恩典国际圣经学院

第六课——耶稣在十字架上的受难

Lesson 6 – Jesus Suffers Crucifixion


Getting Started Jesus’ enemies had pressured the Roman governor into giving them what they had wanted – the death sentence for Jesus. So deep was their hatred for him. So deep was God’s love for us. Jesus, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world, would become the perfect substitute victim to suffer the Father’s anger over all sin. Crucifixion of itself was a most horrible death. Even the Latin Poet Cicero said that no Roman citizen should have to witness a crucifixion because of the intensity of the victim’s suffering. Yet there was more – abandonment by the Father to endure his anger over sin. This was the cup Jesus was willing to drink. He drinks it with dignity and resolve. He endures it above all with love – love for sinners at Calvary; love for sinners like us.

开始: 耶稣的仇敌给罗马政府施压迫使罗马政府给他们想要的结果——那就是宣判耶稣的死刑。他们是如此深深地恨耶稣。上帝是如此深深地爱着我们。 作为上帝的羔羊除去了世人的罪,耶稣成为承受天父对一切罪的愤怒的完美替代者。十字架本身是一个恐怖的极刑。甚至拉丁诗人西塞罗也说过,不应让罗马公民目击十字架的酷刑,因为这种酷刑对人的折磨太残酷了。然而还更加上—层—因承担天父对罪的愤怒而遭致与天父隔绝。 这个杯是耶稣愿意喝的。他庄严而坚决地喝下。他用爱来承受,也就是在各各他对罪人的爱,也是对我们这些罪人的爱。

A. Jesus Carries His Cross to Calvary—— Matthew 27:31-33; Mark 15:20-22;Luke 23:26-31 ; John 19:16b-17 耶稣背着他的十字架走向各各他—— 太27:31-33;可15:20-22;路23:26-31;约19:16b-17

1. Read the Mark reference. Concerning Simon, the man who helped Jesus carry his cross, The People’s Bible commentary says:

参考马可福音。关于西门,就是帮助耶稣扛十字架的,《大众圣经》是这样解释的:

Simon of Cyrene just happened to be in the right place at the right time. We cannot say for sure whether he realized what he had become involved in at the time, but Mark 15:21 tells us that Simon was the father of Alexander and Rufus. Evidently Mark’s first readers knew Alexander and Rufus. So it may be that Rufus was the same person the apostle Paul sent greetings to in Romans 16:13. Since Rufus’ mother is also mentioned, it may be that the whole family became Christians at some point.

古利奈人西门出现的时间与地点是正好。我们不能确定说他是否意识到他卷入到了这个事件中,但是《马可福音》15:21节告诉我们,那个西门是亚历山大和鲁孚的父亲。显然,《马可福音》最早的读者也是知道亚历山大和鲁孚的。所以,有可能这个鲁孚就是使徒保罗曾在《罗马书》16:13节所问候的是同一个人。因为他的妈妈同时也提到了,有可能在某个时候整个家庭都成了基督徒。

Cyrene was an important North African city with a substantial Jewish population. We do not know whether Simon still lived in Cyrene and had come as a pilgrim to Jerusalem for the Passover.

古利奈是北非的一个城市,拥有相当数量的犹太人口。我们不知道西门是否还住在那个城市,他到耶路撒冷来可能是在逾越节来朝圣的。

Consider the background of Mark’s gospel, to whom he wrote it, where he may have been, etc., and then consider Paul’s mention of Rufus in his letter to the Romans. Why does it make good sense that the information in the above paragraph could very well be correct? If you had been Simon, how would this event have impacted your life?

参考马可福音的背景,这本书的写作对象,以及马可可能去过的地方等等。然后再参考保罗在《罗马书》中提到鲁孚这个名字。为什么刚才上面的那段话有可能是正确的?如果你是西门,这件事会怎样影响你的人生?

2. Read the Luke reference. What is the meaning of Jesus’ words to the women of Jerusalem? (See Hosea 10:8 and its context.)

阅读路加福音,耶稣对耶路撒冷妇女的话是什么意思?(参《何西阿书》10:8以及上下文)

B. Jesus Speaks Seven Times from the Cross 耶稣在十字架上的七言

Statements #1and #2 – Luke 23:32-43

第一与第二句话——《路加福音》23:32-43

[Note: The place where Jesus was crucified was called Golgotha (Hebrew), Cranion (Greek), or Calvary (Latin). All three words mean “skull,” most likely because of its shape, a somewhat prominent rounded hill, most likely used by the Romans for executions because of its visibility.]

注释:耶稣被钉十字架的地方是被称为各各他(希伯来语), Cranion (希腊语),或者髑髅地(拉丁语)。这三个词的意思都是“骷髅”,很有可能是因这块地方的地形,有些突出的圆山丘,非常有可能罗马因它的可见度用此地来执行死刑。

3. What characteristics does the Savior show in his first statement during his crucifixion (Luke 23:34)

救主在十字架上的第一句话表明了他的什么性格(《路加福音》23:34)

4. Read Matthew 27:34-36, Mark 15:23-25 and John 19:23-24. What other details do we find out about the crucifixion in these references that are not included in Luke?

看《马太福音》27:34-36,《可》15:23-25节以及《约翰福音》19:23-24节。我们会发现其他哪些关于十字架被钉的细节是路加福音所没有的?

5. Read John 19:19-22. Concerning the sign on Jesus’ cross, why was it written in three languages? Why did Pilate put up that sign? Why were the Jews insulted by it? Why is the sign a bit of divine irony?

看《约翰福音》19:19-22。涉及耶稣的十字架上的名号,为什么使用三种语言?为什么彼拉多会使用这个名号?为什么犹太人觉得因它而被冒犯?为什么这个名号有一点神圣的讽刺感?

6. Read Luke 23:35-43 and Matthew 27:41-44. What are the specific groups of people that joined in the mockery? What do their words show about the basis for their mockery?

看《路加福音》23:35-43与《马太福音》27:41-44。哪些群体加入了嘲弄耶稣的系列?他们的话语表明了他们嘲弄耶稣的原因是什么?

7. What do we learn about death from Jesus’ words to the penitent criminal?

从耶稣对悔改的罪犯关于死亡的话语中我们可以学到什么?

Statement #3 – John 19:25-27

第三句话——《约翰福音》19:25-27

8. What may have been the reason Jesus placed his mother into John’s care? (See John 7:5; John 13:22-24.)

耶稣把他的母亲托给约翰照顾的可能原因是什么?(参《约翰福音》7:5;《约翰福音》13:22-24)

9. What personal comfort do we find in these statements about Mary’s care?

对照顾马利亚的话语中我们自己可以得到的安慰是什么?

Statement #4 – Matthew 27:45-47; Mark 15:33-35 ; Luke 23:44-45a

第四句话——《马太福音》27:45-47;《马可福音》15:33-35;《路加福音》23:44-45a。

[Note on the hours of darkness: The gospel writers use Jewish time calculations. The day began at sunrise (6:00 a.m.). Therefore when Jesus was crucified at “the third hour,” it was 9:00 a.m., and darkness came over the land from “the sixth to the ninth hours,” or from 12:00 noon until 3:00 p.m. Because Passover was always set at the time of the first full moon after the spring equinox, this could not have been a solar eclipse. Also, solar eclipses do not last three hours!]

【对那段黑暗时间的解释:福音书作者是用犹太人的时间计算。白天始于日出(早上六点),所以当耶稣钉十字架的时候是在第三个小时,也就是上午九点钟,黑暗是从“第六个小时到第九个小时”遮盖大地,换句话说就是从十二点到下午三点。因为逾越节的时间总是设在春分后的第一个满月,所以这个时间是不会出现日食的。而且,日食也不会持续三个小时!】

10. On the basis of the above note, what conclusion do we draw about the three hours of darkness?

基于以上的注释,我们对于三个小时黑暗的解释是什么?

11. In his statement about being forsaken, Jesus is quoting Psalm 22:1. Along with these words, read Galatians 3:13, 2 Corinthians 5:21, and Matthew 22:13. How would you describe what was happening to Jesus during the hours of darkness?

在耶稣被弃的话语中,耶稣的引用是在《诗篇》22:1。根据这句话,看《加拉太书》3:13节,《哥林多后书》5:21,以及《马太福音》22:13。你怎么来叙述耶稣在黑暗的三个小时中发生了什么?

12. What role does the suffering of Christ on the cross play in your personal Christian life?

在你基督徒生活中,基督在十字架上的受苦扮演了一个什么角色?