恩典国际圣经学院

第四章对处于困惑中的教会的回应 (Chapter 4)


第四章:对处于困惑中的教会的回应 (Chapter 4) Chapter 4:Correspondence With Troubled Congregations 第四章:对处于困惑中的教会的回应 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, and Galatians 哥林多前书,哥林多后书和加拉太书 Introduction 引言 Jesus and Satan are total enemies. When the Lord was on the earth the devil tried to defeat him with all his tricks. After Jesus went back to heaven, Satan continued to bring trouble to the congregations of believers, which exist to do the Savior’s will. In the churches in Corinth and Galatia the devil worked to destroy the pure Word and Sacraments. Paul’s letters to these troubled congregations call for complete loyalty to God’s Word. At the same time these letters show the love of a Christian for his erring brothers and sisters. 耶稣和撒旦是绝对的敌人。当主在世上时,魔鬼试图用他的计谋打败他。耶稣回到天堂之后,撒旦继续给因救主意愿存在的教会中的信徒们带来麻烦。在哥林多和加拉太的教会中,魔鬼试图毁坏真正的神的话语和圣礼。保罗给这些困惑中的教会的信件要求他们完全忠于神的话语。同时,这些信件还显示了一个基督徒对他那些犯错的弟兄姐妹们的爱。 1 Corinthians 哥林多前书 The Writer 作者 The very first word of this letter tells us that Paul wrote this letter. The pronoun “I” is also used through the entire letter. Sosthenes, mentioned in the first verse, was with Paul at the time. 这封信的第一个字告诉我们是保罗写了这封信。整封信也都用的是代词“我”来叙述的。所提尼,信中第一句提到的人,那时和保罗在一起。 Paul’s Purpose in Writing 保罗的写作目的 Paul was interested in the congregation at Corinth not only as a fellow Christian but because he had begun this congregation and was its first pastor (4:15). In A.D. 52 while on his second missionary journey, Paul came to Corinth. This large port city was full of pagan worship and sinfulness. Yet the preaching of the Gospel produced fruit. A Christian congregation was established. After preaching in Corinth for 18 months Paul left leaving Apollos in charge (Acts 18:1-19:1). 保罗关心在哥林多的教会不仅因为他是基督徒还因为他兴起来这个教会并成为了它的第一位牧师(4:15)。在公元52年他的第二次传道行程中,保罗来到哥林多。这个大的港口城市中都是外邦人对偶像的敬拜和罪。然而传讲福音结出了果实。一个基督徒的教会被兴起。在哥林多传讲18个月之后,保罗让亚波罗留在那里负责(18:1-19:1)。 A few years passed. In A.D. 57 Paul was in Ephesus, across the Aegean Sea from Corinth. Paul was full of sorrow when he heard that problems were troubling the Corinthian congregation. Paul wrote a letter to give the church advice (5:9). But Paul’s letter was not understood properly (5:10-11) and things did not improve. Reports of public sin within the church continued (1:11; 16:17). So Paul sat down and wrote this long letter spelling out the problems and giving God’s solutions. He also answered the Corinthians’ written request for advice in certain matters (7:1; 7:25; 8:1; 12:1; 16:1). 几年过去了。公元57年,保罗在以弗所,就是隔着爱琴海与哥林多相对的地方。当保罗听到一些问题正困扰着哥林多的教会时,他感到悲伤。保罗写了一封信给教会提出了建议(5:9)。但是保罗的信没有被正确地理解(5:10-11)并且情况没有改善。他继续听到教会中公共罪的消息(1:11;16:17)。因此保罗坐下来写了这封长篇的信件详细说明存在的问题并给出出于神的解决方式。保罗也答复了哥林多人对一些具体问题请他给出建议的书面请求(7:1;7:25;8:1;12:1;16:1)。 Outline of 1 Corinthians 哥林多前书概要 Theme: “I Appeal to You, Brothers, in the Name of Our Lord Jesus Christ” 主题:“弟兄们,我藉我们主耶稣基督的名劝你们”

  1. Introduction and Thanksgiving (1:1-9) 引言和感恩(1:1-9)
  2. Paul Answers Reports of Evil Conduct Among Church Members (1:10-6:20) 保罗回复关于罪行的报告在教会会众之间(1:10-6:20) A.Groups Fighting in the Church(1:10-4:21) 教会中分党的纷争(1:10-4:21) B.Case of Sexual Immorality (5:1-13) 淫行的事(5:1-13) C.Church Members Suing Each Other (6:1-11) 教会会众彼此告状(6:1-11) D.Sexual Immorality (6:12-20) 淫行(6:12-20)
  3. Paul Responds to Questions from the Corinthians (7:1-16:4) 保罗回答哥林多人的问题(7:1-16:4) A.Sex, Marriage, and Celibacy (7:1-40) 同房,婚姻和独身(7:1-40) B.Food Sacrificed to Idols (8:1-11:1) 祭偶像的食物(8:1-11:1) C.Conduct During Public Worship(11:2-14:40) 引导公众敬拜(11:2-14:40) D.The Resurrection (15:1-58) 复活(15:1-58) E.The Collection (16:1-4) 捐项(16:1-4)
  4. Personal Matters (16:5-24) 个人事项(16:5-24) Summary 概要 Theme: “I Appeal to You, Brothers, in the Name of Our Lord Jesus Christ” 主题:“弟兄们,我藉我们主耶稣基督的名劝你们” These are the first words in the main body of the letter (1:10). Paul speaks as an apostle of Jesus Christ (1:1) to fellow Christians (brothers). He makes his appeal not in his own behalf but in Jesus’ name and for the sake of Christ’s kingdom. 这是信的主题部分的第一句话(1:10)。保罗作为耶稣基督的一个门徒对其他基督徒(弟兄们)讲论(1:1)。他的劝告不是出于他自己而是藉耶稣的名并为了基督的国。
  5. Paul Answers Reports of Evil Conduct Among Church Members (1:10-6:20) 回复关于罪行的报告(1:10-6:20) Through faithful Christians Paul had heard of fighting, immorality and lack of order in the Corinthian congregation. In the first part of this letter he shows the error of the false teachings and practices, then he shows what God-pleasing conduct is. 通过信实的的基督徒保罗听到了争斗,行淫和哥林多教会没有规范。在这封信的第一部分他告诉我们了错误教导和实践中的问题,然后他指出神喜悦的引导是什么。 A. Groups Fighting in the Church (1:10-4:21) 教会中分党的纷争(1:10-4:21) The Corinthians, like their neighbors the Athenians, valued good speeches, philosophy and other types of human wisdom. This now was causing problems in the Corinthian congregation. Four groups developed ¨C the followers of Paul, the followers of Apollos, the followers of Cephas (Peter) and the followers of Christ (1:10-12). This cannot continue, for Christ is not divided(1:13-16). 哥林多人,像他们的邻居希腊人一样,重视优秀的讲论,哲学和其他形式的人的智慧。此时这在哥林多的教会中导致了一些问题。四个不同的党派产生了—属保罗的,属亚波罗的,属矶法的(彼得)和属基督的(1:10-12)。这样的事情不能再继续下去,因为基督没有分党(1:13-16)。 Paul then shows that the Christian message, which is foolishness to philosophers, is the only message that saves (1:17-25). The believing Corinthians know this from their own lives (1:26-31). Paul and others like Apollos and Cephas (Peter) preach God’s message to mankind. The message, not the messenger, is the important thing (2:1-3:23). 接着保罗指出基督的道理在学者看来是愚拙的,只有在得救的人看来是真理(1:17-25)。那些相信神的哥林多人从他们的生活中明白这道理(1:26-31)。保罗和其他人比如说亚波罗和矶法(彼得)向人们传讲神的道理。是这道理,而不是传讲这道理的人,很重要(2:1-3:23)。 How then should the congregation treat the men who preach God’s truth? – “as servants of Christ and those entrusted with the secret things of God”(4:1). The Corinthians need to learn this lesson and gain a proper understanding of and appreciation for ministers of Christ (4:6-21). 教会应该如何对待传讲神的真理的人呢?——“以为基督的执事,为神奥秘事的管家”(4:1)。哥林多人需要学习这个道理并正确的理解这个道理以及感谢基督的传道人(4:6-21)。 B. A Case of Sexual Immorality (5:1-13) 淫行的事(5:1-13) The city of Corinth was once famous for its sexual sins. Now Paul learned that a member of the Christian congregation was openly committing incest with his stepmother (5:1). Paul demanded that the believers discipline that member immediately (5:2-13). Such a man should not be allowed in their church until he repents (5:13) This was for his own good (5:5) as well as for the good of the congregation (5:6). 哥林多城曾经以行淫邪的罪闻名。如今保罗了解到基督教会中的一个教徒公开承认与他的继母行淫乱的事(5:1)。保罗要求信徒们马上惩戒那名教徒(5:2-13)。这样一个人不应该被允许留在教会中知道他悔改(5:13)。这是为了这个人得益处(5:5)也是为了教会得益处(5:6)。 C. Church Members Suing Each Other (6:1-11) 教会会众彼此告状(6:1-11) Another problem arose when church members felt free to file lawsuits against one another in the courts (6:1,6-7). Paul says that such men should ask their fellow believers to help them settle their disagreements. Believers should serve as peacemakers among the unbelievers, not the other way around (6:1-11). 当教会中的教徒们在法庭中彼此随意告状时,另一个问题产生了(6:1,6-7)。保罗说这样的人应该要其他信徒帮助他们解决分歧。信徒们应该在不信的人中做调解者,不是做相反的事(6:1-11)。 D. Sexual Immorality (6:12-20) 淫行(6:12-20) Paul has already taught that “the wicked will not inherit the kingdom of God” (6:9). Christian freedom is not freedom to do sexual immoral things but, rather, freedom to avoid such sin. Christian, Paul says, “You are not your own; you were bought at a price. Therefore honor God with your body”(6:19-20). 保罗已经教导了“不义的人不能承受神的国”(6:9)。基督徒的自由不是指可以自由地行淫乱的事,而是避免这种罪的自由。基督徒,保罗说到,“你们不是自己的人;因为你们是重价买来的。所以要在你们的身子上荣耀神”(6:19-20)。
  6. Paul Responds to Questions from the Corinthians (7:1-16:4) 保罗回答哥林多人的问题(7:1-16:4) Paul had addressed the bad conduct in the church at Corinth. Now he answers other questions the Corinthians had asked in a letter (7:1). 保罗已经指出了哥林多教会中的错误引导。在此他回答了哥林多人在一封信中提出的其他问题(7:1)。 A. Sex, Marriage, and Celibacy (7:1-40) 同房,婚姻和独身(7:1-40) Some people marry, others remain single. Some have sex with their spouse, others have sex outside of marriage. Different societies have different rules about what is right and wrong sexual conduct. Paul takes this opportunity to explain the Lord’s will on these subjects. He also expressed his own opinions on what this meant for the times in which he lived. The main points in this chapter are: Remaining single has advantages in a world filled with trouble but it is not possible for everyone; marriage is normal; divorce is not the will of God; but if an unbeliever leaves his Christian wife, he has already broken the marriage bond. 一些人结婚,一些人保持单身。一些人与他们的配偶同房,一些人却和婚姻之外的人同房。不同的社会对于性问题指导的对与错,有着不同的法则。保罗借此机会讲解了主对于这些问题的意愿。他也表达了他自己对于这个问题在他生活的时代意味着什么的看法。这一章中最重要的几点是:守独身在这充满困扰的世界是有好处的,但是这不可能对每个人都合适;结婚是普遍的;离婚不是神的意愿;但是如果一个不信的人离开他基督徒妻子,他就已经破坏了婚姻的约。 B. Food Sacrificed to Idols (8:1-11:1) 祭偶像的食物(8:1-11:1) The Corinthian Christians wanted to know whether it was proper for them to eat food which previously had been offered in pagan sacrifices. Paul answers the question but also establishes rules about Christian freedom. He says Christians are permitted to do everything that is not sinful, but not everything is useful and not everything builds up faith (10:23). Idols are not important to Christians. But if eating food that was earlier sacrificed to an idol causes a “weak” Christian to lose his faith then it is better not to even touch that food (8:1-13). 哥林多的基督徒们想要知道他们吃外邦人在献祭时摆放过的食物是否正确。保罗回答了这个问题,但也设立了关于基督徒自由的律法。他说基督徒被允许做任何不是有罪的事情,但是不是任何事都有益处,都能增强信心(10:23)。偶像对基督徒不重要。但是如果因吃了之前祭拜过偶像的食物导致一个“软弱的”基督徒失掉信心,那就最好不要碰那些食物(8:1-13)。 Paul uses himself as an example of this rule (9:1-27). While he had freedom as a Christian, nevertheless his entire ministry was one of self-sacrificing love. He showed this by not accepting money or other support from the Christians (9:7-15). A pastor has two purpose and is ruled by them: Salvation of others through the Gospel (9:16-23), and his own eternal life(9:24-27). 保罗以他自己作为这个律法的例子(9:1-27)。尽管他作为一个基督徒有了自由,但是他整个传道是自我牺牲的爱的其中一种表现。他不接受钱财或从别的基督徒来的其他奉献正体现了这一点(9:7-15)。一位牧师的职责有两个并:其他靠福音得救恩(9:16-23),和得永生(9:24-27)。 So that his teachings on Christian freedom would not be misunderstood, Paul issues a warning from history. Many ancient Israelites fell into pagan worship (10:1-5). Corinthian Christians should realize that it was not right to participate in idol feasts and then take part in the Lord’s Supper (10:6-22). Again Paul states the nature and rules of Christian liberty (10:23-11:1). 为了使他关于基督徒自由的教导不要被误解,保罗借鉴了一段历史。历史上的许多以色列人随从外邦人拜偶像(10:1-5)。哥林多的基督徒应该认识到,吃拜偶像的筵席又领主的圣餐是不对的(10:6-22)。保罗再一次陈述了基督徒自由的本质和规矩(10:23-11:1)。 C. Conduct During Public Worship(11:2-14:40) 引导公众敬拜(11:2-14:40) Paul now begins a rather long part of his letter dealing with proper conduct in public worship. First he gives advice on how women should act in the church (11:2-16). At creation God made man before woman, and made man the head over the woman (11:3,8-9). Paul encourages the Corinthian women to respect their husbands as their heads. They could do that by honoring the social custom in that area of wearing a head covering in church. 保罗开始了他信中关于敬拜规矩的一段相当长的叙述。首先他给出女人在教会中应该有怎样的言行的建议(11:2-16)。神创造天地时在造女人之前先造了男人,并使男人成为女人的头(11:3,8-9)。保罗鼓励哥林多的女人们将他们的丈夫作为他们的头来尊重。他们通过尊重当地的社会风俗在教会中蒙头来体现他们对丈夫的尊重。 The members of the Corinthian congregation gathered to eat together and then celebrated the Lord’s Supper at the same time. This became a problem when the meal turned into a party. The Lord’s Supper was misused and the meal caused divisions instead of unity among the Christians (11:21). Paul reminds them that it is the Lord’s Supper, not theirs (11:17-26). They must properly examine their hearts and accept Christ’s bodily presence in order to eat and drink in a worthy way (11:27-34). 哥林多教会会众一起聚会,吃喝并同时领受主的圣餐,当聚会吃喝变成宴会时就成了问题。主的圣餐被误用而且吃喝导致了分党而不是基督徒的合一(11:21)。保罗提香他们这是主的圣餐,不是他们自己的(11:17-26)。他们必须仔细省察他们的心并领受基督有形的存在,为的是以合乎主心意的方式吃喝(11:27-34)。 The Corinthian believers also had a wrong view of the gifts (spiritual abilities) God had given them (12:1- 14:40). Paul shows, first of all, that the Holy Ghost brought them to faith. He gave different gifts to individuals for the benefit of the whole body of believers (12:1-31). Each Christian should not be filled with pride because of his gift, but remember that love is the highest gift (13:1-13). Where love exists the other gifts have a blessed purpose (14:1). Prophecy (preaching) helps the whole congregation grow and is more important than speaking in tongues (14:1-25). In the public worship service gifts must be used in an orderly way. Women are not to take leadership roles as ministers or be disruptive in the church (14:26-40). 哥林多的信徒们还对神给他们的恩赐(属灵的能力)有错误的看法(12:1-14:40)。保罗表示,首先,圣灵赐给他们信心。他给每个人不同的恩赐为的是所有信徒所组成的一个身子得益处(12:1-31)。每个基督徒都不应该以自己的恩赐自夸,而要记住爱是最大的恩赐(13:1-13)。爱存在的同时具有的其他恩赐是有被祝福的目的(14:1)。作先知(讲道)是要帮助全教会的成长并且比说方言更重要(14:1-25)。在公众敬拜中恩赐必须有序地使用。女人们不能在教会中作为牧师行使领导的权利或是引起混乱(14:26-40)。 D. The Resurrection (15:1-58) 复活(15:1-58) Questions about the resurrection of the dead had also arisen in the Corinthian church (15:12,33-34). Paul sets out the true teaching. Christ rose from the dead (15:1-11). How, then, can some people deny there is a resurrection of the dead? Christianity would be useless if there was no life after death (15:12-19). However, since Christ lives, Christians know that he will rule all things and that all believers will arise on the day of his Second Coming (15:20-34). 哥林多教会中兴起对基督死后复活的疑问(15:12,33-34)。保罗阐明了正确的教导。基督从死里复活(15:1-11)。但是怎么会有人否认死人复活的事呢?如果死后没有复生,基督精神将对众人无益(15:12-19)。然而,基督复活,基督徒们了解他会掌管一切并且所有信徒会在他第二次到来时从死里复活(15:20-34)。 “But someone may ask in what way will the dead be raised and with what kind of body will they return? “Paul answers these questions (15:35-57). He encourages the believers to remain firm in their faith and give themselves completely to the work of the Lord (15:58). “或有人问:‘死人怎样复活,带着什么身体来呢?’”。保罗回答了这些问题。(15:35-37)。他鼓励信徒们仍坚固他们的信心并将自己完全地交给主来行事(15:58)。 E. The Collection (16:1-4) 捐项(16:1-4) Paul had taken up a collection for the very poor believers in Jerusalem (Acts 11:29; Rom 15:26). Here he discusses what the proper view of stewardship is and how contributions should be made (16:1-4). 保罗为在耶路撒冷的贫穷的信徒们募集了捐项(使徒行传11:29;罗马书15:26)。他在此讨论了对奉献的责任的正确看法和如何筹集捐资(16:1-4)。
  7. Personal Matters (16:5-24) 个人事项(16:5-24) In the rest of his letter, Paul tells where he hopes to travel yet (16:5-9). He writes of a visit by Timothy (16:10-11), and tells of Apollos’ plans (16:12). He commends the Corinthian men who had come to him (16:13-18). Finally, he closes with a warm greeting and a final warning (16:19-24). 在信中其他部分,保罗告诉我们了他希望前往什么地方(16:5-9)。他叮嘱哥林多教会接待提摩太的事(16:10-11),并说了亚波罗的计划(16:12)。他称赞了到他那里去的几个人的事工(16:13-18)。最后,他以最后的问安和最后的告诫结束了他的这封信(16:19-24)。 2 Corinthians 哥林多后书 The Writer 作者 Paul, the author of 1 Corinthians, wrote this letter as well (1:1; 10:1). It is a highly personal letter and shows Paul as a defender of truth and a lover of souls. 保罗,哥林多前书的作者,也写了这封信(1:1,10:1)。这很可能是一封个人信件并显示出保罗是为真理分诉和爱众人灵的人。 Paul’s Purpose in Writing 保罗的写作目的 In our introduction to 1 Corinthians we learned that Paul wrote that letter to the Corinthian congregation warning them not to associate with immoral people (1 Cor. 5:9). Since they did not listen to this warning, the apostle followed up with a long letter which we know as 1 Corinthians. This letter did not achieve its purpose, so Paul made a personal visit to Corinth. But Paul’s visit only made things worse. So Paul had to write a “severe” letter calling them to repent (2 Cor. 2:3-4; 7:8). 在哥林多前书的引言中,我们了解到保罗写这封信给哥林多的教会是告诫他们不要结交淫乱的人(哥林多前书5:9)。然而他们没有听从告诫,这位使徒紧接着写了一封被我们称为哥林多前书的长篇书信。这封信没有达到它的目的,因此保罗亲自拜访哥林多。但是保罗的拜访却使事情发展恶化。所以保罗不得不写了一封“严肃的”的书信叫他们悔改(哥林多后书2:3-4;7:8)。 Paul’s concern for the church in Corinth did not end with letter writing or his own visit. He wanted other trustworthy pastors to make visits. Timothy already had visited the congregation (1 Cor. 4:17; 16:10) and now Titus was sent (2 Cor. 7:13-15; 8:6,16; 12:18). 保罗对哥林多教会的担心没有随着他写的信和他拜访的结束而停止。他希望其他值得信任的牧师去拜访哥林多的教会(哥林多前书4:17;16:10)并且此时提多被排到那里(哥林多后书7:13-15;8:6,16;12:18)。 Meanwhile Paul left Ephesus (Acts 20:1-2) and set out for the city of Troas. Later he went on to the province of Macedonia. In Macedonia Titus found Paul and told him about his visit to Corinth(2 Cor. 7:5-6). 同时保罗离开以弗所(使徒行传20:1-2)出发去特罗亚。之后他去了马其顿。在马其顿提多找到保罗并告诉保罗关于他拜访哥林多的事(哥林多后书7:5-6)。 Titus said that the man who had taken his father’s wife (1 Cor. 5) had been excommunicated (2 Cor. 2:5-7). As Paul had suggested (1 Cor. 16:1-4), the Corinthians were gathering a collection for the poor Christians of Jerusalem (2 Cor. 8:1-12;9:1-2). However, Titus knew that some major problems still existed within that congregation. Some members were against Paul, doubting he really was an apostle. They questioned his teachings (2 Cor. 3:1-2) and attacked his ministry (2 Cor. 10-13). 提多说那个收了他父亲的妻子的人(哥林多前书5)已经被逐出教会(哥林多后书2:5-7)。正如保罗所建议的(哥林多前书16:1-4),哥林多人为耶路撒冷的贫穷基督徒募集了捐项(哥林多后书8:1-12;9:1-2)。然而,提多了解到一些主要问题仍然存在于教会中。一些教徒反对保罗,怀疑他是否真的是一名使徒。他们质疑他的教导(哥林多后书3:1-2)并攻击他的职分(哥林多后书10-13)。 2 Corinthians is an answer to the good and bad news reported by Titus. It was written from Macedonia, possibly the city of Philippi, about A.D. 57. 哥林多后书是对提多报告的好消息和坏消息的一个回应。它是公元57年保罗在马其顿写的,可能是腓力比的一个城市。 Outline of 2 Corinthians 哥林多后书概要 Theme: “An Apostle of Christ Jesus by the Will of God” 主题:题奉神旨意,作基督耶稣使徒”
  8. Introduction (1:1-2) 引言(1:1-2)
  9. The Glory and Power of the Ministry (1:3-7:16) 事工的荣耀和权柄(1:3-7:16) A. The Apostles’ and the Corinthians’ Welfare(1:3-2:11) 使徒和哥林多人的福分(1:3-2:11) B.The Ministry of the New Covenant (2:12-6:10) 新约的事工(2:12-6:10) C.Personal Appeal for Reconciliation (6:11-7:16) 个人呼求与神和好(6:11-7:16)
  10. About the Collection (8:1-9:15) 关于捐项(8:1-9:15)
  11. Paul Defends His Ministry (10:1-13:10) 保罗为他的职分辩护(10:1-13:10)
  12. Final Greeting (13:11-14) 最后的问安(13:11-14) Summary 概要 Theme: “An Apostle of Christ Jesus by the Will of God” 主题:“奉神旨意,作基督耶稣使徒” The theme of this letter is taken from the first verse. While Paul usually begins his letters by identifying himself as an apostle, he makes it very clear in this letter. He shows how an apostle acts, teaches, and fights false teachings. 这封信的主题出自信的第一句话。保罗常常通过表明他自己的身份是一名使徒作为他信件的开始,这封信中他也明确地表明了这一点。他显示了一名使徒该如何行事,教导和与错误教导斗争。
  13. Introduction (1:1-2) 引言(1:1-2) 2 Corinthians starts like Paul’s other letters. Paul gives his own name and then names the Christians to whom he is writing. Then he gives a blessing. 哥林多后书的开始就像保罗其他的书信一样。保罗告诉我们了他自己的名字和这封信所写给的那些基督徒的名字。然后给出了他的祝福。
  14. The Glory and Power of the Ministry (1:3-7:16) 事工的荣耀和权柄(1:3-7:16) A. The Apostle’s and the Corinthians’ Welfare(1:3-2:11) 使徒和哥林多人的福分(1:3-2:11) Paul was thinking about the things which had happened most recently in his life (Acts 19:23-41). News of these things had reached the Corinthians. He then tells why God allows such suffering (1:3-11). 保罗在思考最近发生在他生活中的一些事(使徒行传19:23-41)。这些事情的消息传到哥林多。他就告诉他们为什么神允许这些事发生(1:3-11)。 Paul had wanted to make another visit to Corinth but then had decided not to. His change in plans made the congregation upset. The apostle then tells why he had not made the visit (1:12-2:4). 保罗曾希望再一次拜访哥林多,但是后来他决定不去那里。他计划的改变使那里的教会感到不安。这位使徒向他们解释了为什么他没有去拜访他们(1:12-2:4)。 In 1 Corinthians (5:1-13) Paul had demanded that the church discipline a public sinner. The church did discipline the man, and he then repented. Here (2:5-11) Paul tells the church to welcome the repentant man back into the flock. 在哥林多前书中(5:1-13)保罗要求教会惩戒一个犯公众罪的人。教会惩戒了那个人,那个人就悔改了。在此(2:5-11)保罗告诉教会欢迎悔改的人回到会众中。 B. The Ministry of the New Covenant(2:12-6:10) 新约的事工(2:12-6:10) For some time the Corinthian church had been divided (1 Cor. 1:10-17). In spite of Paul’s letters and visit, there still was a small group of men who opposed Paul. These “Judaizers” were hurting the consciences of Christians by saying that they must obey all the Old Testament ceremonies and man-made laws. 因为有一段时间,哥林多的教会中有分党的纷争(哥林多前书1:10-17)。尽管保罗写了书信并拜访了那里,仍有一小部分人反对保罗。这些“犹太教徒”正使基督徒的良知受到损害,因为他们告诉基督徒必须遵行所有旧约的仪式和人定的律法。 In the next several chapters Paul discusses the ministers and ministry of the New Covenant. This ministry pleases God (2:12-17). Christ, through the working of the Holy Spirit, gives his approval to it (3:1-6). 在后面的几章中保罗谈论了新约的执事和事工。这个事工是神所喜悦的(2:12-17)。基督,通过圣灵的做工给予他对保罗事工的称许(3:1-6)。 Paul now compares the Old and New Covenants (3:7-18). He shows that the Old Testament does not work against the New Testament; and the promises given to Abraham and his descendants were fulfilled when Jesus revealed himself as the Messiah. He shows the difference between the Law which convinces man of his sin and the Gospel which gives man spiritual freedom. 保罗将旧约与新约进行对比(3:7-18)。他说明了旧约与新约并不矛盾;并且当耶稣向众人显明他是弥赛亚时,神给亚伯拉罕和他子孙的应许已经得以完全。他解释了律法不同于福音,它使人确信人是有罪的,而福音使人的灵得释放。 Any glory and power seen in the ministry of the apostles really belongs only to God (4:1-5:10). Christian pastors are like jars of clay, cheap and fragile but full of valuable oil (4:7). Pastors are not valuable or powerful themselves, but they carry a valuable and powerful message. Jesus is the content of all Gospel preaching (4:1-6). The preacher himself turns to this same Jesus to be certain of the resurrection of the body and eternal life (4:7-5:10). Therefore Christian ministers must preach Jesus Christ. They are Christ’s ambassadors (5:11-21). They are full of zeal for the ministry because the message of reconciliation is the message of salvation (5:21-6:2). 使徒的事工中所见的任何荣耀和能力真正地是只属于神(4:1-5:10)。基督徒的牧师们就像陶罐,便宜而且易碎但是却盛满宝贵的油(4:7)。牧师们本身并不珍贵或是有能力的,但是他们带着一条宝贵和有能力的消息。耶稣是所有福音传讲的内容(4:1-6)。传道人自己转向这同一位耶稣得到了肉体和永生复活的确据(4:7-5:10)。因此基督徒的执事们必须传教耶稣基督。他们是基督差派的代表(5:11-21)。他们对事工充满热情因为和好的消息就是救恩的消息(5:21-6:2)。 Paul was full of the joys of the ministry but remembered that pastors must also often go through hardships. The apostle then tells of the troubles which he has gone through and with which he still struggles (6:3-10). 保罗满怀事工的喜乐,但是需要记住的是牧师们也常常经历艰苦。这位使徒就讲了他经历的困难和他心里仍有争斗的事(6:3-10)。 C. Personal Appeal for Reconciliation(6:11-7:16) 个人呼求与神和好(6:11-7:16) After speaking about the ministry which reconciles (makes peace between) God and man, Paul now begs the Corinthians to be reconciled to God. Through faith a person receives the reconciliation which Christ won by his work. This results in a new life, a complete break with what does not please God (6:11-7:1). Because of this reconciliation the congregation can receive Paul in love just as Paul loves them (7:2-16). 在谈论了是神与人和好(得平安)的事工之后,保罗便祈求神能使哥林多人与神和好。靠着信心一个人领受了基督靠他的做工赢得的和好。和好使我们获得新的生命,并和一切神不喜悦的分离(6:11-7:1)。因为这样的和好教会能像保罗爱他们一样在爱里接受保罗(7:2-16)。
  15. About the Collection (8:1-9:15) 关于捐项(8:1-9:15) The second major part of 2 Corinthians is about a special collection of money. For some time Paul had been taking up a collection among the Gentile Christians (1 Cor. 16:1-4). The money he received would go to help the poor and starving members of the Jerusalem church. Here Paul asks the Corinthians to give good gifts just as the Macedonians have done (8:1-7). Christ is the reason for giving and the example of giving (8:8-9). The Corinthians have already begun collecting their offerings, but now they must complete it (8:10-15). 哥林多后书的第二个主要部分是关于特殊款项的募集。有一段时间保罗曾在外邦的基督徒中间募集捐项(哥林多前书16:1-4)。他收到的捐项用于帮助穷困和遭受饥饿的耶路撒冷教会的成员们。在此,保罗要求哥林多人要像马其顿人一样给出他们慈善的捐资(8:1-7)。基督是进行捐助的原因和榜样(8:8-9)。哥林多人已经开始募集他们的捐项,但是现在他们必须完成这件事(8:10-15)。 Titus and three other men are coming to Corinth to help with the collection (8:16-24). The Corinthians should be ready to assist them (9:1-5). 提多和其他三个人将到哥林多帮助他们募集捐项(8:16-24)。哥林多人应当准备协助他们(9:1-5)。 Lastly, Christian giving is not without results (9:6-15). “God loves a cheerful giver”(9:7) and blesses him greatly. 最后,基督徒的捐助不是没有收获的(9:6-15)。“因为捐得乐意的人是神所喜爱的”(9:7)并且大大地祝福他。
  16. Paul Defends His Ministry (10:1-13:10) 保罗为他的职分辩护(10:1-13:10) Paul has given glory to God in all that he has done. In the Corinthian congregation, however, there were those who were seeking their own glory. These enemies of God were enemies of Paul as well. He had written against them in an earlier letter (1 Cor. 4:18-21; 7:40; 14:37), and now he had to do so again. 保罗将所有他所做的事的荣耀归给神。然而在哥林多的教会中,有一些人寻求自己的荣耀。这些神的敌人也是保罗的敌人。他之前已经写了一封信反抗他们(哥林多前书4:18-21;7:40;14:37),现在他必须再次写信给他们。 In the first nine chapters of this letter Paul has written to the large group of Christians in Corinth. Now he turns to the small group of troublemakers. 保罗这封信的前九章是写给哥林多的一大批基督徒。现在他转向一小部分制造事端的人。 Paul lists the charges which they have brought against him and then answers them (10:1-12). His opponents claim: 保罗列举了那些制造事端的人反对他的控告并给予了回应(10:1-12)。他的对手声称:
  17. He is “timid”in the presence of the Corinthians but “bold”when away from them (10:1,10). 保罗在见哥林多人时是“谦卑的”,但是离开他们那里之后是“勇敢的”(10:1,10)。
  18. Paul lives for the things of this world (10:2) 保罗是凭着血气行事(10:2)。
  19. He frightens the congregation by his letters(10:9). 他通过他的信威吓教会(10:9)。 But while Paul’s enemies give themselves approval, God has given his approval to Paul’s ministry (10:12-18). 但是当保罗的敌人给自己称许时,神给了保罗的事工称许(10:12-18)。 The troublemakers in the Corinthian congregation liked to boast. Paul gets rid of their pride and shows them their errors by telling them what true ministry is all about (11:1-12:21). Paul speaks about his own “foolish” boasting as follows: 哥林多教会中制造事端的人喜欢自夸。保罗使他们除掉他们的骄傲并通过告诉他们什么是真正的事工来指出他们的错误(11:1-12:21)。以下是保罗讲的关于他自己的“愚妄的”自夸:
  20. Paul’s reason for boasting (11:1-4) 保罗自夸的理由(11:1-4)
  21. The boast of knowledge (11:5-6) 以学问自夸(11:5-6)
  22. The boast of serving without pay (11:7-15) 以无偿的侍奉自夸(11:7-15)
  23. The boast of the servant of Christ (11:16-33) 以基督的仆人自夸(11:16-33)
  24. The boast of visions, revelations and a “thorn in the flesh”(12:1-10) 以看到的异象,所得的启示和加在肉体上的刺自夸(12:1-10)
  25. The boast of signs, wonders, mighty works, selfless service (12:11-18) 以神迹、奇事、异能、无私的侍奉自夸(12:11-18) 7.Reasons for Paul’s boasting: The building up of the church (12:19-21). 保罗自夸的理由:使教会建立(12:19-21)。 Paul’s enemies in Corinth had questioned his authority, but his authority comes from God. If necessary the apostle will deal firmly with the sinners when he visits Corinth (13:1-4). He hopes, however, this will not be necessary (13:5-10). 保罗在哥林多的敌人们质疑他的权柄,但是他的权柄来自于神。如果必要的话,当这位使徒拜访哥林多时会坚定地对待犯了罪的人(13:1-4)。然而他希望他将不需要这样做(13:5-10)。
  26. Final Greeting (13:11-14) 最后的问安(13:11-14) Throughout his epistle Paul has been begging for reconciliation – for the congregation to become right with God and also with him. He states this desire once again. When this is done God will bless them all (13:11-14). 整封书信保罗都在祈求与神的和好——使教会与神同在也和保罗同在。他再一次陈述了这一点。当做到这一点时,神会祝福他们所有的人(13:11-14)。 Galatians 加拉太书 The Writer 作者 The letter to the Galatians was written by the apostle Paul (1:1; 5:2) about the year A.D. 48. It contains much information about Paul himself (1:13-2:3). When added to Luke’s writing (Acts 9, 13-15) we can know much about the apostles’ early career. 给加拉太人的书信是使徒保罗在公元48年写的(1:1;5:2)。它包含了很多关于保罗本人的信息(1:13-2:3)。加上路加所写的(使徒行传9,13-15),我们可以知道许多关于使徒们的早期经历。 Paul’s Purpose in Writing 保罗的写作目的 Galatians is the strongest of all Paul’s writings. He speaks very plainly and directly. He stands up and fights the heresies (false teachings) which threaten the Galatian congregation. 加拉太书是保罗写的所有书信中最犀利的一封。他陈述清楚而且直接。他起来反抗威胁加拉太教会的异端(错误的教导)。 The events which led up to this letter can be found out from Scripture itself. Paul did mission work in southern Galatia on his first missionary journey (Acts 13:13-14:25). The message of salvation which he boldly spoke did not return empty (Is.55:11). Many Jews and Gentiles were converted to Christianity. 致使保罗写这封信的事件可以在圣经中找到。保罗在第一次传道行程中在加拉太南边做了传道工作(使徒行传13:13-14:25)。他放胆所传的救恩的消息没有徒然返回(以赛亚书55:11)。许多犹太人和外邦人都信了神的道。 Unfortunately problems soon arose. Some Jews (often called Judaizers) told their Gentile brothers, “Unless you are circumcised according to the custom taught by Moses, you cannot be saved”(Acts 15:1). To settle this matter, a meeting of Christian leaders known as the Apostolic Council was called in Jerusalem (Acts 15:2). 不幸的是,问题很快就出现了。一些犹太人(常被称为犹太教徒)告诉他们的外邦弟兄,“你们若不按摩西的规条受割礼,不能得救”(15:1)。为了解决这个问题,一个基督徒领袖们的会议就是我们所说的使徒议会在耶路撒冷召开了(使徒行传15:2)。 Shortly before the council Paul wrote this letter to the Galatians. In it he answers the sharp attacks made by the Judaizers. Paul first argues that he has the right to speak with authority since he was called by the Lord to be an apostle. His preaching, therefore, comes from God’s will, not his own (1:1-2:21). Then Paul directly attacks the false teachings of the Galatians showing that man is saved by God’s grace alone and not by obeying the Law (3:1-4:31). Finally Paul talks about the effects of the Gospel. The Judaizers had argued that if salvation was based on grace alone without obeying the Law then Christians would live sinful lives. Paul, on the other hand argues that freedom in Christ is freedom from sin (5:13,16), not freedom to sin. 议会开始前不久,保罗给加拉太人写了这封信。信中保罗回应了犹太教徒的激烈攻击。保罗首先他向犹太教徒争辩他讲论的权利是从他被主呼召成为门徒的那一天就具有的。因此,他的传道来自神的意愿,而不是他自己(1:1-2:21)。之后,保罗直接攻击了加拉太人的错误教导以此告诉众人得救只能靠神的恩典而不是靠遵行律法(3:1-4:31)。最后,保罗谈论了福音的作用。犹太教徒们争论了如果救恩只来自于神的恩典而不是遵行律法,那么基督徒会过不义的生活。另一方面,保罗向他们争辩在基督里得到的释放就是从罪里得释放(5:13,16),不是自由地做有罪的事。 Outline of Galatians 加拉太书概要 Theme: “The Righteous Will Live by Faith” 主题:“义人必因信得生”
  27. Introduction (1:1-10) 引言(1:1-10)
  28. Paul Defends His Apostleship (1:11-2:21) 保罗为他的使徒职分分诉(1:11-2:21)
  29. Paul Defends the Doctrine of Salvation by Grace Alone (3:1-5:12) 保罗为救恩唯独靠着恩典的信条分诉(3:1-5:12)
  30. Paul Defends Grace and Christian Living(5:13- 6:10) 保罗为恩典和基督徒生活分诉(5:13-6:10)
  31. Conclusion (6:11-18) 总结(6:11-18) Summary 概要 Theme: “The Righteous Will Live by Faith” 主题:“义人必因信得生” The main point of this letter is given in 3:11: Clearly no one is justified before God by the law, because, ‘The righteous will live by faith.’ In this sentence Paul rejects the false teaching that man is saved by faith and obeying the law. He then tell the true way to salvation. 3:11给出了这封信的重点。很明显没有人在神面前因律法称义,因为“义人必因信得生”。在这句话中,保罗反对错误的教导所说的人因信和遵行律法得救。然后他告诉众人得救恩的真正途径。
  32. Introduction (1:1-10) 引言(1:1-10) While the first three verses of the letter may sound like a normal greeting, they are not. Already in the first verse Paul begins to defend his position as an apostle and, in verse 3-5, to teach that salvation comes by grace alone. He says there is no way this can be made to agree with the false doctrine which other men are teaching the Galatian Christians. He explains that this is a very serious situation which has developed there (1:6-10). 虽然这封信的前三章看起来像是普通的问候,但其实不是。在第一句中保罗就已经开始为他作为使徒的职分分诉,并且在第3-5句中,教导救恩唯独靠着恩典。他说无法同意其他人对加拉太的基督徒的错误信条。他解释说这样的事在那里已经发展到非常严峻的程度了(1:6-10)。
  33. Paul Defends His Apostleship (1:11-2:21) 保罗为他的使徒职分分诉(1:11-2:21) Paul does not begin by explaining what is wrong with the false teachings which are troubling the Galatian Christians. First he must tell why they should listen to him – because he is an apostle sent by God. In this way he shows that the doctrine he teaches comes not from men but from God. Paul gives three proofs that he is an apostle. First of all, he was converted and called to be an apostle by God himself (1:11-24, see Acts 9). Secondly, the leaders of the Christian mother church in Jerusalem support his work among the Gentiles (2:1-10). Finally, he had enough authority to publicly tell Peter he was wrong when Peter had fallen into sin (2:11-21). 保罗没有一开始就解释正困扰加拉太基督徒的错误教导的错误之处。首先他必须告诉众人为什么他们要听他的分诉——因为他是神差派的使徒。这样他表明了他教导的信条不是来自于人而是来自于神。保罗给出了他是使徒的三个证明。首先,他信了神的道并且神亲自呼召了他成为一名使徒(1:11-24,参见使徒行传9)。第二,在耶路撒冷的基督教会的领袖们支持他在外邦人中的事工(2:1-10)。最后,他有足够的权柄在当矶法陷入罪里的时候,当面告诉矶法他是错误的(2:11-21)。
  34. Paul Defends the Doctrine of Salvation by Grace Alone (3:1-5:12) 保罗为救恩唯独靠着恩典的信条分诉(3:1-5:12) Paul then moves on to discuss the central teaching of Christianity which had been disputed by some other teachers in Galatia (5:10). Paul had taught that a man is saved by faith in Christ, not by his own good works. Others said that faith and obeying the Law leads a person to heaven. 然后保罗开始谈论基督教的核心教导遭到了加拉太的一些其他文士的反对(5:10)。保罗已经教导过人在基督里因着信得救,不是靠自己的善行。其他人说信心和遵行律法就能进入天堂。 To show that his teaching is correct Paul asks the Galatians to think back to their own conversions. They received the Spirit through faith, not by obeying the Law of Moses (3:1-5). This is how people have always become Christians. Even Abraham was justified (declared righteous) through faith. 为了说明他的教导是正确的,保罗要求加拉太人回想他们之间的谈话。他们因信得着灵,不是靠遵行摩西的律法(3:1-5)。这就是人怎样成为基督徒的。亚伯拉罕也是这样因着信被成为公义的(称义)。 If someone wished to be saved by the Law, he would have to obey all the Law perfectly. If this does not happen, the Law can only damn. The purpose of Christ’s death was to free mankind from this curse of the Law (3:6-14). Paul reminds the Galatians that the teaching of salvation through faith alone was not replaced by the Law. The Law was not even written down until 430 years after Abraham’s time (3:15-18). 如果一个人希望靠律法得救,他就必须完全地遵信所有的律法。如果这不可能发生,那律法只能定人的罪。基督死的目的是使人类从律法的咒诅中得释放(3:6-14)。保罗提醒加拉太人救恩的教导唯独靠着信心而不是由律法代替。律法是在亚伯拉罕死后的430年之后才写成的(3:15-18)。 “What, then, was the purpose of the Law”(3:19)?Paul answers that the Law shows man his sins and, therefore, his need for a savior from sin. That Savior is Jesus Christ (3:26-4: 7). “那么,律法的目的是什么呢”(3:19)?保罗回答说律法向人显明了他的罪,因此他需要一个救主让他脱离罪。那位救主就是耶稣基督(3:26-4:7)。 Paul then becomes very personal. He begs the Galatians to come back to their love for him and the Gospel (4:8-20). 之后保罗从个人角度出发。他祈求加拉太人像之前一样爱他和福音(4:8-20)。 The apostle now returns to his defense of the doctrine of salvation through faith alone. He uses the Old Testament women Sarah and Hagar to show the difference between the saving promise of God and the Law (4:21-31, see Gen. 16ff). Paul has presented God’s saving truth. The Galatians are urged to remain in this faith, to stay away from the temptation to go back to their earlier beliefs, and not to listen to false teachers (5:1-12). 这位使徒在此转向为唯独因信得救恩的信条分诉。他用旧约中的女人撒拉和夏甲来告诉加拉太人神拯救的应许和律法的不同(4:21-31,参见创世纪16ff)。保罗呈现了神拯救的真理。要求加拉太人存留信心,远离试探,并且不要听从假文士的教导(5:1-12)。 Martin Luther, in the introduction to his commentary on Galatians, wrote about this section of the letter. He saw that our salvation and the earth are similar to each other. Luther wrote: The earth itself does not produce its own rain. It is unable to get it by its own strength, worship, and power. It receives it only by a heavenly gift from above. In the same way this heavenly righteousness is given to us by God without our earning or deserving it. 马丁路德,在他对加拉太书评论的引言中写到关于这封信的这部分内容。他看到我们的救恩和这个世界很相似。路德写到:这个世界本身不能为自己创造雨。它无法通过自己的力量,敬拜和能力得到雨。只能靠从上头来的天恩获得。同样的神给我们这个天赐的公义不因我们的努力或认为是我们应得的。
  35. Paul Defends Grace and Christian Living (5:13-6:10) 保罗为恩典和基督徒生活分诉(5:13-6:10) The Galatians should not get the wrong idea –that although salvation comes apart from the Law, they need not obey the Law. Therefore Paul shows that salvation leads to godly living. The Gospel provides freedom from sin, not to sin (5:13-6:10). 加拉太人不应该误解——既然救恩不是来自律法,他们就不需要遵行律法。因此保罗告诉他们救恩引导人们过敬虔的生活。福音使人从罪里得释放,而不是自由犯罪(5:13-6:10)。
  36. Conclusion (6:11-18) 总结(6:11-18) Paul ends his letter by repeating the main points he has made (6:11-17). Then he closes with a blessing (6:18). 保罗通过重复他讲的重点结束了他的这封信(6:11-17)。然后他以祝福作为结尾(6:18)。 最后更新于 2014年9月10日 星期三 19:07 MeasureMeasure Get a free Evernote account to save this article and view it later on any device. Create account