恩典国际圣经学院

第十四课 -- 路得记

Lesson 14 -- Ruth


Lesson 14: Ruth

Psalm 62:5-8 Yes, my soul, find rest in God; my hope comes from him. Truly he is my rock and my salvation; he is my fortress, I will not be shaken. My salvation and my honor depend on God; he is my mighty rock, my refuge. Trust in him at all times, you people; pour out your hearts to him, for God is our refuge.

诗篇62:5-8—-5我的心啊!要默默等候上帝,因为我的盼望从祂而来。6 唯有祂才是我的磐石,我的拯救,我的堡垒, 我必不致动摇。7 上帝是我的拯救者,是我的荣耀,祂是我的坚固磐石, 是我的避难所。8 众百姓啊,要时刻信靠上帝, 向祂倾心吐意,因为祂是 我们的避难所。(细拉)

**Introduction: **

介绍:

The book of Ruth is a story about love and faithfulness. In a world that is quick to abandon their young and place the elderly in nursing homes, Ruth stands in stark contrast to them all. In this 4 chapter book, God shows us the trait of Christ-like faith in the life of Ruth, using this Moabite woman to step into the line of the future Savior of the world!

路得记是一卷有关爱与忠心的故事。现今的世界里,人们将幼儿以及老人送进托儿所或养老院的速度很快,与此相比,路得与所有这些人形成了鲜明的对比。在这卷4章内容的书中,神让我们在路得的生命中看到基督式信心的特质,让这位摩押女子进入未来人类救主的生命线!

Setting of the Book of Ruth

路得记背景

The book opens in the land of Moab, a pagan country south east of Judah. Naomi and her husband Elimelek fled to Moab to escape the famine taking place in Judah. After Naomi’s husband and two sons died, Naomi returns to Judah with one daughter-in-law, after urging both daughter-in-laws to remain in Moab. The rest of the book takes place in Bethlehem, the future birthplace of the Messiah, the Lord Jesus Christ.

本书的开篇在摩押地,是犹大东南方的一个异教国家。拿俄米连同丈夫以利米勒逃到摩押,以躲避犹大地的饥荒。拿俄米的丈夫和两个儿子去世后,她劝说两个媳妇待在摩押,但最终带着一个儿媳回到犹大。这卷书的其余部分发生在伯利恒,即弥赛亚-主耶稣基督未来的出生地。

Foreshadowing of Jesus: Boaz, the future husband of Ruth, foreshadows Jesus as the “Kinsman Redeemer,” who saves Ruth and Naomi from a very desperate situation. He illustrates for us how Jesus redeems us from our lives through his love for us on the cross.

预表耶稣:波阿斯,路得未来的丈夫,预表了耶稣基督,那位至亲的救赎者。他救助了路得和拿俄米于水深火热之中。他让我们看到耶稣基督是怎样透过十字架上的大爱,将我们从灭亡的道路上拯救出来。

Key verses of the Book

主要经文

Ruth 1:16, 17 But Ruth replied, “Don’t urge me to leave you or to turn back from you. Where you go I will go, and where you stay I will stay. Your people will be my people and your God my God. 17 Where you die I will die, and there I will be buried. May the Lord deal with me, be it ever so severely, if even death separates you and me.”

路得记1:16-17—-16 路得说:“不要逼我撇你而去。你往哪里去,我也要往哪里去;你住在哪里,我也要住在哪里;你的同胞就是我的同胞,你的上帝就是我的上帝; 17 你死在哪里,我也死在哪里、葬在哪里。只有死才能把我们分开。否则,愿耶和华重重地惩罚我!”

Ruth 2:11-12 Boaz replied, “I’ve been told all about what you have done for your mother-in-law since the death of your husband–how you left your father and mother and your homeland and came to live with a people you did not know before. May the LORD repay you for what you have done. May you be richly rewarded by the LORD, the God of Israel, under whose wings you have come to take refuge.”

得2:11-12—-11 波阿斯说:“自从你丈夫过世之后,你怎样善待婆婆,怎样离开父母和家乡来到素不相识的人当中,我都听说了。 12 愿耶和华照你所行的奖赏你!你来投靠在以色列的上帝耶和华的翅膀下,愿祂厚厚地赏赐你。”

Ruth 4:9-10 Then Boaz announced to the elders and all the people, “Today you are witnesses that I have bought from Naomi all the property of Elimelek, Kilion and Mahlon. I have also acquired Ruth the Moabite, Mahlon’s widow, as my wife, in order to maintain the name of the dead with his property, so that his name will not disappear from among his family or from his hometown. Today you are witnesses!”

得4:9-10—-9 波阿斯向长老和所有在场的人说:“请各位今天为我作证,所有属于以利米勒、基连和玛伦的产业,我都从拿俄米手上买了。 10 同时,我要娶玛伦的遗孀摩押女子路得为妻,好使死者继续在产业上留名,免得他的名在本族本乡中消失。今天,请各位作证。”

Book of Ruth 4:16-17 Then Naomi took the child in her arms and cared for him. The women living there said, “Naomi has a son!” And they named him Obed. He was the father of Jesse, the father of David.

得4:16-17—-16 拿俄米接过婴孩抱在怀中,照顾他。 17 邻居的妇女们喊着说:“拿俄米有孩子了!”她们给孩子取名叫俄备得,这俄备得就是耶西的父亲,耶西是大卫的父亲。

Questions

问题

  1. (1:1) How did God’s divine plan work through the powers of nature?

    得1:1 在士师执政的时代,犹大发生了饥荒。有一个人带着妻子和两个儿子从犹大的伯利恒迁到摩押境内寄居。

    神是怎样借助大自然的能力实施他的属天计划的?

  2. How do we know that Naomi was taking her losses personal from the book of Ruth? (Ruth 1:20)

    得1:20 拿俄米对她们说:“不要再叫我拿俄米[a]了,叫我玛拉[b]吧!因为全能者叫我过得好苦啊!

    从路得记中,我们怎样知道拿俄米把她的损失看作是她个人的事情?

  3. When we pray in the Lord’s Prayer, “Your will be done,” what does God’s will all entail for the life of a Christian?

    我们在祷告主祷文时说:“愿你的旨意成就,—”神对一个基督徒生命的旨意都包含什么内容?

    Galatians 6:2 Carry each other’s burdens, and in this way you will fulfill the law of Christ.

    加6:22 你们要分担彼此的重担,这样就成全了基督的律法。

  4. How had Ruth fulfilled the Law of Christ?

    路得怎样满足了基督的律法要求?

  5. (1:17) What words indicate that Ruth was willing to give up the false gods of the Moabites and accept the God of the Israelites

    得1:17 你死在哪里,我也死在哪里、葬在哪里。只有死才能把我们分开。否则,愿耶和华重重地惩罚我!”

    路得乐意放弃摩押地的假神,接受以色列的神。哪些话可以说明这一点?

  6. In what ways did Boaz fulfill the Law of Christ?

    波阿斯在哪些方面满足了基督的律法要求?

How Ruth met her Future Husband

路得遇到未来的丈夫

  1. (2:1-7) What do we know about Ruth’s work-ethic?

    得2:1-7—-1 拿俄米的丈夫以利米勒有个亲戚,名叫波阿斯,是个有名望的财主。 2 摩押女子路得对拿俄米说:“让我到田里去,跟在那些愿意恩待我的人后面,捡些麦穗回来。” 拿俄米说:“去吧,我的女儿!” 3 于是,路得便去了。她恰巧来到以利米勒的亲戚波阿斯的田里,跟在收割的人后面捡麦穗。 4 当时,波阿斯刚好从伯利恒来到田间,向那些收割的工人问安说: “愿耶和华与你们同在。”他们回答说:“愿耶和华赐福与你。” 5 波阿斯问负责收割的工头说:“那是谁家的女子?” 6 工头回答说:“她是摩押女子,跟拿俄米刚从摩押回来。 7 她求我让她跟在收割的人后面,捡工人扎捆时遗落的麦穗。她一大早就来到这里,一直捡到现在,除了在凉棚里稍微坐了一会儿之外,几乎没有休息。”

    我们看到路得的工作准则是什么?

    (2:2,3) “The sojourner, the fatherless and the widow” were permitted to follow “after the harvesters” (verse 3) gathering the stalks of grain which the latter had missed or dropped. (Leviticus 19:9; 23:22; Deuteronomy 24:19) This was a form of welfare where the poor were cared for out of the abundance of the nation’s wealth.

    得2:2,3—-2 摩押女子路得对拿俄米说:“让我到田里去,跟在那些愿意恩待我的人后面,捡些麦穗回来。” 拿俄米说:“去吧,我的女儿!” 3 于是,路得便去了。她恰巧来到以利米勒的亲戚波阿斯的田里,跟在收割的人后面捡麦穗。

    利未记19:9 “你们收割的时候,不要割净田角地边的庄稼,也不要捡那些掉在田里的穗子。

    利未记23:22 你们收割时,不可割尽田角地边的庄稼,也不可捡落在地里的。要把这些留给穷人和外族人。我是你们的上帝耶和华。”

    申命记24:19 “如果你们在田间收割庄稼时忘了一捆,不可回去取,要留给孤儿寡妇和寄居者。这样,你们的上帝耶和华必使你们凡事蒙福。 20 你们打橄榄时,打过一次后不可再打,要把剩下的留给孤儿寡妇和寄居者。 21 你们摘葡萄时,摘过一次后不可再摘,要把剩下的留给孤儿寡妇和寄居者。 22 要记住,你们曾在埃及做过奴隶。所以,我吩咐你们这样行。

  2. How are the poor cared for in our society?

    在我们的社会中,穷人在得到怎样的照顾?

  3. The book of Ruth clearly teaches us that nothing happens by chance. What lesson is there for us today for finding a future husband or wife?

    路得记很清楚地教导我们,没有一件事是碰巧发生的。在找妻子或丈夫这件事上,今天的我们可从中得到怎样的教训?

    Consider the care which Boaz gave to Ruth.

    A place close to his maidens

    Protection against being violated from other men

    Permission to quench her thirst from his water supply.

    思考波阿斯对路得的关照:

    —让她待在靠近他使女们的地方;

    —保护她不受其他男人的虐待;

    —允许她从他的水源喝水解渴;

  4. (2:11) Who else left their homeland in obedience to God’s command that Boaz might be comparing Ruth’s faith to?

    得2:11 波阿斯说:“自从你丈夫过世之后,你怎样善待婆婆,怎样离开父母和家乡来到素不相识的人当中,我都听说了。

    还有谁顺服神的命令,离开了家乡?波阿斯可能把路得比作谁?

    Hebrews 11:8 By faith Abraham, when called to go to a place he would later receive as his inheritance, obeyed and went, even though he did not know where he was going.

    来11:8 亚伯拉罕因为有信心,听到上帝的呼召后,就遵命前往他将要承受为产业的地方,但他出发的时候还不知道自己要去哪里。

  5. (2:20) How did Boaz give honor to the dead?

    得2:20 以撒凭信心指着将来的事为雅各和以扫祝福。

    波阿斯怎样尊重那些过世的人?

  6. How do Christians honor the dead today?

    今天的基督徒怎样尊重已过世的人?

    Hebrews 13:7 Remember your leaders, who spoke the word of God to you. Consider the outcome of their way of life and imitate their faith.

    来13:7 你们要记住从前带领你们、把上帝的道传给你们的人,留心观察他们一生如何行事为人,效法他们的信心。

(2:20) A guardian-redeemer was a close family relative. His duties, under the Mosaic Law, were to redeem (buy back) the land of a relative who had fallen into hard times (Leviticus 25:25), or to buy back an enslaved relative (Leviticus 25:47-49), and to fulfill the levirate law, that is, to provide an heir for a brother who had died (Deuteronomy 25:5-10). The responsibilities of a guardian-redeemer called for sacrifice: the man who performed these duties voluntarily diminished his own inheritance for the sake of another.

得2:20 拿俄米说:“愿耶和华赐福给他,他对活着的和过世的都是那么有情有义。”拿俄米又对路得说:“这人是我们本族的人,是我们的一个近亲。”

守护人救赎者是家里亲戚中的近亲。按照摩西的律法,他的责任是赎回(买回)那个亲戚在贫困时期卖出去的田地,或买回那个被迫为奴的亲戚(未25:47-49),以满足寡妇与亡夫兄弟结婚的律法要求,以此为那去世的弟兄延续后代(申25:5-10)。守护人救赎者需要做出奉献:执行这些责任的人自愿为了另一个人而削弱自己的继承权。

利未记25:25 如果有人因贫穷而卖掉土地,他的近亲要把卖掉的土地赎回来。

利25:47-49—-47 “如果你们中间的外族人渐渐富裕,你们同胞中却有人日益贫穷,把自己卖给外族人或他们的族人, 48 他可以保留赎身的权利。他的兄弟、 49 叔伯、堂兄弟或其他近亲都可以赎回他。如果他富裕起来,也可以赎回自己。

申25:5-10—-5 “如果兄弟们住在一起,其中一个没有儿子便死了,死者的妻子不可改嫁给外人。死者的兄弟要尽兄弟的责任娶她为妻。 6 她生的第一个儿子要算为死者的儿子,免得死者在以色列绝后。 7 如果死者的兄弟不愿娶那寡妇,她要到城门口见长老们,告诉他们,‘我丈夫的兄弟不肯尽兄弟的责任娶我,不肯为我丈夫留后。’ 8 长老们要把死者的兄弟召来,与他商谈。如果他执意不肯, 9 那寡妇要当着众长老的面,上前脱下他的鞋,吐唾沫在他脸上,说,‘这就是不肯为兄弟留后之人的下场。’ 10 从此以后,他的家在以色列要被称为‘被脱鞋者之家’。

God is the guardian-redeemer of his people who “buys back” his people from sin, death, and the power of the devil through the redeeming work of Jesus on the cross.

神就是他子民的守护人救赎者,他借助耶稣基督在十字架上的救赎工作,把他的子民从罪、死、以及那恶者的权势之下救赎出来。

Isaiah 59:20 “The Redeemer will come to Zion, to those in Jacob who repent of their sins,” declares the Lord.

赛59:20 耶和华说:“必有一位救赎主来到锡安,到雅各那些离弃罪恶的子孙那里。”

1 Peter 3:18 For Christ also suffered once for sins, the righteous for the unrighteous, to bring you to God.

彼前3:18 因为基督也曾一次为罪受苦,以无罪之身代替不义之人,为要领你们到上帝面前。祂的肉体虽被处死,但祂借着圣灵复活了。

Ruth becomes the wife of Boaz… 3:1 - 4:22

路得成为波阿斯的妻子… 3:1—4:22

  1. (3:3,4) What was Naomi instructing Ruth to do?

    得3:3,4—-3 你要梳洗打扮、抹上香膏、换件衣服,然后去麦场,但不要让他认出你是谁。等他吃饱喝足, 4 躺下睡觉的时候,你看准他躺卧的地方,去掀开盖在他脚上的被,躺在那里,到时他必定会告诉你该怎样做。

    拿俄米在教导路得做什么?

  2. (3:9) What did it mean to spread the corner of your garment over someone? (Look up Ruth 2:12)

    得3:9 便问道:“你是谁?”她答道:“我是你的婢女路得,请用你的衣襟遮盖我,因为你是我的近亲。” (参路得记2:12)

    2:12 愿耶和华照你所行的奖赏你!你来投靠在以色列的上帝耶和华的翅膀下,愿祂厚厚地赏赐你。”

  3. 用你的衣襟遮盖某人是什么意思?

    Not against the proposal, Boaz, however, deferred acting on it until a kinsman nearer than he had been made aware of his rights in the matter (6-13). Sending Ruth back to Naomi (14-18), Boaz at once took steps to clear up the situation. When the nearest of kin waived his right of redemption (4:1-6), the prospective bridegroom had the fact publicly notarized that he was legally entitled to marry Ruth. At the same time he publicly obligated himself to acquire title to her dead father-in-law’s property, no doubt heavily encumbered with debts, in order to restore it to the family of Elimelek.

    波阿斯没有反对这一提议,然而他等到比他更近的一个亲戚清楚了自己在这件事情上的权利之后才开始行动(6-13)。把路得送回到拿俄米那里后(14-18),波阿斯立刻采取措施,弄清形势。当最近的亲戚放弃救赎的权利后(4:1-6),这位准新郎当众让这一事实得到公证,他可以依法娶路得为妻。同时,他也在众人的见证下将她去世的公公的财产—毫无疑问是负债累累的财产,归到自己的名下,使它可以重新归给以利米勒家。

  4. (4:6) How would his own estate have been endangered?

    得4:6 那位至亲说:“那我就不能赎了,免得损害到我的产业。你来赎吧,我不能赎。”

    他自己的财产会受到怎样的损害?

    (4:12) Tamar, Perez’s mother, had been in a situation similar to Ruth’s: she had been a widow facing a childless future (Genesis 38:1-30). Because Judah did not keep his word when he offered his youngest son as Tamar’s husband, Tamar tricked Judah into fathering her twin sons. Perez and his brother symbolized offspring born despite hopelessness.

    得4:12 愿耶和华借着这年轻女子赐你后裔,使你家像先祖犹大和她玛的儿子法勒斯家一样。” 她玛,法勒斯的妈妈,曾经处于类似路得的境遇:她也是个寡妇,面对着无儿女的未来(创38:1-30)。犹大曾许诺将他最小的儿子给她玛作丈夫,但他没有遵守诺言,她玛于是诱骗犹大作了她两个双生子的父亲。法勒斯和他的兄弟代表了无望时仍然出生的后裔。

    创38:1-30

    Consider some of the ancestresses of our Savior…

    思考我们救主家族中的一些女性先辈—

    Only by God’s grace was the line of the Savior preserved from one generation to the next and only by grace are we saved! As Jesus once said, “It is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick. I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners” (Luke 5:31,32).

    只有透过神的恩典,救主的家族血脉才得以一代一代维持下来,也只有透过神的恩典,我们才得到拯救!正如耶稣曾说:“康健的人用不着医生,生病的人才需要。我来不是为召义人,乃是召罪人。”(路5:31,32)

    路5:31,32—-31耶稣答道:“健康的人不需要医生,有病的人才需要。 32 我来不是要召义人悔改,乃是召罪人悔改。”

  5. (4:16, 17) Why did Naomi and the women name the child?

    得4:16,17—-16 拿俄米接过婴孩抱在怀中,照顾他。 17 邻居的妇女们喊着说:“拿俄米有孩子了!”她们给孩子取名叫俄备得,这俄备得就是耶西的父亲,耶西是大卫的父亲。

    为什么是拿俄米和那些妇女在给孩子起名?

  6. What other New Testament account do we have where the mother named her son?

    在新约的记载中,还有哪些例子是母亲给她的儿子取名的?

It was not customary for the women of a community to name a child. However, the circumstances of Ruth’s marriage were very unusual too. Naomi treated her son as if he were hers. Obed, meaning “servant” was born to Naomi in the sense that through him her husband’s name would live on. God moved in a mysterious way to let Ruth, the Moabite peasant girl, become the great-grandmother of Israel’s great king David!

社区中的妇女给孩子取名并不是风俗,然而,路得的婚姻境遇也极不寻常。拿俄米视这个孩子为自己的,给他起名叫俄备得,意为“仆人”。俄备得似乎是为拿俄米生的孩子,因为她丈夫的名可以借他传承下去了。神以一种奇妙的方式让路得,一个摩押地的农村姑娘,成为以色列伟大君王大卫的曾祖母。

To officially verify Ruth’s status in Israel, the book closes with a genealogy, beginning with Perez and ending with her famous descendant David.

为正式证明路得在以色列的身份,这卷书以家谱作结束,法勒斯为首,以著名的后裔大卫结尾。