恩典国际圣经学院

第八章信徒们接受告诫 (Chapter 8)


第八章:信徒们接受告诫 (Chapter 8) Chapter 8:Believers Take Warning 第八章:信徒们接受告诫 Hebrews and James 希伯来书和雅各书 Introduction 引言 Hebrews and James have much the same message: If Christians are not watchful all the time, their faith will begin to fade and soon be lost. Believers should hold fast to the pure doctrine of Jesus Christ. Their eternal life depends on it. Then Christians can show their living faith by their good deeds. 希伯来书和雅各书传达了几乎一样的信息:如果基督徒没有时刻警惕,他们的信心会开始减退而且不久就会失去它。信徒们应该紧紧抓住耶稣基督的纯正道理。他们的永生这能依靠它。这样基督徒就能通过他们的善行显示他们活着的信心。 Hebrews 希伯来书 The Writer 作者 Who wrote the letter to the Hebrews? Since the time of the early church, Christians have had different answers to this question. Some people have decided that this is another letter written by Paul. This, however, is unlikely because the writing style in Hebrews is so unlike Paul’s other letters. Also, the writer of this letter had no direct contact with Jesus Christ (2:3). Others have thought that Hebrews could have been written by one of the following New Testament Christians: Barnabas, Silas, Luke, Priscilla, or Priscilla and Aquila. Without mentioning his name, the letter does give us 4 clues: 谁写了这封给希伯来人的信?从早期教会时期起,基督徒们就觉得很难回答这个问题。一些人认定这是保罗写的另一封信。但是,这是不可能的因为希伯来书的写作风格和保罗的其他信件完全不同。而且这封信的作者和耶稣基督没有直接接触(2:3)。其他人认为希伯来书可能是新约时期的一批基督徒中的一位:巴拿巴、西拉、路加或百基拉和亚居拉写了这封信。没有提到他的名字,这封信给了我们4条线索:

  1. The author is a Christian leader of Jewish race; 作者是犹太族的一位基督徒领袖;
  2. He knows formal Greek better than the other New Testament authors and has made Greek culture his own; 他比新约中的其他作者都更加了解正式的希腊语并且希腊文化已经成为他自己的文化
  3. He often quotes from the Greek Old Testament translation (called the Septuagint); and 他经常引用旧约的希腊文译本(被称为七十士译本);而且
  4. His faith is totally centered in Jesus Christ, who for him is a living person. 他的信心完全以耶稣基督这位对他来说永活的人为中心。 Martin Luther thought that Apollos wrote Hebrews. Apollos (described in Acts 18:24-28) was a native of Alexandria, that great Egyptian center of learning. He was a good speaker, well educated, knew the Old Testament well. Above all, he was well-grounded in Jesus Christ. 马丁路德认为亚波罗写了希伯来书。亚波罗(在使徒行传28:24-28中有描述)是亚历山大这个埃及人伟大的学习中心的本地人。他是一位优秀的演说家,受过良好的教育,非常了解旧约。最重要的是他与耶稣基督紧密连结。 The Author’s Purpose in Writing 作者的写作目的 A car can climb a short, steep hill and reach the top. But a long, gradual hill can cause a car to overheat. Doctors know that most people can stand short, yet high levels of stress and still recover. Long periods of stress, however, can lead to a breakdown or “burn out.” The devil has learned the same principle when it comes to his war against men’s souls. 一辆车能爬短而陡的坡并且到达顶点。但是长而缓坡会使车过热。医生知道大多数人能承受段时间,但是高强度的压力并能从中恢复。然而长期的压力,会导致崩溃或“精力枯竭”。当魔鬼来与人的灵争斗时,他也知道这个道理。 In Rome there was a large number of Christians, so worship services were held in various homes (Rom. 16:4, 14-15). The writer of this letter is writing to one such house church (10:25). 在罗马有大批的基督徒,因此崇拜在不同的家中进行(罗马书16:4,14-15)。这封信的作者正写信给这样一个家庭教会(10:25)。 Earlier these Jewish Christians had withstood short, yet strong attacks on their beliefs. They had been persecuted but they remained strong in their faith (10:32-39; 6:10). Yet now after a longer time their faith was getting weak. They were beginning to tire of the long continuing battle with sin (12:4). They now were getting “feeble arms and weak knees” (12:12). Their faith was slipping. Many of them no longer attended worship services regularly (10:23-25). Some of them had fallen away from the truth (6:4-8); others were beginning to do so (3:12). While the Jews made fun of these Christians (13:13), some Christians started being tempted to join the Jewish religion again (13:9-14). The reasons: the Christians met in houses, the Jews had the famous Jerusalem temple; the Christian service was simple, nothing like the Jewish worship service; Christianity was not a legal religion, Judaism was given special favors by the Romans. Unless these believers soon were brought back to the truth, they would risk losing their salvation (6:4-8; 10:26-31). 早些时候,这些犹太基督徒经受了短时间但是强烈的对他们信心的攻击。他们受到了迫害,但是他们在信心里仍然刚强(10:32-39;6:10)。然而现在更长的时间过去之后,他们的信心在削弱。他们开始厌倦与罪的长期持久的斗争(12:4)。他们有了“下垂的手和发酸的腿”(12:12)。他们的信心在溜走。他们中的许多人不再定期参加崇拜(10:23-25)。他们中的一些人已经离弃了真理(6:4-8);另一些人开始这样做(3:21)。然而犹太人嘲笑这些基督徒(13:13),一些基督徒开始受到试探重新接受了犹太人的信仰(13:9-14)。原因是:基督徒在家庭中聚会,犹太人有著名的耶路撒冷圣殿;基督徒的敬拜简洁,和犹太人的敬拜没有一点相似之处;基督教不是一个合法的宗教,犹太教被罗马人给予特别的优待。如果这些信徒不马上被带回到真理面前,他们将有失去救恩的危险(6:4-8;10:26-31)。 The letter written for this situation tells how the Christians should regard Jesus and the Old Testament. Jesus Christ is the fulfillment of the Old Testament. At the same time, Jesus is superior to the many Old Covenant people who were pictures or shadows of the coming Messiah. 针对这种情况写的这封信告诉我们了基督徒应该如何看待耶稣和旧约。耶稣基督是旧约的实现。同时,耶稣高于许多旧约中描绘的人或者说即将到来的弥赛亚的写照。 No mention is made of the destruction of the Jerusalem temple in A.D. 70, so the letter may have been written before that time. If Hebrews 13:7 refers to Peter and Paul’s death then a writing date about A.D. 68 seems most likely. 信中没有提到公元70年时耶路撒冷圣殿的毁坏,因此这封信可能早于这个时期被写成。如果希伯来书13:7中指的是彼得和保罗的死,那么这封信很可能大约写于公元68年。 Outline of Hebrews 希伯来书概要 Theme: “Hold Firmly to the Hope We Confess” 主题: “坚守我们所承认的指望”
  5. How Jesus Christ is Superior (1:1-10:18) 耶稣基督是怎样的至高者(1:1-10:18) A. Jesus Christ is Superior to Angels, Satan,Moses, and Joshua (1:1-4:13) 耶稣基督高于天使、撒旦、摩西和约书亚(1:1-4:13) B. Jesus Christ is a High Priest Superior to the Old Testament Priests (4:14-7:28) 耶稣基督是高于旧约中所有祭司的大祭司(4:14-7:28) C. Jesus Christ’s Work as High Priest is Superior to the Work of the Earlier Priests (8:1- 10:18) 耶稣基督的作为大祭司的工作高于之前所有祭司的工作(8:1-10:18)
  6. A Call to Christian Faithfulness (10:19-13:17) 劝勉基督徒要有信心(10:19-13:17)
  7. Conclusion (13:20-25) 总结(13:20-25) Summary 概要 Theme: “Hold Firmly to the Hope We Confess” 主题: “坚守我们所承认的指望” The general purpose of the epistle to the Hebrews was to encourage them to hold firmly to the hope they confessed (10:23). The “hope” was the eternal life which comes through Jesus Christ (10:38; 12:2-3). 这封写给希伯来人的重要书信的主要目的是劝勉他们坚守他们所承认的指望(10:23)。这个“指望”是指从耶稣基督来的永生(10:38;12:2-3)。
  8. How Jesus Christ is Superior (1:1-10:18) 耶稣基督是怎样的至高者(1:1-10:18) In these chapters the writer answers the two questions which were most troubling to the Jewish Christians. If Christ was the Messiah, how could one explain that he was so weak that he was shamefully put to death on the cross? Furthermore, why was he not still on earth ruling as king (see John 12:34)? 在这几章中作者回答了最困扰犹太基督徒的两个问题。如果基督徒是弥赛亚,怎么解释他是如此软弱以至于被屈辱地钉死在十字架上。而且,为什么他不留在世上做王进行统治(参见约翰福音12:34)。 A. Jesus Christ is Superior to Angels, Satan, Moses, and Joshua (1:1-4:13) 耶稣基督高于天使、撒旦、摩西和约书亚(1:1-4:13) God’s final revelation to mankind was in his Son, Jesus Christ (1:1-3). The Son is like the Father (1:3), eternal and all powerful. He is far superior to the angels, as the Old Testament prophecies said (1:5-14). 神给人类最后的启示在他儿子,耶稣基督里(1:1-3)。子像父一样(1:3),是永在而且全能的。他比天使尊贵得多,正如旧约中预言中说的一样(1:5-14)。 If Christ is superior to the angels, how, then, can his shame and death be explained (2:7)? First of all, this was only for a time (2:7). Secondly, he agreed to become a humble man so that he could die for mankind and break the devil’s power over the world (2:14-15). 如果基督比天使尊贵,那么怎么解释他的屈辱和死呢(2:7)?首先,这只发生一次(2:7)。其次,他同意成为一个谦卑的人这样他就能为人类死并败坏魔鬼在世上的权利(2:14-15)。 Jesus is also superior to Moses (3:1-6). Moses was a faithful servant of God, leading the people of Israel out of slavery, being a spokesman for the Lord, being a go-between for God’s chosen people (Exod. 3:10; 3:15; 32:11). However, Moses’ work as a servant was only a shadow or picture of the much more important work of God’s Son, Jesus Christ. 耶稣也比摩西尊贵(3:1-6)。摩西是神忠心的仆人,带领以色列人脱离奴役,成为主的代言人,成为神拣选的民的中介(出埃及记3:10;3:15;32:11)。然而,摩西作为仆人的工作仅仅是比他工作重要得多的神的儿子,耶稣基督的工作的写照或影象。 The readers of the letter now are warned (3:7-4:13). Not all the Israelites who left Egypt entered the promised land of Canaan. The disobedient unbelievers failed to arrive; those who believed God’s promises reached their destination under Joshua. Canaan, however, was not the final “rest,” for that rest is found in Jesus Christ (see Matt. 11:28-29). Will the readers of this letter be rebels or will they reach that God-given relief? One thing is certain. No one will be able to hide from God and his Word (4:11-13). 读这封信的人被告诫(3:7-4:13)。不是所有离开埃及的以色列人都进入了应许的迦南地。悖逆不信神的人没有达到那里;那些相信神应许的人在约书亚的带领下到达了他们的目的地。尽管迦南不是最终的“安息处”,最终的安息处在耶稣基督里被找到(参见马太福音11:28-29)。这封信的读者会悖逆神还是得到神赐予的释放呢?有一件事可以肯定。没有人能躲避神和他的道(4:11-13)。 B. Jesus Christ is a High Priest Superior to the Old Testament Priests (4:14-7:28) 耶稣基督是高于旧约中所有祭司的大祭司(4:14-7:28) It was the High Priest’s job to hear the confessions of the people and ask for their forgiveness before the throne of God. He would offer up sacrifices on behalf of the people. In Hebrews 4:14-5:10 the writer says that Jesus Christ is the greatest High Priest. He is sensitive to man’s needs and concerned about them. He is also a member of the Order of Melchizedek (5:4-10) about which more will be said later. 大祭司的职责是听取百姓的认罪并在神的宝座前请求宽恕。他会代表百姓献上祭物。在希伯来书4:14-5:10中,作者说到耶稣基督是尊荣的大祭司。他很容易察觉也很关心人的需求。他还是麦基洗德的等次中的一位(5:4-10)关于是哪一位在后面的部分会谈到。 In Hebrews 5:11-6:20 the writer interrupts his discussion of Jesus Christ as the superior High Priest. Such a teaching is likely to be too difficult for his spiritually immature readers to understand (5:11-6:3). They are close to losing their faith (6:4-8). The writer wants his readers to keep walking in faith toward heaven, which is also God’s desire for them (6:9-20). 在希伯来书5:11-6:20中,作者打断了他关于耶稣基督作为至高大祭司的讨论。这样的教导似乎对于他的那些灵命还不太成熟的读者来说太难理解(5:11-6:3)。他们快要失去他们的信心(6:4-8)。作者希望他的读者继续凭着信心向天堂前行,这也是神对他们的希望(6:9-20)。 Now the writer go back to the case of Jesus, the greatest High Priest based on the Order of Melchizedek (see Gen. 14:17-20; Ps. 110:4). The priesthood of Aaron’s family and the Levites was established by the Law of Moses. But it was replaced by Christ. Jesus’ priesthood is eternal (6:20) and does not end. He has an “indestructible Life”(7:16). He does not establish his office based on family trees. Lastly, Jesus, being holy and righteous (7:2), need not “offer sacrifices day after day, first for his own sin, and then for the sins of the people. He sacrificed for their sins once for all when he offered himself” on the cross (7:27). 现在作者回到关于耶稣的话题上,尊荣的大祭司是在麦基洗德的等次的基础上的(参见创世纪14:17-20;诗篇110:4)。亚伦家和利未人的祭祀职是由摩西的律法建立的。但是它被基督耶稣的祭祀职永久的代替了(6:20)并且不会终结。他具有“无穷之生命”(7:16)。他不是在族谱的基础上建立他的职权。最后一点,耶稣是圣洁和公义的(7:2),不需要“每日必须先为自己的罪,后为百姓的罪献祭,因为他只一次将自己献上”在十字架上(7:27)。 C. Jesus Christ’s Work as High Priest is Superior to the Work of Earlier Priests (8:1-10:18) 耶稣基督的作为大祭司的工作高于之前所有祭司的工作(8:1-10:18) Chapters 4-7 explain why Jesus’ time of weakness (His humiliation and death) are really his strength. This teaching is explained further in this section. Also, the letter goes on to show why Jesus is in heaven and not still on earth. A high priest must have duties. What then are Christ’s duties? He cannot serve on earth, so he is shown to have a superior temple, heaven itself (8:1-6). The Old Testament covenant is replaced by the New Covenant spoken of by Jeremiah (8:7-13). The Old temple worship with its repeated sacrificing and rituals (9:1-10) is replaced by Christ’s one-time atoning sacrifice (9:11-10:18). After he made this greatest sacrifice of himself, Jesus returned to heaven. There he defends believers before God (9:24) and sits in judgment. 4-7章中解释了为什么耶稣在世上时的软弱(他的谦卑和死)是他真正的力量。这个教导在这一部分被进一步进行了解释。而且这封信接下来展示了为什么耶稣现在在天堂而不在世上。一位大祭司一定有他的职责。那么什么是基督的职责呢?他不能在世上服侍,因此他在尊贵的殿中,天堂(8:1-6)。旧约被耶利米所说的新约所代替(8:7-13)。旧的圣殿敬拜与它的反复的献祭和仪式(9:1-10)一起被基督的一次将自己献上所代替(9:11-10:18)。在他完成将自己献上的这个最伟大的献祭之后,耶稣回到了天堂,在那里他在神面前为信徒们辩护(9:24)并坐在公义中。
  9. Call to Christian Faithfulness (10:19-13:19) 劝勉基督徒要有信心(10:19-13:19) After showing the superiority of Jesus Christ and that he is the greatest High Priest, the writer asks his readers to “draw near to God with a sincere heart in full assurance of faith” (10:22). On the other hand, he warns them once again not to reject the way of the Lord (10:26-39). 在展现了耶稣基督的尊荣和他是大祭司之后,作者要求他的读者“存折诚心和充足的信心来到神面前”(10:22)。另一方面,他再一次告诫他们不要弃绝主的道(10:26-39)。 Chapter 11 of Hebrews is perhaps the greatest chapter about faith in the entire Bible. If the believers are to remain strong and enter heaven (10:36) they need faith. Faith is “being sure of what we hope for and certain of what we do not see”(11:1). Many Old Testament examples are now used to show what faith can do: 希伯来书第11章可能是整部圣经中关于信心最重要的一章。如果信徒们要保持刚强和进入天堂(10:36),他们需要信心。信心是:“所望之事的实底,是未见之事的确据”(11:1)。许多旧约中的例子现在被用来向我们展示信心所能做的事: • Abel’s Faith: Made a good offering to God, 4;Gen 4:1-15. 亚伯的信心:向神献上美好的祭物,4;创世纪4:1-15 • Enoch’s Faith: Walked with God; Taken bodily into heaven, 5,6; Genesis 5:22,24. 以诺的信心:与神同行;将他取去进入天堂,5,6;创世纪5:22,24 • Noah’s Faith: Kept on building the Ark while others laughed, 7; Genesis 6:14-22. 诺亚的信心:当其他人嘲笑他时,他继续建造方舟,7;创世纪6:14-22 • Abraham’s Faith: Left his homeland for the Promised Land; was willing to offer his son, in confidence that God would bring him back to life: 8-10; 17-19; Genesis 12:1-7; 22. 亚伯拉罕的信心:离开他的家乡去应许之地;愿意献上他的儿子为祭物,相信神会使他的儿子复活,8-10;17-19;创世纪 12:1-7;22 • Sarah’s Faith: Came to believe what at first she had laughed at as impossible: 11,12; Genesis 7:19; 18:11-14. 撒拉的信心:开始相信一开始她笑着认为不可能发生的事,11,12;创世纪7:19;18:11-14 • Isaac’s Faith: Foretold the future, 20; Genesis 27:27-29. 以撒的信心:预知未来,20;创世纪27:27-29 • Jacob’s Faith: God would fulfill his promises,21; Genesis 49. 雅各的信心:神会实现他的应许,21;创世纪49 • Joseph’s Faith: Prophesied the Exodus, 22;Genesis 50:25. 约瑟的信心:预言出埃及,22;创世纪50:25 • Moses’ Faith: Chose to suffer with Israel; kept the Passover; crossed the Red Sea; saw the invisible God: 23-29; Exodus 2:2-11; 12:21,50;14:22-29. 摩西的信心:选择与以色列人一起受苦;守逾越节;过红海;见到不可见的神,23-29;出埃及记2:2-11;12:21,50; 14:22-29 • Joshua’s Faith: Walls of Jericho fell, 30; Joshua 6:20. 约书亚的信心:耶利哥城墙倒塌,30;约书亚记6:20 • Rahab’s Faith: Chose to side with Israel, 31; Joshua 2:9; 6:23. 喇合的信心:选择支持以色列人,31;约书亚记2:9;6:23 • Gideon’s Faith: Became a great warrior, 32; Judges 7:21. 基甸的信心:成为伟大的勇士,32;士师记7:21 • Barak’s Faith: Conquered kingdoms, 32; Judges 4. 巴拉的信心:战胜不同的王国,32;士师记4 • Samson’s Faith: went from weak to strong, 32,34; Judges 16:28. 参孙的信心:从软弱到刚强,32,34;士师记16:28 • Jepthah’s Faith- Defeated armies, 32,34; Judges 11. 耶弗他的信心:打败敌人的军队32,34;士师记11 • David’s Faith: Obtained promises, 32,33; II Sam 7:11-13. 大卫的信心:得到应许,32,34;撒母耳记下7:11-13 • Daniel’s Faith: Closed mouths of lions, 32,33; Dan 6:22. 但以理的信心:封住狮子的口,32,33;但以理书6:22 • Jeremiah’s Faith: endured torture, 32,35; Jer 20:2. 耶利米的信心:忍受刑法,32,35;耶利米书20:2 • Elijah’s Faith: Raised the dead, 32,35; I Kin 17:17-24. 以利亚的信心:使死人复活,32,35;列王记上17:17-24 • Elisha’s Faith: Raised the dead, 32,35; II Kin 4:8-37. 以利沙的信心:使死人复活,32,35;列王记下4:8-37 • Zechariah’s Faith: Was stoned, 32,37; II Chron 24:20-21. 撒迦利亚的信心:被人用石头打死,32,37;历代志下24:20-21 Of course the greatest example for our faith is to be found in the life and death of Jesus Christ (12:1-3). Christians should also remember that God, their Father, gives his children discipline when it is needed (12:4-12). The believer must never turn his back on the Lord (12:14-28). 当然对于我们的信心来说最伟大的例子可以在耶稣基督的生和死中找到(12:1-3)。基督徒也应该记住神,他们的父,在他的孩子需要管教时给予他们管教(12:4-12)。信徒绝不应该应该背弃主(12:14-28)。 The author has warned the readers what not to do. Now he tells them what proper Christian behavior is. He does this in a short explanation of the 10 Commandments (13:1-19). 作者警告读者什么事是不可做的。现在他告诉他们什么是基督徒和神心意行为。他是在对十诫的简短阐述中进行的告诫(13:1-19)。
  10. Conclusion (13:20-25) 总结(13:20-25) Hebrews ends with a blessing, a prayer that God will put in the believers’ hearts a faith to keep them strong and obedient to God’s Word (13:20). This is followed by a short personal note (13:22-25). 希伯来书以祝福和向神祷告将信心放在信徒的心中使他们刚强和遵循神的道作为结束(13:20)。在此之前是一个简短的个人嘱咐(13:22-25)。 James 雅各书 The Writer 作者 The letter begins: “James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ …”(1:1). But there are several “James” mentioned in the New Testament. Is this the disciple James, brother of John? However, he was beheaded in A.D. 44 (Acts 12:1-2) and this letter was probably written after that date. Since James was a common name some people have thought that an unknown man by this name did the writing. But the writer speaks with authority, expecting to be heard and obeyed. There are over 50 commands in this letter. Thus we conclude that James the brother of Jesus and head of the Christian church in Jerusalem wrote this letter. 信的一开始说到:“作神和主耶稣基督仆人的雅各…”(1:1)。但是在新约中提到了几个“雅各”。这里说的是门徒雅各约翰的兄弟吗?但是他在公元44年就被砍头了(使徒行传12:1-2),而这封信可能是在那个时期之后写的。由于雅各是一个很常见的名字,一些人认为是一个我们所不认识的叫这个名字的人写了这封信。但是作者有权柄讲论,并希望讲论被听到和遵循。这封信中有超过50条的命令。因此我们推断是耶稣的兄弟雅各在耶路撒冷的基督教会的领袖写了这封信。 If Jesus’ brother wrote this letter, why did he refer to Jesus as “the Lord Jesus Christ” and not his “brother Jesus Christ?” For too many years James had thought of Jesus only as a brother. Now that he was a believer James saw Jesus as the Christ, the Savior, the eternal Son of God the Father, whom he now worshiped and served. 如果耶稣的兄弟写了这封信,为什么他称耶稣为“主耶稣基督”而不是他的“兄弟耶稣基督?”由于很多年来,雅各只认为耶稣是他的一个兄弟。现在作为一个信徒,雅各把耶稣看为基督,救主,父神永恒的子来敬拜和侍奉。 James’ Purpose in Writing 雅各的写作目的 James is perhaps the most misunderstood book of the Bible. Martin Luther even referred to it as a letter of straw. However, when properly understood, James is not a letter of straw but of steel. 雅各可能是圣经中最容易被误解的一部书。马丁路德甚至称这封信为稻草。但是,当正确理解这封信时,雅各书就不是稻草而是钢铁。 The Jewish Christian church in A.D. 46 was in danger when this letter was written. After Stephen had been stoned to death (Acts 7) “a great persecution broke out against the church at Jerusalem, and all except the apostles were scattered throughout Judea and Samaria” (Acts 8:1). Jewish converts to Christianity soon made their way to Damascus, Antioch of Syria and other cities near Palestine. Besides the many dangers of life which these Christians faced, their faith was threatened because they did not understand Christ’s teaching completely. Their minds were still clouded by some ideas and weaknesses from their Jewish past. They were too worldly-minded and self-centered. They heard God’s Word, but didn’t always obey it. 在公元46年写这封信的时候,犹太基督徒教会存在于危险中。在司提反被石头打死后(使徒行传7)“耶路撒冷的教会大遭逼迫。除了使徒以外,门徒都分散在犹太和撒马利亚各处”(8:1)。信了神的道成为基督徒的犹太人不久就去了大马士革、叙利亚的安提阿和靠近巴勒斯坦其他城市。基督徒除了生命中面临的许多危险之外,因为没有完全理解基督的教导他们的信心受到了威胁。他们的思想仍被一些想法所蒙蔽并且他们的软弱源自他们犹太人的过去。他们属乎血气并以自我为中心。他们听到神的道,但并不总是顺从它。 Knowing of the dangers facing the Jewish Christians, James wrote this letter. In a series of short but meaningful statements, he urged his readers to remain strong through the trials and temptations of daily life. James thus is a “Letter of Holy Living.” It shows the readers their errors and points them to the right path. 了解到犹太基督徒面临的危险,雅各写了这封信。在一系列简短而具有意义的陈述之后,他要求他的读者通过日常生活中的试炼和试探保持刚强。因此,雅各书是一封“圣洁生活的信”。它向读者们揭示了他们的错误并给他们指出了正确的道路。 There are two other questions we must answer. First, how can the teachings of Paul and James be made to agree? Paul wrote, “A man is justified by faith apart from observing the law” (Rom. 3:28). James said, “A person is justified by what he does and not by faith alone” (2:24). These passages can be made to agree if we remember the situations in which they were written. Paul was writing against self-righteousness, the attempt made by some to deserve or earn salvation by good works. So he wrote that salvation comes from God alone. Meanwhile James was fighting a different problem. Christians were saying they were Christians but were not living Christian lives (they had no fruits of faith). So James wrote that a faith without good works is not a true faith, for good works are the proof of saving faith. 另外有两个问题我们必须回答。第一,保罗和雅各的教导如何达成一致?保罗写道,“人称义是因着信,不在乎遵行律法”(罗马书3:28)。雅各说,“人称义是因着行为,不是单因着信”(2:24)。如果我们记得他们写这些信时所处的环境就能使这些段落达成一致。保罗写信反对靠自己称义,一些人想靠好行为得到或挣得救恩的企图。因此他写道救恩唯独来自神。同时,雅各正抵抗不同的问题。基督徒们称他们自己是基督徒但是没有过合乎主意的生活(没有结信心的果实)。因此雅各写道信心没有好行为不是真正的信心,因为好行为是得救的信心证明。 Finally we may wonder why James does not mention the cross of Christ, the basis of the Christian’s faith. James assumed his readers knew and understood this. He wished to make a point about Christian living. In this way James closely parallels Jesus’ “Sermon on the Mount.” The following chart shows the very great similarity between the two: 最后我们会惊奇为什么雅各没有提到被钉十字架的基督,这个基督徒信心的基础。雅各认为他的读者知道并了解这一点。他希望强调基督徒合乎主意的生活。这样,雅各将耶稣的“登山宝训”进行了逐一对照。下面的表格显示了两者间非常相似的地方: James 雅各书 Matthew 马太福音 Joy when facing problems 面对困难时的喜乐 1:2 5:10-12 Urging a life of perfection 要求毫无欠缺的生活 1:4 5:48 Asking for good gifts 求神给予恩赐 1:5 7:7-11 Against anger 反对动怒 1:20 5:22 Hearers and doers of the Word 听道和行道的人 1:22 7:24-27 Keeping the whole law 遵守全律法 2:10 5:19 Blessings of being merciful 怜恤人的人有福了 2:13 5:7 Blessings of making peace 使人和睦的人有福了 3:18 5:9 oAlliances with the world 与世俗为友 4:4 6:24 Blessing of the humble 谦卑的人有福了 4:10 5:5 Against judging others 反对论断人 4:11-12 7:1-5 Riches do not remain 不要积攒财富在地上 5:2-4 6:19 Prophets as examples 把先知当作榜样 5:10 5:12 Against swearing oaths 反对起誓 5:12 5:33-37 Outline of James 雅各书概要 Theme: “Turn to Holy Living” 主题: “转向圣洁的生活”
  11. Greeting (1:1) 问安(1:1)
  12. Urging to Holy Living (1:2-5:20) 要求过圣洁的生活(1:2-5:20) Summary 概要 Theme: “Turn to Holy Living” 主题: “转向圣洁的生活” It is difficult to outline the letter of James. The writer clearly presents an idea and then immediately leaps to another point which he wishes to make. Yet the letter does have a structure. James tells his readers to turn to holy living. All the different ideas in this letter tell how a Christian is to act. James is like a shotgun blast. Many small pellets fly by themselves towards the same target. Together they hit with a great impact and result. 很难写出雅各这封信的概要。作者很明确的呈现了一个观点并且立刻提到他希望强调的另一个重点。但是这封信确实有它的的结构。雅各告诉他的读者转向圣洁的生活。这封信中所有不同的观点都告诉了一个基督徒该如何行事。雅各书就像猎枪的一击。许多小的子弹自己朝着同一目标飞过去。他们一起以强大的冲击力击中同一目标。
  13. Greeting (1:1) 问安(1:1) James was writing to “the twelve tribes scattered among the nations.” These were Jewish converts to Christianity who had left their homeland. Since James was the head of the church in Jerusalem it is likely that the letter was written from that city. 雅各写信给“散住十二个支派之人”。这些人指的是离开家乡信了神的道成为基督徒的犹太人。因为雅各是耶路撒冷教会的领袖,这封信可能就是在那座城写的。
  14. Urging to Holy Living (1:2-5:20) 要求过圣洁的生活(1:2-5:20) The body of James’ letter can be subdivided into 13 sections: 雅各这封信的主题可以分为13个部分:
  15. Trials (1:2-4) 试炼(1:2-4)
  16. Wisdom (1:5-8) 智慧(1:5-8)
  17. Wealth (1:9-11) 富足(1:9-11)
  18. Trials and Troubles (1:12-18) 试炼和事端(1:12-18)
  19. God’s Word (1:19-27) 神的道(1:19-27)
  20. Favoritism (2:1-13) 偏心待人(2:1-13)
  21. Faith and works (2:14-26) 信心和做工(2:14-26)
  22. The tongue (3:1-12) 舌头(3:1-12)
  23. Wisdom (3:13-18) 智慧(3:13-18)
  24. Pride (4:1-17) 骄傲(4:1-17)
  25. Misused wealth (5:1-6) 误用财富(5:1-6)
  26. Patience and prayer (5:7-18) 忍耐和祷告(5:7-18)
  27. Evangelism (5:19-20) 传福音(5:19-20) 最后更新于 2014年9月12日 星期五 07:46 MeasureMeasure Get a free Evernote account to save this article and view it later on any device. Create account