恩典国际圣经学院

第十六课 -- 撒母耳上第8—31章

Lesson 16 -- 1 Samuel 8-31


Lesson 16: 1 Samuel 8-31

Israel asks for a King - 1 Samuel 8

以色列人要求立王—撒上8章

(8:1-3) Note of interest: Samuel’s sons fell into similar sins as the sons of Eli. Just because a person is a man of God does not mean that his children will automatically follow his footsteps of faith. For we all are under constant pressure from the devil, the world, and our own sinful flesh.

撒上8:1-3—-1 撒母耳年纪老迈,就立他儿子做以色列的士师。 2 长子名叫约珥,次子名叫亚比亚,他们在别是巴做士师。 3 他儿子不行他的道,贪图财利,收受贿赂,屈枉正直。

有趣之处:撒母耳的儿子和以利的儿子都犯了类似的罪。成为一个侍奉神的人并不表示他的儿女就会自动跟随他信心的脚踪。因为我们都处在那恶者、这个世界,以及我们自己有罪肉身的不断压迫之下。

(8:7) God knew the real reason why Israel wanted a king. It was because they wanted to look like their pagan neighbors (v.20) and because they rejected God as their king. But God warned the people through Samuel about the cost of having a king. And when they would eventually cry out for him to save them, he would no longer listen (v.18)

撒上8:77 耶和华对撒母耳说:“百姓向你说的一切话,你只管依从,因为他们不是厌弃你,乃是厌弃我,不要我做他们的王。

神知道以色列人为什么想要一个国王的真正原因。那是因为他们想跟他们的异教邻居一样(第20节),而且因为他们不愿让神来作他们的王。但神透过撒母耳警告过他们立王要付出的代价,就是当他们最终呼求神的拯救时,神就不会再听从他们(第18节)

  1. (8:21, 22) If God knew that having a king would be bad for Israel as a whole, why would he give in to their desires? Does God give us the desires of our heart, even if our desires are sometimes wrong?

    撒上8:21-22—-21 撒母耳听见百姓这一切话,就将这话陈明在耶和华面前。 22 耶和华对撒母耳说:“你只管依从他们的话,为他们立王。”撒母耳对以色列人说:“你们各归各城去吧。”

    问题:既然神知道设立国王对他们没有好处,还为什么要向他们妥协?神是否会在我们渴望一些错误的东西时,也还是会把它给我们?

1 Samuel chapter Nine-Ten

撒母耳记上第9-10章

  1. (9:1,2) What sort of description does the Bible give to Israel’s first king?

    撒上9:1-2—-1 有一个便雅悯人,名叫基士,是便雅悯人亚斐亚的玄孙、比歌拉的曾孙、洗罗的孙子、亚别的儿子,是个大能的勇士 a。 2 他有一个儿子,名叫扫罗,又健壮,又俊美,在以色列人中没有一个能比他的,身体比众民高过一头。

    问题:圣经怎样描述以色列的第一个国王?

    (9:21) Relate the words of Saul with the words of the apostle Paul. Read the following…

    撒上9:21 扫罗说:“我不是以色列支派中至小的便雅悯人吗?我家不是便雅悯支派中至小的家吗?你为何对我说这样的话呢?”

    把扫罗和话和使徒保罗的话连起来看,读以下经文:

    1 Corinthians 1:26-30 Brothers and sisters, think of what you were when you were called. Not many of you were wise by human standards; not many were influential; not many were of noble birth. But God chose the foolish things of the world to shame the wise; God chose the weak things of the world to shame the strong. God chose the lowly things of this world and the despised things—and the things that are not—to nullify the things that are, so that no one may boast before him. It is because of him that you are in Christ Jesus, who has become for us wisdom from God—that is, our righteousness, holiness and redemption.

    林前1:26-30—-26 弟兄们哪,可见你们蒙召的,按着肉体有智慧的不多,有能力的不多,有尊贵的也不多。 27 神却拣选了世上愚拙的,叫有智慧的羞愧;又拣选了世上软弱的,叫那强壮的羞愧。 28 神也拣选了世上卑贱的、被人厌恶的以及那无有的,为要废掉那有的, 29 使一切有血气的,在神面前一个也不能自夸。 30 但你们得在基督耶稣里,是本乎神,神又使他成为我们的智慧、公义、圣洁、救赎。

  2. Why do you think God chose Saul, from the smallest tribe of Israel, and the smallest clan inside of the smallest tribe, to be Israel’s first king?

    你认为神为何要从以色列最小的支派中拣选扫罗来作以色列的第一个王?他还是最小支派中最小的一族。

    (10:1) The use of oil, in the Old Testament, was symbolic of the Spirit of the Lord (Isaiah 61:1; Zechariah 4:14), setting apart his servants for special work that he has assigned them to do. Priests were anointed (Exodus 29:7), and prophets (1Kings 19:1) and now we see kings are anointed as well. Again, this is a reminder to us of Jesus’ baptism in the Jordan River. When he was anointed with water by John the Baptist. The Spirit descended upon Jesus in the form of the dove and the Father gave his voice of approval from the skies declaring Jesus to be his Son. And the Son of God is the fulfillment of the Old Testament office of prophet, priest, and king.

    撒上10:1 撒母耳拿瓶膏油倒在扫罗的头上,与他亲嘴,说:“这不是耶和华膏你做他产业的君吗?

    旧约中的油代表着神的灵(赛61:1;撒迦利亚书4:14),要借此将神的仆人分别出来,去做神安排他们去做的特殊工作。祭司被膏抹过(出29:7),先知被膏抹过(王上19:1),现在我们看到国王也被膏抹。这又一次是对耶稣在约旦河接受洗礼的应用。当他被施洗约翰用水施洗时,圣灵如鸽子降在耶稣身上,圣父肯定的声音也从天上宣告耶稣是他的儿子。神的儿子耶稣是旧约先知、祭司和君王职分的成全。

  3. (10:22) why do you think Saul hid?

    撒上10:22 就问耶和华说:“那人到这里来了没有? ”耶和华说:“他藏在器具中了。”

    问题:你认为扫罗为什么要躲起来?

    1 Samuel chapter Twelve - Fourteen

    撒母耳上第12—14章

    (12:17-19) The wheat harvest took place from about the middle of April till the middle of June, when the spring rains had stopped. Samuel was asking God for confirmation in this miracle so that all of Israel would know just how upset both God and his prophet were that they had asked for a king and were rejecting God.

    撒上12:17-19—-17 这不是割麦子的时候吗?我求告耶和华,他必打雷降雨,使你们又知道又看出,你们求立王的事是在耶和华面前犯大罪了。” 18 于是撒母耳求告耶和华,耶和华就在这日打雷降雨,众民便甚惧怕耶和华和撒母耳。 19 众民对撒母耳说:“求你为仆人们祷告耶和华你的神,免得我们死亡,因为我们求立王的事正是罪上加罪了。”

    收麦子的季节在春雨已经结束的时候开始,大约从四月中旬到六月中旬。撒母耳以这个神迹向神求确据,为的是让所有以色列人都知道,他们拒绝神而要求立王的事多么让神和他的先知伤心。

  4. (12:20,22) What are we to make of these words of Samuel, “Do not be afraid”? Read the following…

    撒上12:20-22—-20 撒母耳对百姓说:“不要惧怕!你们虽然行了这恶,却不要偏离耶和华,只要尽心侍奉他。 21 若偏离耶和华,去顺从那不能救人的虚神,是无益的。 22 耶和华既喜悦选你们做他的子民,就必因他的大名不撇弃你们。

    问题:我们应该怎样理解撒母耳说的“不要害怕”?读以下经文:

    Psalm 130:3, 4 if you, Lord, kept a record of sins, Lord, who could stand? But with you there is forgiveness, so that we can, with reverence, serve you.

    诗篇130:3-4—-3 主耶和华啊,你若究察罪孽,谁能站得住呢? 4 但在你有赦免之恩,要叫人敬畏你。

    (12:24) This verse serves as an excellent format for our worship and why Christians gather together to study God’s Word – “to consider what great things he has done for us.”

    撒上12:24 只要你们敬畏耶和华,诚诚实实地尽心侍奉他,想念他向你们所行的事何等大。

    这节经文为我们提供了极好的模版,让我们清楚我们为什么崇拜,以及基督徒为何要聚在一起学习神的话语——“为要思想他为我们行了何等大的事”。

  5. What great things has the Lord done for each of us and what great things does he continue to do for us?

    神为我们每个人行了什么大事,他还继续为我们做什么大事?

    (13:11) Offering the sacrifice himself demonstrated two flaws: 1) He trusted his army rather than God 2) He thought the ritual of sacrifice could substitute for faith and reliance in God. Read the following…

    撒上13:11 撒母耳说:“你做的是什么事呢?”扫罗说:“因为我见百姓离开我散去,你也不照所定的日期来到,而且非利士人聚集在密抹—

    他自己擅自献祭这件事有两个错误:1)他信靠的不是神,而是他的军队;2)他以为献祭的仪式可以取代信心和对神的依靠。读以下经文:

    Psalm 51:16,17 You do not delight in sacrifice, or I would bring it; you do not take pleasure in burnt offerings. My sacrifice, O God, is a broken spirit; a broken and contrite heart you, God, will not despise.

    诗篇51:16-17—-16 你本不喜爱祭物,若喜爱,我就献上,燔祭你也不喜悦。 17 神所要的祭就是忧伤的灵,神啊,忧伤痛悔的心,你必不轻看。

  6. Which king of Israel wrote those words in Psalm 51?

    以色列的哪一个国王写了诗篇51篇中的那些话?

  7. (14:6) Why it take great faith to go up against these philistines at this time?

    撒上14:6 约拿单对拿兵器的少年人说:“我们不如过到未受割礼人的防营那里去,或者耶和华为 我们施展能力。因为耶和华使人得胜,不在乎人多人少。”

    问题:为什么这次上去攻击这些非利士人需要特别大的信心?

    (14:24) compare these words of Saul with the words of Jesus…

    撒上14:24 扫罗叫百姓起誓说:“凡不等到晚上向敌人报完了仇吃什么的,必受咒诅。”因此这日百姓没有吃什么,就极其困惫。

    把扫罗的这些话与耶稣的话作比较:

    Matthew 5:33-37 “Again, you have heard that it was said to the people long ago, ‘Do not break your oath, but fulfill to the Lord the vows you have made.’ But I tell you, do not swear an oath at all: either by heaven, for it is God’s throne; or by the earth, for it is his footstool; or by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the Great King. And do not swear by your head, for you cannot make even one hair white or black. All you need to say is simply ‘Yes’ or ‘No’; anything beyond this comes from the evil one.”

    太5:33-37—-33 “你们又听见有吩咐古人的话说:‘不可背誓,所起的誓总要向主谨守。’ 34 只是我告诉你们,什么誓都不可起。不可指着天起誓,因为天是神的座位; 35 不可指着地起誓,因为地是他的脚凳;也不可指着耶路撒冷起誓,因为耶路撒冷是大君的京城; 36 又不可指着你的头起誓,因为你不能使一根头发变黑变白了。 37 你们的话,是就说是,不是就说不是;若再多说,就是出于那恶者。

  8. (14:29-30) who was acting in faith, Jonathon or his father Saul? Why?

    撒上14:29-30—-29 约拿单说:“我父亲连累你们了。你看,我尝了这一点蜜,眼睛就明亮了。 30 今日百姓若任意吃了从仇敌所夺的物,击杀的非利士人岂不更多吗?”

    问题:谁的行为是出于信心的,约拿单还是他的父亲扫罗?为什么?

The LORD rejects Saul as King of Israel

神拒绝扫罗作以色列的王

(15:2-3) The Lord knew just how ruthless the Amalekites were as they preyed on every weak and helpless person that came through the trade route of Egypt to Canaan. They were known to be ruthless terrorists (Deuteronomy 25:17-19) and the Lord knew that the only way to deal with these wicked people was to eradicate them from the earth – completely. Take special note, that God doesn’t say, “Spare the young children who are innocent.” The reason this is noteworthy is because there are some Christians who would insist that young children are innocent of the curse that sin has had upon mankind until they reach some unknown age of accountability that many of them put at the age of 11 or 12. But is that consistent with what we learn in our text today? Read the following for support passages…

撒上15:2-3 —-2 万军之耶和华如此说:‘以色列人出埃及的时候,在路上亚玛力人怎样待他们,怎样抵挡他们,我都没忘。 3 现在你要去击打亚玛力人,灭尽他们所有的,不可怜惜他们,将男女、孩童、吃奶的,并牛、羊、骆驼和驴尽行杀死。’”

神知道在埃及到迦南的贸易路线上,亚玛力人在欺诈每一个弱小无助的人,他们的做法极其残酷。他们是众人皆知的残酷的恐怖分子(申命记25:17-19)。神知道对付这群恶人的唯一办法就是将他们从地面上铲除——完全地铲除。请特别留意:神没有说:“留下那些无辜的孩子。”这个原因值得留意,因为有一些基督徒坚持认为,小孩子可以免受罪给人类带来的咒诅,只有在他们到了一个能够承担责任的未知年龄段时才会受到影响,很多人认为这个年龄段是在11至12岁。可是,这与我们今天所学的经文一致吗?读以下支持经文:

Psalm 51:5 Surely I was sinful at birth, sinful from the time my mother conceived me.

诗篇51:5 我是在罪孽里生的,在我母亲怀胎的时候就有了罪。

Job 14:4 Who can bring what is pure from the impure? No one!

伯14:4 谁能使洁净之物出于污秽之中呢?无论谁也不能。

  1. What sobering truth do these two Bible verses teach us about new born babies?

    If a child is diagnosed with cancer or some other dreadful disease at a young age, a disease that will likely end in death, if not treated immediately – for the parent to pretend that their child is not sick could be fatal! For a Christian parent to not think their young child is affected by the sin of his or her parents can also be fatal. For God has given to us the gift of the gospel to change hearts. And that gospel is the power for our salvation. And it comes to us to through the spoken Word of the Holy Bible and through the waters of Holy Baptism. Read the following…

    这两处经文给我们教导了新生婴儿的那些令人清醒的事实?

    如果一个婴儿在很小的时候就被诊断患了癌症或其它可怕的疾病,一个很可能是要命的疾病,如果父母假装他们的孩子没有病而不立即开始治疗,这将会是致命的!一个基督徒父母如果认为他们的小孩子不会受到他的父母的罪的影响,这同样是致命的。因为神已经把改变心灵的福音作为礼物赐给我们,而且这一福音具有救赎的大能。这一福音透过圣经说出的话语临到我们,也透过圣洗礼中的水临到我们。读以下经文:

1 Peter 1:23 For you have been born again, not of perishable seed, but of imperishable, through the living and enduring word of God.

彼前1:23 你们蒙了重生,不是由于能坏的种子,乃是由于不能坏的种子,是借着神活泼常存的道。

Titus 3:4-7 But when the kindness and love of God our Savior appeared, he saved us, not because of righteous things we had done, but because of his mercy. He saved us through the washing of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit, whom he poured out on us generously through Jesus Christ our Savior, so that, having been justified by his grace, we might become heirs having the hope of eternal life.

提多书3:4-7—-4 但到了神我们救主的恩慈和他向人所施的慈爱显明的时候, 5 他便救了我们,并不是因我们自己所行的义,乃是照他的怜悯,借着重生的洗和圣灵的更新。 6 圣灵就是神借着耶稣基督——我们救主厚厚浇灌在我们身上的, 7 好叫我们因他的恩得称为义,可以凭着永生的盼望成为后嗣。

Acts 2:38, 39 Peter replied, “Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. The promise is for you and your children and for all who are far off—for all whom the Lord our God will call.”

徒2:38-39—-38 彼得说:“你们各人要悔改,奉耶稣基督的名受洗,叫你们的罪得赦,就必领受所赐的圣灵。 39 因为这应许是给你们和你们的儿女,并一切在远方的人,就是主我们神所召来的。”

What an amazing God we have! He gives us the medicine to treat our young children so that they are forgiven of sin, and given a rebirth or new life in the name of Christ our Savior! Amazing grace.

我们的神多么奇妙!他把医治小孩子的药赐给我们,使他们的罪可以得着赦免,还在我们的救主基督的名里得着重生和新生命!这是多么奇妙的恩典。

(15:8,9) In his arrogance, Saul couldn’t resist the temptation to bring back the king and showcase him to all Israel so that they could see the great conquests of King Saul. And the fat of the land was too irresistible not to take and use for the hungry stomachs of his men.

撒上15:8-9—-8 生擒了亚玛力王亚甲,用刀杀尽亚玛力的众民。 9 扫罗和百姓却怜惜亚甲,也爱惜上好的牛、羊、牛犊、羊羔并一切美物,不肯灭绝。凡下贱瘦弱的,尽都杀了。

扫罗因着自己的傲慢而不能拒绝重获王位的诱惑,也抑制不住向所有以色列人炫耀,让他们看到扫罗王的伟大胜利。而且那片土地上的脂油对他饿着肚子的手下来说,也太难以抗拒,很难不去拿来使用。

(15:22) According to God, what’s better – our offerings that we give to him or the obedience that we give him from a heart filled with faith? The answer is obvious as it is repeated again in these short verses – “To obey is better than sacrifice”

撒上15:22 撒母耳说:“耶和华喜悦燔祭和平安祭, 岂如喜悦人听从他的话呢?听命胜于献祭, 顺从胜于公羊的脂油。

对于神来说,哪一个更好呢?是我们献给他的祭物, 还是我们出于信心发自内心的顺服?答案显而易见, 正如这些短短的经文所一再重复的:“听命(顺从) 胜于献祭。”

(15:20, 24) “But I did obey the LORD.” Perhaps the one thing God hates worse than the sin we commit is the excuses we make for it when we’re called to give an account for our sin. Saul’s repentance is questionable. Perhaps he was sorrier that he got caught than he was sorry that he offended the Almighty God. The rest of Saul’s account in Scripture might lead us to believe he was merely sorry he got caught.

撒上15:20,24

20 扫罗对撒母耳说:“我实在听从了耶和华的命令,行了耶和华所差遣我行的路,擒了亚玛力王亚甲来,灭尽了亚玛力人。

24 扫罗对撒母耳说:“我有罪了,我因惧怕百姓,听从他们的话,就违背了耶和华的命令和你的言语。

“ 我实在听从了耶和华的命令。”

或许在我们所犯的所有罪里,再没有比为那些罪找借口更让神憎恨的了,因为我们本应该为那些罪做出解释。扫罗的悔改让人怀疑,或许他是因为被抓住才感到难过,而不是因为冒犯了神而难过。从圣经其余部分对扫罗的记载看,我们相信他感到难过的原因仅仅是因为自己被抓到。

(15:29) this is an attribute of our Almighty God alone. He is the “Unchanging One,” who can absolutely be depended upon to keep his Word. This is a very discomforting attribute in the case of King Saul because God was not going to change his mind, but replace him as king with one after his own heart – the future King David.

撒上15:29 以色列的大能者必不至说谎,也不至后悔。因为他迥非世人,决不后悔。”

这个属性只属于我们全能的上帝。他是那位“永不改变的”的神,可以完全相信他会遵守诺言。在扫罗王的这件事上,神的这一属性令人不安,因为神不会改变他的心意,他要让另一位合他心意的人来接替王位,那就是未来的大卫王。

God’s unchanging attribute is a great comfort to us Christians because no matter how lost or misguided we have been in life – he has made an unchangeable promise to each of us through his precious Son, our Savior, Jesus Christ. And that promise is this – “Though our sins are like scarlet, they shall be as white as snow” (Isaiah 1:18). Through the life and death of God’s Son, he has taken all of our unrighteous acts and placed them in the life of his Son, who became sin for us, on our behalf so that we through faith in Jesus, might become God’s righteousness (2 Corinthians 5:21).

神不改变的性情对我们基督徒来说是一个极大的安慰,因为无论我们在生活中有多迷失,或有多误入歧途,他都透过他的宝贝儿子、我们的救主耶稣基督,将一个不变的承诺赐给我们每一个人。那个承诺是这样的:“18 耶和华说:“你们来,我们彼此辩论。你们的罪虽像朱红,必变成雪白;虽红如丹颜,必白如羊毛。”透过神儿子的生和死,他已经把我们所有的不义拿起来,放在了他儿子的生命中。他为我们成了罪,代替了我们,使我们通过相信耶稣,可以成为神的义。

林后5:21 神使那无罪 c的替我们成为罪,好叫我们在他里面成为神的义。

(15:33-35) The Lord often used his people as righteous instruments of judgment against wicked people. There was nothing inconsistent about Samuel, the prophet of our Lord, putting Agag to death. Not only was Samuel fulfilling the word of the Lord, but he was also teaching Israel that Saul was wrong for being disobedient to the Lord. But take special note how Samuel spent his days mourning for Saul’s soul because the Lord regretted making Saul king over Israel.

撒上15:33-35—-33 撒母耳说:“你既用刀使妇人丧子,这样,你母亲在妇人中也必丧子。”于是,撒母耳在吉甲耶和华面前将亚甲杀死。 34 撒母耳回了拉玛。扫罗上他所住的基比亚,回自己的家去了。 35 撒母耳直到死的日子,再没有见扫罗。但撒母耳为扫罗悲伤,是因耶和华后悔立他为以色列的王。

神常常使用他的子民作公义的审判工具来对付恶人。我们神的先知撒母耳并非反复无常,他将亚甲杀死,这不仅是在实施神的话,还让以色列人知道,扫罗不顺服神是错误的。不过请特别留意撒母耳是怎样花时间为扫罗的灵魂哀痛的,因为神后悔立扫罗作以色列的王。

Finding Jesus in the Scriptures

在圣经中找耶稣

It was in God’s eternal plan to have a king in Israel. Remember, just because something happens due to the sin of man, doesn’t mean that it wasn’t a part of God’s plan. God was sad that they rejected him as the chief monarch of the nation of Israel because they wanted a king like their heath neighbors. But God would use the sinful motives of Israel to establish the future king that would destroy the sin in this world through his atoning life and death on the cross. Consider the writings of these Psalms in how they depict this future king in prophetic language…

在以色列中立一位王是神永恒的计划。记住,由人的罪而导致发生了一些事情,并不表示它就不是神的一部分计划。他们因为想和他们的异教邻居一样而拒绝让神作以色列国的主要领袖这件事让神很难过。但是神会使用以色列人有罪的动机来设立未来的君王,他要通过他在十字架上赎罪的生命和死亡来毁灭这个世界的罪恶。思考这些诗篇的话,看他们是怎样以预言式的文字描述这位未来的君王的。

Psalm 2:6 “As for me, I have set my King on Zion, my holy hill.”

诗篇2:6 说:“我已经立我的君在锡安我的圣山上了。”

Psalm 24:7-10 lift up your heads, O gates! And be lifted up, O ancient doors, that the King of glory may come in. Who is this King of glory? The Lord, strong and mighty, the Lord, mighty in battle! Lift up your heads, O gates! And lift them up, O ancient doors, that the King of glory may come in. Who is this King of glory? The Lord of hosts, he is the King of glory! Selah

诗篇24:7-10—-7 众城门哪,你们要抬起头来!永久的门户,你们要被举起!那荣耀的王将要进来! 8 荣耀的王是谁呢?就是有力有能的耶和华,在战场上有能的耶和华。 9 众城门哪,你们要抬起头来!永久的门户,你们要把头抬起!那荣耀的王将要进来! 10 荣耀的王是谁呢?万军之耶和华,他是荣耀的王。

Psalm 45:6-8 Your throne, O God, is forever and ever. The scepter of your kingdom is a scepter of uprightness; you have loved righteousness and hated wickedness. Therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness beyond your companions; your robes are all fragrant with myrrh and aloes and cassia.

诗篇45:6-8—-6 神啊,你的宝座是永永远远的,你的国权是正直的。 7 你喜爱公义,恨恶罪恶,所以神,就是你的神,用喜乐油膏你,胜过膏你的同伴。 8 你的衣服都有没药、沉香、肉桂的香气,象牙宫中有丝弦乐器的声音使你欢喜。

Psalm 72:1, 2 Endow the king with your justice, O God, the royal son with your righteousness. May he judge your people in righteousness, your afflicted ones with justice.

诗篇72:1-2—-1 神啊,求你将判断的权柄赐给王,将公义赐给王的儿子。 2 他要按公义审判你的民,按公平审判你的困苦人。

God prepares a new king for Israel – 1 Samuel 16-31

神为以色列人预备新王——撒母耳上16-31

(16:7) what was true of Saul is also true with David – God looks at different things than what man looks at – the heart. God chose the youngest of Jesse’s sons – the 8th boy in the family, the least likely candidate to hold such a high and prestigious office in Israel.

撒上16:7 耶和华却对撒母耳说:“不要看他的外貌和他身材高大,我不拣选他。因为耶和华不像人看人,人是看外貌,耶和华是看内心。”

在扫罗身上是如此,在大卫身上也一样——神所看的与人所看的不同,神看人的内心。神选择了耶西最小的儿子,那个家里的第八个儿子,是能够承担得起以色列如此高位、享有声望的职务中最不可能的候选人。

(16:13) This is very noteworthy because of the events that will soon transpire in David’s life. Still today, everything we are and everything we do, depends on God’s Spirit living in us and acting through us. And the way the Spirit of God comes to us are through the simple measures he prescribes to us in his Holy Word. We call it the gospel through both the Word and the Sacraments (Baptism & the Lord’s Supper).

撒上16:13 撒母耳就用角里的膏油,在他诸兄中膏了他。从这日起,耶和华的灵就大大感动大卫。撒母耳起身回拉玛去了。

大卫王生命中不久将发生的事件使这一点值得留意。迄今为止,我们的一切以及我们所做的一切事情都要仰赖住在我们里面、透过我们做事的神的灵。神的灵临到我们的方式是通过他在自己的话语里为我们定规的简单方法,我们称它为福音,就是透过神的话语和圣礼(洗礼和圣餐)临到我们的福音。

  1. (16:14) why had God’s Spirit left Saul?

    撒上16:14 耶和华的灵离开扫罗,有恶魔从耶和华那里来扰乱他。

    问题:神的灵为什么离开了扫罗?

  2. (16:18) What is the most notable quality in King David? (Choose one)

    撒上16:18其中有一个少年人说:“我曾见伯利恒城耶西的一个儿子善于弹琴,是大有勇敢的战士,说话合宜,容貌俊美,耶和华也与他同在。”

    a. He can play the lyre

    b. He is a brave man

    c. He’s good looking

    d. the Lord is with him

    问题:大卫王身上最显著的品质是什么?

    a. 他善于弹琴

    b. 他是一个勇敢的人

    c. 他容貌俊美

    d. 神与他同在

    (17:4) Goliath was a giant over 9 feet tall. He terrorized the Israelites, reminding us once again how man looks at the outward appearance of things, where as God looks at the heart. But let us not forget, that God’s Spirit came into King David, which is why David wasn’t looking at the outward appearance of Goliath, he was looking at his blasphemous heart! Let us remember that faith sees beyond the physical things of life, and places an undivided trust in our God who promises to deliver us.

    撒上17:4 从非利士营中出来一个讨战的人,名叫歌利亚,是迦特人,身高六肘零一虎口;

    哥利亚是一个身高9英尺多的巨人,他吓坏了以色列人。这又一次提醒我们,人看的是外貌,而神看的是内心。然而,我们不要忘记,神的灵降在大卫王身上,使他没有看哥利亚吓人的外表,而是他亵渎神的内心!让我们记住,信心会让我们看到生活中物质层面以外的东西,并且专一地信靠这位应许要拯救我们的神。

  3. (17:26) Why did David call him an “uncircumcised philistine”?

    撒上17:26 大卫问站在旁边的人说:“有人杀这非利士人,除掉以色列人的耻辱,怎样待他呢?这未受割礼的非利士人是谁呢?竟敢向永生神的军队骂阵吗?”

    问题:大卫为什么称他是一个“未受割礼的非利士人”?

  4. (17:32) how could David be so confident he would take this giant to the ground?

    撒上17:32 大卫对扫罗说:“人都不必因那非利士人胆怯,你的仆人要去与那非利士人战斗。”   

    问题:大卫怎么能如此自信,相信他能够让这个巨人扑倒在地?

  5. (17:33) what was Saul looking at, the outward appearance of things or the matter as God sees things?

    撒上17:33 扫罗对大卫说:“你不能去与那非利士人战斗,因为你年纪太轻,他自幼就做战士。”   

    问题:扫罗在看什么,事情的外表,还是在看神所看的?

    (17:34-37) Again, David speaks with the confidence of only him who has the Spirit of the Living God inside of him. We’ve been given this Spirit from God at our Baptism and God continues to give to us his Holy Spirit through his Holy Word. We may not be able to defeat lions and bears with our bare hands, but with Christ living in us, we are co-victors with our Savior over sin, Satan, death, and hell! That is why St. Paul states: “But in all these things we overwhelmingly conquer through Him who loved us. For I am convinced that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers, nor height, nor depth, nor any other created thing, will be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord” (Romans 8:37-39).

    撒上17:34-37—-34 大卫对扫罗说:“你仆人为父亲放羊,有时来了狮子,有时来了熊,从群中衔一只羊羔去, 35 我就追赶它,击打它,将羊羔从它口中救出来。它起来要害我,我就揪着它的胡子,将它打死。 36 你仆人曾打死狮子和熊,这未受割礼的非利士人向永生神的军队骂阵,也必像狮子和熊一般。” 37 大卫又说:“耶和华救我脱离狮子和熊的爪,也必救我脱离这非利士人的手。”扫罗对大卫说:“你可以去吧,耶和华必与你同在。”

    大卫的话又一次显出他的信心,这种信心只能来自一个里面有真活神的灵住在其中的人。这个灵在我们接受洗礼时神就赐给了我们,他还继续通过他神圣的话语把他的圣灵赐给我们。我们或许不能赤手空拳把狮子和熊打倒,但有基督住在我们里面,我们就与我们的救主携手成为得胜者,胜过罪、撒旦、死亡和地狱!因此保罗说:“37 然而,靠着爱我们的主,在这一切的事上已经得胜有余了。 38 因为我深信:无论是死,是生,是天使,是掌权的,是有能的,是现在的事,是将来的事, 39 是高处的,是低处的,是别的受造之物,都不能叫我们与神的爱隔绝;这爱是在我们的主基督耶稣里的。”(罗8:37-39)

    (17:43,44) Goliath’s reaction to Israel’s best fighting men was laughable because this heathen saw only what man sees, the outward appearance of things. But the real laughable person that day was Goliath because he dared to go up against the Almighty God. Read David’s response… (17:45-47)

    撒上17:43,44—-43非利士人对大卫说:“你拿杖到我这里来,我岂是狗呢?”非利士人就指着自己的神咒诅大卫。44 非利士人又对大卫说:“来吧!我将你的肉给空中的飞鸟、田野的走兽吃。”  

    哥利亚在以色列最好的战士面前做出的反应有些好笑,因为这个异教徒只看到了人所看到的东西,就是事物的外在。那一天真正好笑的人是哥利亚,因为他竟敢上去攻击全能的上帝。读大卫的回应:  

    撒上17:45-47—-45 大卫对非利士人说:“你来攻击我,是靠着刀枪和铜戟。我来攻击你,是靠着万军之耶和华的名,就是你所怒骂带领以色列军队的神。 46 今日耶和华必将你交在我手里。我必杀你,斩你的头,又将非利士军兵的尸首给空中的飞鸟、地上的野兽吃,使普天下的人都知道以色列中有神; 47 又使这众人知道,耶和华使人得胜不是用刀用枪,因为争战的胜败全在乎耶和华。他必将你们交在我们手里。”

    (17:51,54) what purpose was there in cutting off Goliath’s head and taking it with him to Israel to show others?

    撒上17:51,54

    51 大卫跑去,站在非利士人身旁,将他的刀从鞘中拔出来,杀死他,割了他的头。非利士众人看见他们讨战的勇士死了,就都逃跑。

    54 大卫将那非利士人的头拿到耶路撒冷,却将他军装放在自己的帐篷里。

    问题:割下哥利亚的头并把它拿到以色列人那里让其他人看,这样做的目的是什么?

  6. (18:6-9) what sin began to ignite inside of Saul’s heart that would eventually lead him to try to murder David?

    撒上18:6-9—-6 大卫打死了那非利士人,同众人回来的时候,妇女们从以色列各城里出来,欢欢喜喜,打鼓击磬,歌唱跳舞,迎接扫罗王。 7 众妇女舞蹈唱和,说:“扫罗杀死千千,大卫杀死万万。” 8 扫罗甚发怒,不喜悦这话,就说:“将万万归大卫,千千归我,只剩下王位没有给他了!” 9 从这日起,扫罗就怒视大卫。

    问题:扫罗心里开始生出什么罪,这罪让他最终试图谋杀大卫?

  7. (18:20,21) what were the motives of Saul to make David his future son-in-law?

    撒上18:20-21—-20 扫罗的次女米甲爱大卫。有人告诉扫罗,扫罗就喜悦。 21 扫罗心里说:“我将这女儿给大卫,做他的网罗,好借非利士人的手害他。”所以扫罗对大卫说:“你今日可以第二次做我的女婿。”

    问题:扫罗让大卫成为他未来的女婿,其中的动机是什么?

  8. (18:26,27) what had Saul finally figured out about all of David’s successes, who was with him?

    撒上18:26-27—-26 扫罗的臣仆将这话告诉大卫,大卫就欢喜做王的女婿。日期还没有到, 27 大卫和跟随他的人起身前往,杀了二百非利士人,将阳皮满数交给王,为要做王的女婿。于是扫罗将女儿米甲给大卫为妻。

    问题:扫罗从与他同在的大卫,以及大卫所有的成功中最后弄明白了什么?

  9. (19:18) Chapter 19 teaches us of the loyalty that David had with two of Saul’s children, his daughter Michal (his wife), and his son Jonathon. When Michal helped David escape, where does David run to, and why does this teach us something about the character and faith of David?

    撒上19:18 大卫逃避,来到拉玛见撒母耳,将扫罗向他所行的事述说了一遍。他和撒母耳就往拿约去居住。

    第19章让我们看到大卫对扫罗的两个孩子——扫罗的女儿米甲(大卫的妻子),和扫罗的儿子约拿单所具有的忠实。当米甲帮助大卫逃跑时,大卫跑到了哪里?为什么说这一点能让我们看到一些大卫的性情和信心?

    1 Samuel 21:6 So the priest gave him the consecrated bread, since there was no bread there except the bread of the Presence that had been removed from before the Lord and replaced by hot bread on the day it was taken away.

    撒上21:6 祭司就拿圣饼给他,因为在那里没有别样饼,只有更换新饼从耶和华面前撤下来的陈设饼。

    Matthew 12:3, 4 He answered, “Haven’t you read what David did when he and his companions were hungry? He entered the house of God, and he and his companions ate the consecrated bread—which was not lawful for them to do, but only for the priests.

    太12:3-4—-3 耶稣对他们说:“经上记着大卫和跟从他的人饥饿之时所做的事,你们没有念过吗? 4 他怎么进了神的殿,吃了陈设饼?这饼不是他和跟从他的人可以吃的,唯独祭司才可以吃。

    Jesus uses the example of David and his fighting men who ate some of the consecrated bread that the law forbad them to eat, in order to show that the law of compassion and mercy that God desires we have for each other can over-ride what is lawful or unlawful on the Sabbath.

    耶稣引用大卫与他的战士吃了律法禁止吃的陈设饼这件事,为要说明神期望我们对彼此的爱和怜悯这一律法可以凌驾在安息日中合法与不合法的律法之上。  

(21:13) It’s not always easy to determine whether some of these actions are done as a result of a lack of faith or whether or not they are approved by God. But the plan David had for his own protection and the protection of his men seemed to have worked.

撒上21:13 就在众人面前改变了寻常的举动,在他们手下假装疯癫,在城门的门扇上胡写乱画,使唾沫流在胡子上。

要确定一些行为是否是出于信心而为,或者他们是否是神所赞同的,有时并不容易。但大卫为了保护自己和他的战士而做出的计划似乎奏效了(是出于信心,而且是神所赞同的)。

(22:17-19) What started as jealousy has turned into a mass murderer who will stop at nothing to get rid of David, even murdering the servants of God who had done nothing wrong. This is to be a reminder to us of just how serious sin is, even when it starts out quite small. Just a smidge of jealousy has turned Saul into a devilish murderer!

撒上22:17-19   17 王就吩咐左右的侍卫说:“你们去杀耶和华的祭司,因为他们帮助大卫,又知道大卫逃跑,竟没有告诉我。”扫罗的臣子却不肯伸手杀耶和华的祭司。 18 王吩咐多益说:“你去杀祭司吧!”以东人多益就去杀祭司,那日杀了穿细麻布以弗得的八十五人。 19 又用刀将祭司城挪伯中的男女、孩童、吃奶的,和牛、羊、驴尽都杀灭。

由嫉妒开始而逐渐变成一个巨大的谋杀犯,一门心思要除掉大卫,甚至在大卫没有做错任何事情的情况下仍然预谋杀害神的仆人。这是要提醒我们罪的严重性,即使它起初很小。一丁点儿的嫉妒使扫罗变成了一个邪恶的谋杀犯!