Getting Started Jesus’ enemies had pressured the Roman governor into giving them what they had wanted – the death sentence for Jesus. So deep was their hatred for him. So deep was God’s love for us. Jesus, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world, would become the perfect substitute victim to suffer the Father’s anger over all sin. Crucifixion of itself was a most horrible death. Even the Latin Poet Cicero said that no Roman citizen should have to witness a crucifixion because of the intensity of the victim’s suffering. Yet there was more – abandonment by the Father to endure his anger over sin. This was the cup Jesus was willing to drink. He drinks it with dignity and resolve. He endures it above all with love – love for sinners at Calvary; love for sinners like us.
开始： 耶稣的仇敌给罗马政府施压迫使罗马政府给他们想要的结果——那就是宣判耶稣的死刑。他们是如此深深地恨耶稣。上帝是如此深深地爱着我们。 作为上帝的羔羊除去了世人的罪，耶稣成为承受天父对一切罪的愤怒的完美替代者。十字架本身是一个恐怖的极刑。甚至拉丁诗人西塞罗也说过，不应让罗马公民目击十字架的酷刑，因为这种酷刑对人的折磨太残酷了。然而还更加上—层—因承担天父对罪的愤怒而遭致与天父隔绝。 这个杯是耶稣愿意喝的。他庄严而坚决地喝下。他用爱来承受，也就是在各各他对罪人的爱，也是对我们这些罪人的爱。
1. Read the Mark reference. Concerning Simon, the man who helped Jesus carry his cross, The People’s Bible commentary says:
Simon of Cyrene just happened to be in the right place at the right time. We cannot say for sure whether he realized what he had become involved in at the time, but Mark 15:21 tells us that Simon was the father of Alexander and Rufus. Evidently Mark’s first readers knew Alexander and Rufus. So it may be that Rufus was the same person the apostle Paul sent greetings to in Romans 16:13. Since Rufus’ mother is also mentioned, it may be that the whole family became Christians at some point.
Cyrene was an important North African city with a substantial Jewish population. We do not know whether Simon still lived in Cyrene and had come as a pilgrim to Jerusalem for the Passover.
Consider the background of Mark’s gospel, to whom he wrote it, where he may have been, etc., and then consider Paul’s mention of Rufus in his letter to the Romans. Why does it make good sense that the information in the above paragraph could very well be correct? If you had been Simon, how would this event have impacted your life?
2. Read the Luke reference. What is the meaning of Jesus’ words to the women of Jerusalem? (See Hosea 10:8 and its context.)
Statements #1and #2 – Luke 23:32-43
[Note: The place where Jesus was crucified was called Golgotha (Hebrew), Cranion (Greek), or Calvary (Latin). All three words mean “skull,” most likely because of its shape, a somewhat prominent rounded hill, most likely used by the Romans for executions because of its visibility.]
注释：耶稣被钉十字架的地方是被称为各各他（希伯来语）， Cranion (希腊语），或者髑髅地（拉丁语）。这三个词的意思都是“骷髅”，很有可能是因这块地方的地形，有些突出的圆山丘，非常有可能罗马因它的可见度用此地来执行死刑。
3. What characteristics does the Savior show in his first statement during his crucifixion (Luke 23:34)
4. Read Matthew 27:34-36, Mark 15:23-25 and John 19:23-24. What other details do we find out about the crucifixion in these references that are not included in Luke?
5. Read John 19:19-22. Concerning the sign on Jesus’ cross, why was it written in three languages? Why did Pilate put up that sign? Why were the Jews insulted by it? Why is the sign a bit of divine irony?
6. Read Luke 23:35-43 and Matthew 27:41-44. What are the specific groups of people that joined in the mockery? What do their words show about the basis for their mockery?
7. What do we learn about death from Jesus’ words to the penitent criminal?
Statement #3 – John 19:25-27
8. What may have been the reason Jesus placed his mother into John’s care? (See John 7:5; John 13:22-24.)
9. What personal comfort do we find in these statements about Mary’s care?
Statement #4 – Matthew 27:45-47; Mark 15:33-35 ; Luke 23:44-45a
[Note on the hours of darkness: The gospel writers use Jewish time calculations. The day began at sunrise (6:00 a.m.). Therefore when Jesus was crucified at “the third hour,” it was 9:00 a.m., and darkness came over the land from “the sixth to the ninth hours,” or from 12:00 noon until 3:00 p.m. Because Passover was always set at the time of the first full moon after the spring equinox, this could not have been a solar eclipse. Also, solar eclipses do not last three hours!]
10. On the basis of the above note, what conclusion do we draw about the three hours of darkness?
11. In his statement about being forsaken, Jesus is quoting Psalm 22:1. Along with these words, read Galatians 3:13, 2 Corinthians 5:21, and Matthew 22:13. How would you describe what was happening to Jesus during the hours of darkness?
12. What role does the suffering of Christ on the cross play in your personal Christian life?