恩典国际圣经学院

第五课——耶稣被审问

Lesson 5 – Jesus is Tried


Getting Started The suffering began in the garden. It intensifies in the halls of judgment. For the most part, Jesus faces his accusers in dignified silence. The prophet Isaiah wrote, He was oppressed and afflicted, yet he did not open his mouth; he was led like a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is silent, so he did not open his mouth.(53:7) There was no stopping the events that needed to unfold for lost humankind to be redeemed by the blood of God’s chosen Lamb. We stand in awe as the Judge of all allows himself to be falsely condemned by sinners.

开始:受难是从客西马尼园开始。在受审的院子里更加剧。在大部分时间, 耶稣以尊严的沉默面对他的控告者。《以赛亚书》这样记载:“他被欺压,在受苦的时候却不开口(或作“他受欺压,却自卑不开口”),他像羊羔被牵到宰杀之地,又像羊在剪毛的人手下无声,他也是这样不开口。”(《以赛亚书》53:7) 什么也不能阻止这位被上帝拣选的羔羊的血来为堕落的人类来赎罪。我们在敬畏中伫立当这位全宇宙的审判者允许自己被罪人错误的定罪。

A. Jesus Before the High Priests John 18:12-14, 19-24; Matthew 26:57-68 耶稣在大祭司的面前 《约》18:12-14,19-24;《太》26:57-68

Historical Note: Annas was the former high priest, deposed by the Romans in A.D. 15. According to Jewish law, a man was appointed high priest for life. For this reason the Jews may have still considered Annas to be the true high priest. Therefore they take Jesus to him for the initial hearing. Caiaphas may have wanted his father-in-law to begin the process so that Caiaphas could gather the council members he wanted for Jesus’ “official” trial. According to Jewish law, it was illegal both to have a trial in the middle of the night and to convict someone on the same day as their arrest.

历史背景注释:亚拿是前任的大祭司,他是公元15年被罗马政府罢免的。根据犹太人的法律,大祭司是终身制的。正因为这个原因,犹太人可能还将亚拿看为真正的大祭司。所以,他们将耶稣带到了这里来初审。该亚法有可能也要他的岳父开始这个过程,然后他可以召集公会成员给耶稣一个“正式”的审判。根据犹太人的律法,在半夜指控一个人与在逮捕人的同一天定罪人都是违法的。

1. Concerning John’s comment about Caiaphas in John 18:14, see John 11:45-53. Explain how Caiaphas meant one thing and how God used his words to prophecy something entirely different.

根据约翰在《约翰福音》18:14对该亚法的评论,(见《约翰福音》11:45-53),解释该亚法所讲的与上帝用他的话来预言的是怎样完全不同。

2. John 18:20-23 include some of the few words that Jesus spoke during his trials. With what attitude does Jesus speak these words? Why are they a very logical thing for him to say?

《约翰福音》18:20-23节耶稣包括了耶稣在被审过程中所讲的为数不多的话。 耶稣是以什么态度来说这些话语的呢?为什么这些话是符合逻辑的?

3. Matthew 26:59 tells us that the whole Sanhedrin was looking for false evidence against Jesus. “Whole” in this context undoubtedly means “all that were there.” See John 3:1-2 and 7:50,51 and explain why at least one member most likely was not invited to this secret meeting.

《马太福音》26:59节告诉我们,“全公会”寻找假见证来反对耶稣。“全”在这里的意思毫无疑问是指“都在场的”。参考《约翰福音》3:1-2与7:50,51节解释为什么至少有一个人没有被邀到他们这个秘密会议中。

4. Concerning the charge in Matthew 26:61, see John 2:18-21. What do these references show us about human nature?

考虑到《马太福音》26:61节的这些指控,参考《约翰福音》2:18-21节。这些引证向我们启示了人的什么本性?

5. To see why Caiaphas demanded of Jesus what he did in Matthew 26:63, see John 5:18 and John 10:33. Why was this the true “heart of the matter”?

来看该亚法强迫耶稣做的事情《马太福音》26:63节,参考《约翰福音》5:18节以及《约翰福音》10:33节。为什么这成为是“问题的核心”?

6. How are Jesus’ words in verse 64 a prophecy of “role reversal”?

耶稣在64节的话语是如何成为 “角色翻转”的 预言?

7. Claiming to be God the Judge made Jesus guilty of blasphemy in the minds of the Sanhedrin’s members. See Leviticus 24:10-16 for a description of Old Testament blasphemy and its penalty. (The Sanhedrin could not carry out the penalty because of Roman rule. However, they later stoned Stephen illegally.)

审判耶稣的人使公会的成员相信耶稣犯了亵渎神的罪因他宣称自己是神。参考《利未记》24:10-16节旧约中对亵渎罪的描述以及惩罚。(根据罗马的法律,犹太公会是不能执行这个惩罚的。尽管如此,他们后来非法将司提反用石头打死)

8. How do the members of the Sanhedrin become guilty of the very thing they accused Jesus of?

犹太公会成员指控耶稣所犯的罪是怎样恰好是他们所犯的。

B. Jesus Before Pontius Pilate Matthew 27:1-30 ; John 18:28 – 19:16 耶稣在彼拉多面前 《太》27:1-30节;《约翰福音》18:28-19:16节

9. Did Judas repent of his sins in Matthew 27:4? Defend your answer.

在《马太福音》27:4节,犹大为自己的罪忏悔了吗?为你的答案作出辩护。

[Note: The Old Testament quote in verses 9-10 is really a blending of two references – Zechariah 11:12-13 and Jeremiah 32:6-9.]

【注释:9-10节引用旧约的经文实际上是两处旧约经文的混合使用——《撒迦利亚书》11:12-13节与《耶利米书》32:6-9节】

10. What are the important similarities and differences between Judas’ and Peter’s response to their sin?

犹大和彼得对自己罪的回应上有什么重要的相似与区别之处呢?

[Note: (Nov. 27) As we compare the accounts of Matthew and John, it becomes apparent that Matthew gives a quick summary of the events (and not necessarily in a precise order), and John gives more details on the interaction among Pilate, Jesus, and the Jewish leaders. John seems to have a more precise order in how he reports the trial.]

【注释:当我们比较《马太福音》与《约翰福音》的时候,很显然,马太只是给我们一个很快的总结(不太注重精确的次序)。约翰则是介绍了耶稣与彼拉多以及与犹太领袖们在一起时的更多细节。约翰似乎对审讯过程的描述比较有序一些】

11. How do we blend the details in Matthew with the trial’s order in John?

我们怎么来调和《马太福音》与《约翰福音》关于审问的次序呢?

12. What might be a possible explanation for what we find in Matthew 27:19?

对于《马太福音》27:19节的一个可能解释是什么?

13. How do you react to Pilate’s words in Matthew 27:24?

你如何来回应彼拉多在《马太福音》27:24节的话?

14. How were the words of Matthew 27:25 fulfilled?

《马太福音》27:25节的话是怎么应验的呢?

15. As you read John’s account, describe the tactics used by the Jewish leaders in their attempt to get Pilate to pronounce the death sentence on Jesus.

当你来看约翰的记载,请描述犹太领袖们为了让彼拉多宣判耶稣死刑所使用的狡猾手段。

16. How would you describe Pilate’s reaction to Jesus’ words in John 18:36-37?

你如何来描述彼拉多对耶稣在《约翰福音》18:36-37所讲的话的回应?

17. How can we blend John 19:1-3 with Matthew 27:26-31? [A possible translation of Matthew 27:26 is Having had Jesus flogged, he handed him over to be crucified.]

我们怎么来调和《约翰福音》19:1-3节与《马太福音》27:26-31节?【一个可能的解释就是他(既)已将耶稣鞭打,就交给人去钉他十字架。】

18. Why did Pilate want to set Jesus free?

为什么彼拉多想要释放耶稣?

19. What do the words of John 19:15-16 show us about the character of Pilate? Of the Jewish leaders?

《约翰福音》19:15-16节的话给我们表明彼拉多的个性特征是什么?还有犹太领袖们呢?

  1. In the trials of Jesus, what do you find most disgusting? Most comforting?

在审问耶稣的过程中,你觉得最让人讨厌的事情是什么?什么最使人得安慰?