermon 2: Missions (9:35-10:42) 讲道 2:传教(9:35-10:42)
  5. Jesus’ Ministry in Galilee (11:1-12:50) 耶稣在加利利的传道 (11:1-12:50) 6.Sermon 3: The Kingdom (13:1-52) 讲道 3:天国 (13:1-52)
  6. Jesus’ Ministry in Galilee (13:53-17:27) 耶稣在加利利的传道 (13:53-17:27)
  7. Sermon 4: Various Teachings (18:1-35) 讲道 4:各样的教导 (18:1-35)
  8. Jesus’ Ministry in Judea (19:1-22:46) 耶稣在犹太的传道 (19:1-22:46)
  9. Sermon 5: The Last Days (23:1-25:46) 讲道5:末日 (23:1-25:46)
  10. Jesus’ Suffering, Death, and Resurrection(26:1-28:20) 耶稣的受难,死亡和复活 (26:1-28:20) Summary 概述 Theme: ”Are You the King of the Jews?” 主题: “你是犹太人的王吗?” Early on Good Friday, Pontius Pilate asked Jesus “Are you the king of the Jews”(27:11)? The entire book of Matthew serves as an answer to this question. From the beginning to the end Jesus is referred to as the “king of the Jews” (2:2; 27:11). However, his rule was not political but spiritual. The term “kingdom of heaven” appears 32 times in Matthew and “kingdom of God” five times. Jesus is described as the Messiah King, the long awaited Savior, the Son of David (9:27; 12:23;15:22; 21:9,15). 耶稣受难那个星期五前的夜里,本丢·彼拉多问耶稣:“你是犹太人的王吗?(太27:11)”整部马太福音就是这个问题的答案。耶稣从始至终都被称为“犹太人的王”(太2:2;太27:11)。可是,他治理的是心灵,而非政治。在马太福音中,“天国”出现了32次,“神的国”出现了5次。耶稣被描述为弥赛亚,盼望已久的救主和大卫的子孙(太9:27;太12:23;太15:22;太21:9,15)
  11. Jesus, the Promised Savior/King (1:1-4:25) 耶稣,应许的救主、君王(太1:1-4:25) Matthew was writing to Jews, and family histories were important to Jews. Therefore he began his book by showing that Jesus had a pure line of ancestors going all the way back to David and Abraham (1:1-17). 马太福音是写给当时的犹太人的,家族的历史对于犹太人来说非常重要。因此,这部书以展示耶稣具有从亚伯拉罕和大卫传下来的纯正血统作为开始(太1:1-17)。 This showed that Jesus had the proper family ties to be the Messiah. Matthew then showed that Christ fulfilled the many Old Testament prophecies about the Savior. Jesus was born at the right time. As Isaiah had prophesied, He was born of a virgin (1:18-25). He was born in the place the Old Testament had said – Bethlehem in Judea. He was worshiped by Gentile Wise Men (2:1-12). King Herod’s jealousy did not halt God’s plan but actually led to the fulfillment of other Old Testament prophecies. Mary and Joseph had to take Jesus and flee to Egypt, an event which had been predicted (2:13-15). Herod’s murder of the babies led to weeping, about which Jeremiah had written (2:16-18). Even after Herod’s death Mary and Joseph were afraid to return to Bethlehem, so they went to Nazareth, thus fulfilling another prophecy (2:19-23). 这显示了耶稣具有成为弥赛亚的家庭关系。马太福音接着说明,基督也印证了旧约中关于救主的预言。耶稣在适当的时间诞生了。如同以赛亚预言的,他由童女所生(1:18-25)。他出生在旧约中所说的地方——犹太的伯利恒。他被外邦的博士们敬拜(2:1-12)。大希律王的嫉妒并没有使神的安排终止,事实上反而使得旧约中的其他预言得以实现。马利亚和约瑟不得不带耶稣逃到埃及是已经被预言了的(2:13-15)。耶利米书还预言了大希律滥杀婴儿导致的哀鸿遍野。甚至在大希律死后,马利亚和约瑟害怕回到伯利恒,因此他们去了拿撒勒,从而使另一个预言得以实现(2:19-23)。 Matthew now skips to the time when Jesus begins his public ministry. As prophesied a forerunner, John the Baptist, prepared the way for Jesus’ work (3:1-12). Then Jesus appeared and was baptized (3:13-17). At this time the Holy Spirit descended upon him confirming him in his mission. His Father, Jehovah, announced that he was pleased with his son. 随后,马太福音的视角直接转移到耶稣的公开事工上。作为预言中的先驱——施洗约翰——为耶稣的工作预备了道路(3:1-12)。耶稣接着显明他的身份并接受洗礼(3:13-17)。在这个时候圣灵降临在他身上,肯定了他的使命。他的天父耶和华,称他为他的儿子感到高兴。 Soon Satan tried to lead Jesus into sin. Jesus overcame such temptations by quoting the Old Testament (4:1-11). At last Jesus’ ministry began. By centering his work in Galilee he fulfilled a prophecy by Isaiah(4:12-17). Jesus called men to be his disciples (4:18-22) and through words and deeds showed himself to be the Savior (4:23-25). 撒旦随即企图试探耶稣。耶稣则引用旧约中的话语战胜了各样的试探(4:1-11)。之后,耶稣的事工开始了。他通过以加利利为中心的工作使以赛亚的一个预言得以实现(4:12-17)。耶稣呼召他的门徒们(4:18-22),并通过言语和行为表明他就是救主(4:23-25)。
  12. Sermon 1: The Sermon on the Mount(5:1-7:29) 讲道 1:登山宝训(5:1-7:29) The Gospel according to Matthew is a teaching tool. The author wants his readers to hear Jesus speaks to them directly. Thus he includes five great speeches or sermons of the Savior. These are arranged by topic and placed between his other acts of ministry. 马太福音就像是针对福音的一个课件。作者希望读者们可以直接看到耶稣对他们所说的话。因此他记录了关于救主的五篇重要的演讲或讲道。这些讲道根据不同的主题,与救主的其他传道活动联系在一起。 The Sermon on the Mount is rightly one of the favorite examples of Jesus’ teachings. In it we hear the Savior/King address his people. He promises to bless the faithful (5:1-12), and expects them to have a good effect on the world(5:13-16). As for himself, Jesus rules with perfect justice, fulfilling not ending the Law (5:17-20). His rulings on murder, adultery, and divorce agree with divine law. However he says that Christians are to obey not just the “letter of the Law” but also the “spirit of the law”(5:21-32). 其中,经典的登山宝训是最被众人所喜爱的教导。在这篇讲道中我们看到救主或大君王以他的民作为对象。他应许祝福信他的人(5:1-12),并期望他们在世上成为楷模(5:13-16)。至于他自己,耶稣以完全的公义治理人,成全而不是废除律法(5:17-20)。他论杀人、论奸淫和论休妻的规定和神的律法一致。但是他也说,基督徒不仅仅要顺服“律法的字面意义”,还要顺服“律法的精神”(5:21-32)。 The Savior/King is practical and merciful, and he expects his followers to be the same (5:33-48). He hates hypocrisy in any form but encourages true charity and worship and teaches the believers how to pray (6:1-18). Jesus directs his people not to be so concerned for earthly things but to desire heavenly and spiritual blessings(6:19-34). 救主或大君王是怜恤人并持守约定的,并且他期望他的信徒们也和他一样(5:33-48)。他憎恶任何形式的假冒为善;同时鼓励真心的良善和敬拜,并且教导信徒们该如何祷告(6:1-18)。耶稣劝勉他的民不要为世上的事情忧虑,而要渴慕天上和灵里的祝福(6:19-34)。 Jesus ends his sermon with short talks on various subjects: judging others (7:1-6), prayer (7:7-12),the road to heaven (7:13-14) and false prophets(7:15-23). At the end he calls for believers to build their lives on him and his word (7:24-29). 耶稣简要地谈论了论断人(7:1-6)、祷告(7:7-12)、通往天堂的路(7:13-14)和假先知(7:15-23)等话题,并结束了他的讲道。最后,他要求信徒们依靠他和他的话语生活(7:24-29)。
  13. Jesus’ Ministry in Galilee (8:1-9:34) 耶稣在加利利的传道(8:1-9:34) As we said, Matthew did not write his stories in the order in which they happened. Therefore it is not surprising that in this section Matthew arranges various miracles of Jesus into groups. 如前所述,马太福音并不是按故事发生的先后顺序讲述的。因此我们就能理解,为什么马太讲耶稣的各种神迹逐一归类,分别记录。 Jesus healed the man with leprosy (8:1-4), the centurion’s servant (8:5-13) and Peter’s mother-in-law (8:14-17). This fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah. 首先,这一节记录了耶稣医治长大麻风的人(8:1-4);百夫长的仆人(8:5-13)和彼得的岳母(8:14-17)得了医治,等等。这印证了以赛亚的预言。 Then there is a brief teaching of Jesus (8:18-22) followed by three more miracles: Jesus calming the storm at sea (8:23-27,) healing demon possessed men(8:28-33), and healing a man who was paralyzed(9:1-8). Again there is a break. Jesus called Matthew to be his disciple (9:9-13) and answered a question about fasting (9:14-17). 然后,马太简短地记录了耶稣的教导(8:18-22);紧接着是另外三个神迹:耶稣平静风和海(8:23-27)、医治被鬼附着的人(8:28-33)、耶稣医治瘫子(9:1-8)。这时故事有了一段插叙——耶稣呼召马太成为他的门徒(9:9-13),并回答了关于禁食的问题(9:14-17)。 For the third time Matthew reports on three miracles of Jesus: The Lord healed a woman with a bleeding problem, he raised a dead girl to life (9:18-26), then he gave sight to two blind men (9:27-34). We are not sure why Matthew selected this pattern for his Gospel. Perhaps he felt that this arrangement would make it easier for his readers to learn and memorize the mighty deeds of Jesus. 最后,马太又记述耶稣的三个神迹:医治患血漏的女人;使已死的女孩儿复活(9:18-26);使两个瞎子复明(9:27-34)。我们无法知道马太用他独特的形式来撰写马太福音的原因。他也许认为这样可以让人们更多地关注并更深地理解耶稣的伟大作为,
  14. Sermon 2: Missions (9:35-10:42) 讲道 2:传教(9:35-10:42) The second great sermon of Jesus which Matthew recorded was about mission work. First he made clear the need for missionaries (9:35-38). Then missionaries were given power for their task (10:1-4). Finally they were given proper training for their work (10:5-42). 在这段,马太记录了耶稣关于传道工作的故事。他先说明了对传教士的需要(9:35-38)。之后讲述了传教士所被赋予的各样的能力(10:1-4);针对要去做的工作,每一个传教士都需要接受严格的培训(10:5-42)。 Here we can almost picture the Savior/King speaking directly to his servants. Missionary work is necessary but can be difficult. Real dangers exist, and missionaries are often made fun of. The missionary must be humble but brave. He must completely trust in God and remain faithful to him. 在此,我们几乎可以看到救主或大君王正直接地对他的仆人讲论。传教的事工是必要的,同时可能是艰难的。现实的危险是存在的,并且传教士经常被取笑。传教士必须谦卑而勇敢。他必须完全相信并忠于上帝。
  15. Jesus’ Ministry in Galilee (11:1-12:50) 耶稣在加利利的传道 (11:1-12:50) Matthew’s book is accurate. He was with Jesus when the Savior/King was opposed by many. In this section Matthew describes how many of the Lord’s teachings and actions were called into question. 马太福音的记载非常精确。当救主或大君王被众人反对的时候,马太正和耶稣在一起。因此马太对众人如何质疑主耶稣的教导和行为作了很多的记录。 While John the Baptist was in prison, his disciples came to Jesus with a question. Was Jesus the promised Messiah? Jesus answered by reminding them of his works and ministry. He then praised John (11:1-19). 当施洗约翰在监牢里的时候,他的门徒们带着疑问来见耶稣。耶稣真的是应许的弥赛亚吗?耶稣提醒他们他所行的事和他的工作,以此来回答他们的疑问。然后他称赞了约翰(11:1-19)。 Some Galilean cities still would not believe in Jesus even after he did so many miracles(11:20-24). However, Jesus gives spiritual rest to all those who repent of their sins and turn to him(11:25-30). 即使在耶稣行了那么多神迹之后,一些加利利的市民仍然不相信他(11:20-24)。那些认罪悔改并归向耶稣的人,耶稣就给他们灵里的安息。(11:25-30)。 The Pharisees became jealous of the popularity Jesus was receiving. They tried to find ways to discredit him (12:1-13). When this did not work, they accused God’s chosen Servant (12:15-21) of working with and for the devil (12:22-37). They even demanded miracles from him (12:38-45). 耶稣如此受欢迎开始招来法利赛人的嫉妒。他们试图找到败坏耶稣名声的方法(12:1-13)。当这些方法不起作用的时候,他们又控告神所拣选的仆人(12:15-21),说他是为魔鬼工作的(12:22-37)。他们还要求耶稣施展神迹给他们看(12:38-45)。 However, Jesus never got off track from his mission. He had come to increase the family of God (12:46-50). 然而,耶稣从未偏离他使命的轨道。他来到了这里是为了壮大上帝的家庭。(12:46-56)
  16. Sermon 3: The Kingdom (13:1-52) 讲道 3:天国 (13:1-52) Jesus spoke in parables. Here Matthew records seven of these which talk about the kingdom of heaven. The parables about the weeds (13:24-30) and the net (13:47-52) are found only in this Gospel. 耶稣用比喻来传讲真理。在这节,马太记录了7个关于天国的比喻。其中,稗子的比喻(13:24-30)和撒网的比喻没有在其他三卷福音书中出现过。(13:47-52) These earthly stories taught the people spiritual truths. The parables of the sower (13:3-9, 18-23),the hidden treasure, and the pearl (13:44-46) picture the how God’s kingdom begins and grows in the hearts of people. The others show that the kingdom will spread throughout the world. Finally, by speaking in parables Jesus was fulfilling Old Testament prophecies (13:14-15.) 这些世俗的故事被用来教导人们属灵的真理。撒种的比喻(13:3-9,18-23)、藏宝与寻珠的比喻(13:44-46),描绘了上帝的国度如何在人们心中扎根和成长。其他的比喻告诉我们,上帝的国度将遍及世界。其中,通过这些比喻,耶稣说明他正在实现旧约的预言(13:14-15)。
  17. Jesus’ Ministry in Galilee (13:53-17:27) 耶稣在加利利的传道 (13:53-17:27) In this section Matthew finishes his story of Jesus’ Galilean ministry. He begins on a sad note – the murder of John the Baptist (14:1-12). Then he returns to his pattern of presenting several miracles followed by brief teachings. 在这节,马太结束了耶稣在加利利传道的故事。他带来一个令人悲伤地消息——施洗约翰被杀害(14:1-12)。只有,他又以之前的叙述模式,记录了一些伴随着耶稣短讲或教导的神迹。 Jesus fed the five thousand (14:13-21), walked on water (14:22-33) and healed those who touched his clothes (14:34-36). At least his disciples understood the reason ehind such deeds. They responded, “Truly you are the Son of God”(14:33). 耶稣使五千人吃饱(14:13-21);耶稣在水面上行走(14:22-33);治好那些摸到他衣服的人(14:34-36)。通过这些,至少他的门徒们明白这些行为背后的原因。他们回应说:“你真是神的儿子了。(14:33)” The miracle section is followed by a sermon about hypocrisy (15:1-20) and then three additional miracles. Jesus healed a Canaanite woman (15:21-28) and a great multitude (15:29-31). 这些神迹之后,是另外的三个神迹和关于假冒为善的讲道(15:1-20)。耶稣又治好迦南的妇人(15:21-28)和其他很多病人(15:29-31)。 Again we hear about the false teachings of the Pharisees along with another Jewish sect called the Sadducees (16:1-12). They should have received Jesus as the promised Messiah, the Christ, the Son of the living God. At least Peter knew who Jesus was (16:13-20). 耶稣16章1-12节中再次提到,法利赛人和另一个犹太教派撒都该人的错误教导(16:1-12)。他们应该已经认识到耶稣是应许的弥赛亚、基督、永在神的儿子。至少彼得知道耶稣是谁(16:13-20)。 To be the Savior/King Jesus had to give his life to buy mankind back from sin and the devil. Jesus thus told that his death was coming near(16:21-28). 要成为救主或大君王,耶稣必须舍弃他的生命,将人类从罪和魔鬼那里赎回来。因此,耶稣告诉他的门徒们他即将被杀(16:21-28)。 The story of Jesus’ transfiguration serves as a bridge between the Old and New Testaments (17:1-13). There Jesus in full glory was joined by two famous Old Testament believers – Moses and Elijah. The earlier part of the Bible ended with prophecies about the forerunner and Messiah (Mal. 4:5-6). John was the forerunner while Jesus was and is the Savior. 耶稣登山变相的故事将旧约和新约联系起来(17:1-13)。在山上,耶稣与旧约中两个有名的信徒——摩西和以利亚——在完全的荣光中一起显现。旧约以先行者和弥赛亚的预言结束(玛拉基书 4:5-6)。耶稣是昔在、今在、永在的救主,而施洗约翰正是他的开路先锋。 This section is closed with more miracles. Jesus healed a demon possessed boy (17:14-23) and took money for tax payment from a fish’s mouth (17:24-27). 这一部分以更多的神迹作为结尾。耶稣治好被鬼附着的男孩(17:14-23);使门徒从鱼的口中取出钱币来缴纳圣殿税(17:24-27)。 In the last several chapters Jesus predicted his death four times (12:40; 16:21-23; 17:9-11;17:22-23). The Messiah King would willingly lay down his life to save mankind. 在最后的一些章节中,耶稣四次预言自己的死(12:40;16:21-23;17:9-11;17:22-23)。弥赛亚王甘愿献出自己的生命拯救人类。
  18. Sermon 4: Various Teachings (18:1-35) 讲道 4:各样的教导 (18:1-35) In chapter 18 Matthew records the words Jesus directed to his disciples. The Messiah had the divine ability to see weaknesses in them. He now tried to help them see their own sinful pride. For example, he encouraged them to be humble (18:1-5) and warned them never to lead others into sin. The disciples were taught to stay away from sin at all costs (18:6-9). Followers of Jesus should have a concern for children (18:10) and lost souls (18:12-14). They should bring back lost and sinning brothers whenever possible (18:15-20) and be willing to forgive (18:21-35). 在18章中,马太记录了耶稣和门徒们的对话。弥赛亚具有神的能力,能够看到他们心中的软弱。他还试着帮助门徒们看到自身骄傲的罪。比如,耶稣劝勉他们应该谦卑(18:1-5),同时告诫他们切勿引导他人犯罪。耶稣教导门徒们应不惜一切远离罪恶(18:6-9);应关心小孩子和(18:10)和迷失的灵魂(18:12-14);尽可能地使迷失和犯了罪的弟兄回转,并从心里饶恕他们(18:21-35)。
  19. Jesus’ Ministry in Judea (19:1-22:46) 耶稣在犹太的传道 (19:1-22:46) From the other Gospels we know that Jesus now left Galilee and for six months went throughout Perea, Judea and into Samaria. At the end of that time Matthew continues his story. 我们可以从其他福音书了解到,耶稣离开加利利之后,用了约6个月时间走遍庇哩亚、犹太并进入撒玛利亚地区。马太在本节继续讲述耶稣在这段日子即将结束时的故事。 As Jesus went towards Jerusalem and Calvary’s cross the Pharisees were still trying to cause him to make a mistake. Jesus answered their questions about marriage and divorce (19:1-12). Jesus had a special love for children, one of the blessings of marriage (19:13-15). 当耶稣走向耶路撒冷和髑髅地的十字架的时候,法利赛人仍试图揪出他的把柄。耶稣在此回答了他们关于婚姻和休妻的问题(19:1-12)。主基督特别喜爱小孩子,他们是神对婚姻的祝福之一(19:13-15)。 Soon after a rich young man came to Jesus and asked how to get eternal life. Jesus showed him that he was not on the right path but that he, the royal King, is salvation (19:16-30). That Jesus is the King of Israel is clearly taught in this verse -found only in Matthew’s Gospel “When the Son of Man sits on his glorious throne, you who have followed me will also sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel”(19:28). The parable of the vineyard workers (20:1-16) also teaches that salvation comes through King Jesus alone. 此后不久,一个富有的少年人来见耶稣,并问他怎样才能得到永生。耶稣向他显明除了通过信靠耶稣——这位尊贵的大君王——之外,没有其他途径可以得到救恩(19:16-30)。“人子坐在他荣耀的宝座上,你们也要坐在十二个宝座上,审判以色列的十二个支派” (19:28)这句只出现在马太福音中的教导,明确地告诉我们耶稣是以色列的王。葡萄园工人的比喻(20:1-16)教导我们,只有在耶稣基督这位君王那里,才可以得到救恩。 Jesus now was on the direct road to death. He predicted this again (20:17-19). Meanwhile the mother of two disciples wanted her sons to be given positions of power and authority (20:20-28). 耶稣正一步步走向死亡。他再次预言他将被杀害(20:17-19)。而与此同时,两个门徒的母亲前来请求耶稣,希望能使她的两个儿子将来在天国里位高权重(20:20-28)。 In the following accounts Matthew shows his Jewish readers that Jesus is the long awaited Messiah. Two blind men could see this (20:29-34). Pilgrims and children sensed this (21:1-17). Jesus was the “Son of David,” the humble King riding into Jerusalem on a donkey. He showed his power over nature (21:18-22) and silenced those who questioned his authority (21:23-27). 在接下来的记述中,马太向犹太的读者显示,耶稣就是他们长久等待的弥赛亚。两个瞎子得看见(20:29-34);朝拜的人们和小孩子们意识到了这一点(21:1-17);耶稣是“大卫的子孙”,谦卑的君王骑着驴驹进入耶路撒冷。他显现了他控制大自然的能力(21:18-22),并且使那些质疑他权柄的人无话可说(21:23-27)。 The Jewish leaders had rejected Jesus. In the parables of the two sons (21:28-32), of the tenants (21:33-46) and of the wedding banquet (22:1-14)he condemns them for their unbelief. In the rest of this chapter Matthew shows how the Pharisees and Sadducees took turns trying to trap Jesus in his words (22:15-46). Each time the Savior/King overcame his enemies. 犹太的领袖们尽其所能地排斥、抵制耶稣。在两个儿子的比喻(21:28-32)、园户的比喻(21:33-46)和婚筵的比喻(22:1-14)中,他因为他们的不信而定他们的罪。在这节的余下部分马太告诉我们,法利赛人和撒都该人轮番试图就耶稣的话陷害他(22:15-46)。救主或大君王每次都能够胜过他的仇敌。
  20. Sermon 5: The Last Days (23:1-25:46) 讲道5:末日 (23:1-25:46) In this last great sermon of Jesus the Lord gave a long list of charges against the hypocritical Pharisees (23:1-39). Their lack of faith would only earn them damnation. 在耶稣最后这个重要的讲道中,他列出一长串对假冒为善的法利赛人的控诉(23:1-39)。他们对信心的缺乏只会使他们被定罪。 Since they were thinking about death and the picture of the great temple was in front of their eyes, the disciples wanted to know about the end of the age (24:13). Jesus spoke of the last days before Judgment Day (24:4-14) and the last days before Jerusalem’s destruction (24:15-28). Then his thought shifts back to Judgment Day (24:29-31). Since no man knows when the Last Day will come the disciples and all believers must remain alert (24:32-42). Watchfulness is also taught in the parables of the thief at night (24:43-44), the wise and wicked servants (24:45-51), and the ten virgins (25:1-13). 由于开始思考死亡,有亲眼看到伟大的圣殿,门徒们想知道在末世这些到底将会怎样(24:13)。耶稣随即告诉他们末日审判之前(24:4-14)和耶路撒冷毁坏之前的情形(24:15-28)。然后耶稣的话题又转回到末日审判(24:29-31)。没有人知道末日审判何时到来,耶稣教导门徒和信徒们必须对此保持警醒(24:32-42)。晚上的盗贼(24:43-44)、有见识的仆人和恶仆人(24:45-51)及十童女(25:1-13)的比喻都是关于这方面的教导。 The parable of the talents taught the disciples to use their remaining time wisely (25:14-30). Finally, Jesus described Judgment Day itself. Jesus the King will separate the believers from the unbelievers. While the believers will be blessed, the unfaithful will receive eternal punishment(25:31-46). 才干的比喻教导门徒们如何使他们剩下的时间更有价值(25:14-30)。最后,耶稣描述了什么是末日审判——耶稣大君王会把信徒们从不信的人中分别出来。到那时,信徒们会被祝福,不信的人会受到永远的刑罚(25:31-46)。
  21. Jesus’ Suffering, Death, and Resurrection (26:1-28:20) 耶稣的受难,死亡和复活 (26:1-28:20) Matthew arranged the sermons and teachings of Jesus into larger sermons. However, it is not correct to say that these are the most important portions of his Gospel. Nothing could be more important to his readers than the story of Jesus’ suffering, death and resurrection. 马太将耶稣的话和教导汇总成更大的主题讲道。然而,这些讲道和教导却不是福音中最重要的部分。对于读者来说,没有什么比耶稣的受苦、死亡和复活更重要了。 On Saturday before Palm Sunday Jesus was anointed at the home of Simon the Leper (26:6-13). Three days later Judas decided to betray him (26:1-5, 14-16). On Thursday Jesus began the Lord’s Supper (26:17-30). Peter was warned that he would deny Jesus (26:31-35). Later that night the Messiah suffered in the Garden of Gethsemane (26:36-46). There he was arrested (26:47-51). Matthew is careful to record the words of Jesus that all of this must happen so that the Old Testament prophecies are fulfilled (26:52-56). Then the Lord was taken before the Jewish leaders to be condemned to death (26:57-68). Nearby, Peter denied knowing the Savior (26:69-75). 在棕枝主日之前的星期六,耶稣在长大麻风的西门家里受膏(26:6-13)。三天后,犹大出卖了耶稣(26:1-5,14-16)。星期四,耶稣设立了圣餐(26:17-30)。耶稣预言彼得将三次不认主(26:31-35)。当天深夜,弥赛亚在客西马尼园中痛苦地祷告(26:36-46)。他在那里被逮捕(26:47-51)。马太详细记录了耶稣所说的话:但这一切的事成就了,为要应验先知书上的话(26:52-56)。然后,耶稣被带到犹太宗教领袖面前,并被定了死罪(26:57-68)。在附近跟随的彼得三次说他不认识耶稣(26:69-75). Early on Friday Judas committed suicide (27:1-10), and Jesus was tried by the Romans (27:11-31). Then he was crucified (27:32-56). Matthew adds that above Jesus’ head was a sign: “JESUS, THE KING OF THE JEWS”(27:37), and the soldier who watched this said, “Surely he was the Son of God”(27:54)! 星期五清晨,犹大自缢(27:1-10);同时,耶稣受到罗马人的审判(27:11-31);被钉十字架(27:32-56)。这里马太还提到,耶稣头顶的牌子上写着:“犹太人的王耶稣”(27:37);耶稣断气后,看到这个牌子的兵丁害怕地说:“这真是神的儿子了”(27:54)! Jesus was buried (27:57-61) and a guard was put at the entrance to the tomb (27:62-66). However,on Easter Sunday he arose from the dead and showed himself to be alive (28:1-10). 耶稣被安葬(27:57-61),并由一个人看守在坟墓门口(27:62-66)。然而,在复活主日,耶稣从死里复活,并显现他的复活(28:1-10)。 Finally, look closely at how Matthew brings his book to a close. Jesus encourages the believers to make disciples of all nations by baptizing “in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit” and by “teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you”(27:19-20). It was important for Matthew’s Jewish readers to know that the Savior/King wants to rule over all mankind. 最后,我们来看马太是如何结束这部福音书的。耶稣告诉信徒们“奉父、子、圣灵的名”去给万民施洗,并且“凡我所吩咐你们的,都教训他们遵守”(28:19-20),使他们成为耶稣的门徒。显然,对于马太的犹太读者来说,使他们知道这位救主或君王将要治理万民是非常重要的。 Mark 马可福音 The Writer 作者 The author of the second Gospel was Mark. Although he is not named in the book, the early Christian Church was certain that John Mark had written it. It may be that Mark mentions himself when he tells how a young man fled naked during Jesus’ arrest (14:51-52). No other Gospel tells this story. We learn more about John Mark in the Acts of the Apostles (12:12, 12:25, 13:5, etc.; see also the Appendix). 马可福音的作者是马可。书中并没有记录他的名字,但早期基督教会确信约翰·马可写了这部福音书。有人推测在书中讲到耶稣被捕时,马可记载的“赤身逃走的那个少年人(14:51-52)”很可能就是他自己——因为没有其他福音书讲到过这个事情。我们可以在使徒行传中(12:12、12:25、13:5等章节及附录)了解了更多关于约翰·马可的事情。 Mark’s Purpose in Writing 马可福音的写作目的 Writers in the early church said that Mark wrote this Gospel especially for Roman Christians. The book itself shows that it was written to Gentiles, and especially Roman, readers. Hebrew and Aramaic words are translated (3:17; 5:41; 7:11,34; 14:36; 15:22). Jewish religious customs are explained (7:2-4; 15:42). Greek money is compared to Roman coins (12:42). Latin words are used – legion, centurion, praetorium. Finally, Mark’s Gospel records events that would have had a special interest to Romans. They were people who had power and appreciated action. Mark’s writing style is simple, to the point, and powerful. He emphasizes the works or deeds of Jesus rather than the Lord’s teachings. And Mark’s history of Jesus’ life seems to move quickly from event to event. For example, Mark uses the Greek word translated as “immediately” or “at once”42 times! 早期教会的作者们认为,马可特别为罗马的基督徒写了这部福音书。这部书本身的特点显示它是写给外邦,尤其是罗马读者的。作者特意在行文中将希伯来文和亚兰文(3:17;5:41;7:11,34;14:36;15:22)翻译为希腊文。作者还对犹太人的宗教习惯进行了解释(7:2-4;15:42)。希腊货币被换算成罗马钱币(12:42)。还使用了拉丁语:群、百夫长、衙门(彼拉多总督府)。此外,马可福音记录的事件能引起罗马人足够的关注。罗马人拥有权利并且非常注重行为。马可的写作方式简明扼要、语言掷地有声。他将重点放在讲述耶稣的作工和行为上,而不是主的教导上。同时,马可用其独特的方式记录了耶稣的人生经历——很快地从一件事转述到另一件事。例如,马可42次将 “随即”或者“马上”翻译成希腊文。 Mark’s purpose is shown in the Gospel’s very first verse. He writes, “The beginning of the gospel about Jesus Christ, the Son of God.” Roman Christians had heard the basic Gospel message and believed it. However, they wanted to hear more. The wanted a history of the Savior, to learn more about the Son of God who died on the cross for them. Mark writes to give them that knowledge. The Gospel according to Mark may have been written about A.D. 64. 这部福音开始的第一句话,表明了马可的写作目的。他写道:“神的儿子,耶稣基督福音的起头。”罗马的基督徒已经听到并相信这个基本的福音信息。然而,他们希望听到更多的信息。他们希望知道救主的经历,了解关于神的儿子被钉死在十字架上的事情。马可写这部福音就是为了让他们了解这些。马可福音约写于公元64年。 Outline of Mark 马可福音概要 Theme: “The Gospel about Jesus Christ, the Son of God” 主题:“神的儿子,基督耶稣的福音。”
  22. Preparations for Jesus’Ministry (1:2-13) 预备耶稣的传道(1:2-13)
  23. Jesus’ Ministry in Galilee (1:14-7:23) 耶稣在加利利的传道(1:14-7:23)
  24. Jesus’ Ministry North and East of Galilee (7:24-9:50) 耶稣在加利利北部和东部的传道(7:24-9:50)
  25. Jesus’ Ministry in Judea and Perea (10:1-52) 耶稣在犹太和庇哩亚(Perea)的传道(10:1-52)
  26. Jesus’ Passion Week (11:1-15:47) 耶稣的受难(11:1-15:47)
  27. Jesus’ Resurrection and Appearances(16:1-20) 耶稣的复活和显现(16:1-20) Summary 概述 Theme: “The Gospel about Jesus Christ, the Son of God” 主题:“神的儿子,基督耶稣的福音” Immediately Mark gives his purpose. He is not simply writing a detailed history of Jesus’ life. He is telling the Good News about the Savior. Here he calls the Savior “Son of God.”Mark shows that Jesus is God by the titles given to Jesus (1:1;3:11; 5:7; 14:61-62; 15:39), by his traits and abilities (or attributes, 2:5; 10:32-33), and by his deeds (18 miracles are described by Mark). On the other hand, Jesus is also true Man, as Mark brings out more clearly than any other evangelist. This is seen in Jesus’ title, “Son of man” (2:28; 8:38; 10:45; 14:62), his traits and abilities (or attributes, 13:32) and his human sensations and feelings (4:38). Mark often uses contrasts to show Jesus is both God and man. He is God yet a servant of God, strong yet obedient, victorious although he appears to be defeated. 马可第一时间给出了他的写作目的。详细记录耶稣的人生经历,并不是他最重要的目的。他要讲的是关于救主的福音。在这里,他称救主为“神的儿子”。马可告诉我们,通过他的名字(1:1;3:11;5:7;14:61-62;15:39);他的特征和能力(或特质,2:5;10:32-33);他的行为(马可讲述的18个神迹);耶稣表明了他就是神。另一方面,耶稣也是完全的人,这一点马可比其他的传道人讲述得更清楚。我们可以从耶稣的称呼: “神的儿子”(2:28;8:38;10:45;14:62),他的特征和能力(或特质,13:32)和他具有的人类的情感等方面(4:38)看出这一点。马可往往通过对比这两个方面显明耶稣既是神,也是人。他是神,也是神的仆人;是强大的,也是顺服的;是得胜的,即使在人看来是被打败了。
  28. Preparations for Jesus’ Ministry (1:2-13) 预备耶稣的传道(1:2-13) Mark begins with a prophecy from Isaiah (1:2-3). Then he immediately shows that John the Baptist fulfilled those words (1:4-8). Jesus was baptized by John, was tempted by Satan, and was ready to begin his ministry (1:9-13). 马可福音一开始引用了以赛亚书中的一个预言(1:2-3)。随后马可就宣告施洗约翰验证了以赛亚的预言(1:4-8)。耶稣接受了约翰的洗礼,随后在旷野受到撒旦的试探,并准备开始他的传道之旅(1:9-13)。
  29. Jesus’ Ministry in Galilee (1:14-7:23) 耶稣在加利利的传道(1:14-7:23) Jesus, the God/Man, was not afraid to make decisions. He called disciples and “without delay” they followed him (1:14-20). “Action” is a word that described Jesus. By speaking commands He drove an evil spirit out of a man. Those who saw this were amazed (1:21-28). He healed many, including Peter’s mother-in-law, a man with leprosy, and a paralyzed man. Once again the people were amazed (1:29-2:12). 耶稣——这位真正的神和真正的人——对他将要做出的决定并不犹疑。他呼召了他的门徒,并且他们没有任何迟疑地跟随了耶稣(1:14-20)。我们可以用“执行力”这个词来描述耶稣。耶稣命令污鬼从一个人身上出去。那些看见耶稣做这件事的人都感到惊讶(1:21-28);耶稣医治好了许多人,包括彼得的岳母、一个患大麻风的人和一个瘫子。人们再一次感到惊奇(1:29-2:12)。 Jesus was a friend of sinners. He called a tax collector to be his disciple and ate with well-known sinners (2:13-17). But his open teaching of forgiveness also made him open enemies. Jesus was opposed by the Pharisees and successfully defended his teachings (2:18-3:6). 耶稣与罪人为伍;他呼召税吏成为他的门徒,并和被众人不耻的罪人一同吃喝(2:13-17)。他公开地教导罪的赦免,使他成为了公众的敌人。耶稣被法利赛人反对,并成功地为真理进行了辩护(2:18-3:6)。 By this time Jesus had become famous throughout Palestine. The people were happy with his miracle healings and amazed by his power over demons (3:7-12). Perhaps those most impressed by Jesus were the men whom he selected to be the twelve apostles (3:13-19). 此时在巴勒斯坦全地,耶稣已经成为名人。人们对他能够施神迹医病感到兴奋,并惊讶耶稣的能力远远超过魔鬼(3:7-12)。也许跟随他的十二门徒,对这些匪夷所思的事情印象尤为深刻。(3:13-19)。 While Mark shows the mighty deeds of the Savior, he also tells of Jesus’ teachings. The Lord often spoke in parables. Through these picture stories he instructed and warned the Jewish religious leaders (3:20-34). Jesus used parables to show how the Word of God falls on the hearts of men (4:1-20), how believers should be witnesses for all to see, and how the Kingdom of God develops throughout the world (4:21-34). 然而马可不仅向我们展现了救主伟大的作为,还传达了耶稣的教导。基督常常以比喻讲道,并通过这些发人深思的故事,教导和告诫犹太的宗教领袖们(3:20-34)。耶稣用比喻描绘了神的话语如何在人们心中扎根(4:1-20),信徒如何为众人做见证,以及神的国度如何在世上彰显(4:21-34)。 In the next sections Mark shows his Roman readers how great Jesus’ power and authority really were. Jesus is Lord over nature (4:35-41). At his command thousands of demons obey his will (5:1-20). Most importantly, Jesus has power over death itself (5:21-43). 接下来,马可向他的罗马读者展示了耶稣的能力和权柄是何等的伟大。耶稣是超越自然的主(4:35-41)。听到耶稣的命令后,数以千计的鬼立即降服(5:1-20)。最为重要的是,耶稣有胜过死亡的能力(5:21-43)。 One wonders how Mark’s readers and hearers responded to the next two chapters of his book (6:1-7:23). Even after all that Jesus had said and done he was rejected in his own hometown (6:1-6). Nevertheless, Jesus’ love for sinners was so great that he responded by sending out missionaries (6:7-13). The mighty prophet John was killed by King Herod (6:14-29). Jesus showed love to the Jewish people, teaching them and feeding many thousands (6:30-43). Even though Jesus wanted to be alone to pray, he put the needs of his disciples above his own and rescued them from a storm at sea (6:45-56). The mighty, active Savior was also a patient man. He showed the wicked their hypocrisy and tried to lead them to repentance (7:1-23). 我们会好奇听众对马可接下来两个章节的故事有怎样的反应(6:1-7:23)。虽然听到耶稣的教导,看见他行的神迹,耶稣在他的家乡还是遭到厌弃(6:1-6)。然而,耶稣对罪人的爱是如此伟大,以至于他差遣传道人来回应罪人对他的拒绝(6:7-13);随后,伟大的先知施洗约翰被希律王杀害(6:14-29);耶稣用教导和使数千人吃饱显现了他对犹太人的爱(6:30-43);尽管想要独自祷告,他还是将门徒们的需求置于自己的需求之上,并把他们从海上的风暴中救了出来(6:45-56)。伟大的、积极的救主也是一个宽容的人——他教导软弱的人何为假冒为善,并引导他们悔改(7:1-23)。
  30. Jesus’ Ministry North and East of Galilee(7:24-9:50) 耶稣在加利利北部和东部的传道(7:24-9:50) After defending his teachings against the attacks of his enemies, Jesus tried to get away from the crowds. He journeyed north to the area of Tyre and Sidon. He could not hide, however. Jesus, the tireless servant of God and helper of mankind, healed a Syrophoenician woman’s demon-possessed daughter (7:24-30). 针对敌人攻击自己的言论进行辩护之后,耶稣试着远离人群。他来到北方沿海的推罗和西顿地区。然而他无法隐藏起来。耶稣,神不知疲倦的仆人、人类的帮助者医治了叙利腓尼基妇人被鬼附着的女儿(7:24-30)。 Still seeking a place to be alone with his disciples Jesus then traveled to the east of the Sea of Galilee. There the story was the same – more miracles, more preaching (7:31-8:9). 耶稣仍在寻找能和使徒们安静独处的地方,随后来到加利利海的东岸。在那里发生的事情也一样——更多的神迹、更多的教导(7:31-8:9)。 Jesus returned to Galilee for a short time. Immediately the Pharisees again attacked him (8:9-12). So the Lord left Galilee and traveled northward toward Bethsaida Julias as he continued teaching his disciples (8:13-21). 耶稣返回加利利地区没有多久。法利赛人立刻对他进行攻击(8:9-12)。因此,主离开加利利地区,向北行来到伯赛大东边,继续教导跟随他的门徒们(8:13-21)。 Mark is the only evangelist who reports the healing of the blind man in Bethsaida (8:22-26). His story tells even small details about this miracle. 马可是唯一一个记录了耶稣在伯赛大治好瞎子故事的作者(8:22-26);在这段故事里,马可的描述可谓细致入微。 Jesus asked his disciples whom they believed him to be (8:27-30). This was an important question, for the Lord knew that he would soon die (8:31-9:1). If there was any question about who he was, it should have been answered by his transfiguration. There God the Father called Jesus his son (9:2-13). He confirmed this fact by again performing a miracle (9:14-27). Then he again predicted his death (9:28-32). 耶稣问他的门徒们,如何看待自己(8:27-30)。这是一个很重要的问题,因为耶稣知道他即将死去(8:31-9:1)。对耶稣是谁这个问题的疑问,最好的解答是将他的本相显现给他们。在山上,父神称耶稣为他的儿子(9:2-13)。耶稣通过再一次施行神迹证明了这个事实(9:14-27),然后他再一次预言了自己的死亡(9:28-32)。 Returning to Capernaum Jesus taught his disciples to be like himself. They should be content to be servants (9:33-50). 返回到迦百农,耶稣教导门徒们效法他的样式——满足于做一个仆人(9:33-50)。
  31. Jesus’ Ministry in Judea and Perea (10:1-52) 耶稣在犹太和庇哩亚的传道(10:1-52) Mark comments on the next six months of the Lord’s ministry in a single verse, “Jesus then left that place and went into the region of Judea and across the Jordan”(10:1). He does, however, describe some of the events which took place in the month before Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem and his death on the cross. 马可用一句话概括了耶稣在接下来的6个月里的传道:“耶稣从那里起身,来到犹太的境界,并约但河外”(10:1)。同时,他还记述了在同一个月里,发生在耶稣进入耶路撒冷和被钉死在十字架上之前的事情。 Jesus spoke against divorce (10:1-12) and for little children (10:13-16). He spoke about how hard it is to be a true believer (10:17-31). 耶稣反对休妻(10:1-12),并谈论小孩子的教导(10:13-16)。他告诉门徒们作为一个真正的信徒是何等的难(10:17-31)。 Very soon the time would arrive for Jesus to serve all mankind through his death (10:32-34). Unfortunately the disciples were content not to serve but to be served (10:35-45). Jesus was willing to stop and help a blind beggar (10:46-52), for service was part of his very being. 耶稣为众人而死的时刻逐渐临近(10:32-34)。不幸的是,门徒们的心愿不是服侍人,而是要受人的服侍(10:35-45)。耶稣愿意停下脚步,帮助一个讨饭的瞎子(10:46-52),因为服侍人是他存在的目的。
  32. Jesus’ Passion Week (11:1-15:47) 耶稣的受难周(11:1-15:47) Mark takes his readers quickly through the three years of Jesus’ ministry. However, when he gets to the week of Christ’s death he slows down and gives much more detail. About one third of the entire book is spent on this one week. Mark is determined to show the Romans that Jesus’ suffering, death, and resurrection, is the center of the Gospel. 马可剪影似地带领读者了解了耶稣三年传道的经历。但是,当故事到了基督受难的那个星期,马可放慢了速度,告诉了我们更多的细节。这一周的故事,马可用了整部福音书的三分之一的篇幅。他的意思是向罗马人揭示福音的核心——耶稣的受苦、被害和复活。 On “Palm Sunday” Jesus rode into Jerusalem as a king (11:1-11). The next day he used a fig tree to teach a lesson and he taught in the temple (11:12-19). Tuesday was a busy day. The disciples learned more from the fig tree (11:20-25). Jesus taught in the temple, putting all church history into a single parable (12:1-12). He defended himself when attacked (12:13-40), and commented on a widow’s offering (12:41-44). 在“棕枝主日”,万王之王耶稣骑着驴驹进入耶路撒冷(11:1-11)。第二天,他用一棵无花果树教导门徒们,又在圣殿里教导众人(11:12-19)。星期四是忙碌的一天。门徒们从关于无花果树的教导中学到了很多(11:20-25)。耶稣在圣殿中教导众人,他将全部的教会历史融为一个比喻(12:1-12)。耶稣再次为自己受到的攻击辩护(12:13-40),并向门徒们讲解了他对寡妇的奉献的看法(12:41-44)。 After leaving the temple Jesus taught the disciples about future events (13:1-37). Later that evening Jewish leaders planned Jesus’ arrest (14:1-2) while Judas decided to betrayal his master (14:10-11). 离开圣殿之后,耶稣将末世的事情教导给门徒们(13:1-37)。那个晚上没多久,犹太领袖们开始计划捉拿耶稣(14:1-2),犹大也在此时决定出卖他的救主(14:10-11)。 The anointing of Jesus described in Mark 14:3-9 took place before Palm Sunday (see Matt. 26:6-13 and John 11:55-12:11). But Mark tells the story here because of its connection to Judas’ betrayal. 在马可福音14章3-9节中记录的耶稣受膏,发生在“棕枝主日”之前(参见马太福音26:6-13和约翰福音11:55-12:11)。但是马可在这里讲述这个故事,是由于它和犹大出卖耶稣有关。 None of the Gospels tells what happened on Wednesday of Holy Week. On Thursday Jesus ate the Passover meal with his disciples, making it into a new “Lord’s Supper”(14:12-26), predicted Peter’s denial (14:27-31) and went to Gethsemane where he prayed and was arrested (14:32-52). 四部福音书都没有告诉我们,受难周中的星期三发生了什么事。在星期四,耶稣和他的门徒们吃了逾越节的晚餐,使之成为一个具有新的意义的“圣餐”(14:12-26);期间,耶稣预言彼得将三次不认主(14:27-31);稍后,耶稣前往客西马尼祷告并最终被捕(14:32-52)。 Late Thursday night and during the early hours of Friday Jesus was tried by the Jews (14:53-65). Peter denied him (14:66-72). Then Jesus was tried by Pilate (15:1-15) and mocked (15:16-20). 星期四的深夜到星期五清晨,耶稣被犹太人审问(14:53-65)。彼得三次拒绝承认认识耶稣(14:66-72)。稍后,耶稣被彼拉多审问(15:1-15)并被戏弄(15:16-20)。 On Good Friday Jesus was crucified (15:21-47). Mark’s account is so real and full of horror that one feels shame even when reading it. Yet, it waa Roman soldier who sums up Jesus’ life so well”Surely this man was the Son of God”(15:39). Mark leads his readers to understand the true meaning of Jesus’ death on the cross. 在受难日,耶稣被钉在十字架上(15:21-47)。马可的记录是如此的真实并使人震惊。一个罗马兵丁非常好地总结了耶稣的一生:“这人真是神的儿子”(15:39)。马可带领读者们明白耶稣被钉死在十字架上的真正意义。
  33. Jesus’ Resurrection and Appearances (16:1-20) 耶稣的复活和显现(16:1-20) Mark then quickly moves to Easter Sunday and Jesus’ appearances to some of the believers. Then he quotes the Great Commission (16:1-18). The book closes with Jesus in heaven and the disciples preaching his name and message on earth(16:19-20). 马可的故事迅速地来到星期日的早晨,耶稣复活并向信徒们显现。随后,马可提到了大使命(16:1-18)的信息。整部福音书,以天堂里的耶稣和门徒们在地上传讲耶稣之名及他的福音作为结尾(16:19-20)。