第十三课—膏抹、赞美、预言、拒绝、应许 The Gospel According to John 约翰福音 Lesson 13 – Anointing, Praise, Prediction, Rejection, Promise 第13课 —— 膏抹、赞美、预言、拒绝、应许 John 12 约翰福音第12章 Getting Started – After the raising of Lazarus, opposition to Jesus grew to the point that the Jewish Council (Sanhedrin) was plotting his death. Jesus and his disciples withdrew to Ephraim, near the wilderness until the time for Passover arrived (late March/early April). Jesus, the true Passover Lamb, was determined to sacrifice himself for the world’s sin. Therefore, in spite of the personal danger to himself, he goes back to the very place where he performed the spectacular miracle that had turned the Jewish leadership against him. 内容简介 —— 拉撒路复活使仇视耶稣的情绪上升以致犹太公会(Sanhedrin)图谋要杀他。耶稣和门徒们退到以法莲靠近荒野处,直到逾越节的时候到来(三月末/四月初)。这位真正的逾越节羔羊耶稣已决定为世界的罪献上自己。因此,他不顾个人安危回到那个行神迹的地方,也正是这个神迹使犹太首领想谋杀他。 Jesus Anointed in Bethany 12:1 – 12 耶稣在伯大尼受膏抹12:1 —12 Things to Note: 注意事项: v. 2 – “here” Bethany, not the home of Mary and Martha. See Mt 26:6 and Mk 14:3. 第2节 “这里”伯大尼不是马利亚和马大的住处。见马太福音26:6和马可福音14:3。 v. 3 – “pure nard” Nard, also known as spikenard, is a fragrant oil derived from the root and spike (hair stem) of the nard plant, which grows in the mountains of northern India. This “Indian nard,” used by the Romans for anointing the head, was “a rich rose red and very sweetly scented.” (Koestenberger) The amount was about ½ litre. Anointing the feet during a meal is something that would be done to a king, not to a common Jewish rabbi. 第3节 “真哪哒”哪哒,又称甘松香油,一种从甘松植物的根部和发茎提炼出来的芬芳的油。甘松长在印度北部的山地。这种“印度哪哒”被罗马人用来膏头部,是“富于玫瑰红和非常芳香的”(koestenberger)。量约为二分之一升。 用餐时膏脚是非常重要的,一般用于国王,而非普通犹太老师。 v. 5 – See Mt 26:8-9, and notice that the objection was shared. 第5节 见马太福音26:8-9,留意门徒的拒绝。 Questions to Consider: 考虑以下问题: 1、. What does this anointing show us about the following persons? 此膏抹告诉我们关于以下几个人的什么信息? Jesus: 耶稣: Mary: 马利亚: Judas: 犹大: 2. What do Jesus’ words in verse 7 and in Matthew 26:10-13 show us about Mary? 关于马利亚,第7节经文和马太福音26:10-13节经文中耶稣的话告诉我们什么? 3. What effect do Jesus’ words in verse 8 have on us? 耶稣在第8节经文中的话语对我们有什么果效? 4. Compare verses 10-11 to 11:45-57. What were the Jewish leaders thinking at this point? 比较第10-11节经文和第10章45至57节经文。犹太领袖们此刻在想什么? Jesus Rides Into Jerusalem 12:13 – 19 耶稣乘驴入耶路撒冷12:13-19 Things to Note: 注意事项: V 12 Jerusalem’s population was probably around 100,000 at that time. With the pilgrims there for the festival, the number of people could have approached 1 million. 第12节 耶路撒冷的人口当时约为十万,加上来参加逾越节的朝圣者,人数接近一百万。 V 13 Palm branches were normally associated with the Feast of Tabernacles. By this time they had also become a symbol for Jewish nationalism, that is, they were used in a way similar to a flag by those who wanted to get rid of the Roman government. Thus, the crowd may not have had a clear view of what Messiah actually was to be. True disciples would understand the prophecy and fulfillment in Jesus after his resurrection (v 16). 第13节 棕榈树枝通常和住棚节连在一块。这是它们成为犹太民族主义的象征,即,类似于国旗的使用,代表人们想脱离罗马政权。因此人们未必清楚弥赛亚实际将是什么样子。真正的门徒在耶稣复活后才明白这在耶稣身上的预言和应验(第16节)。 Vv 13-15 The Old Testament quotes are from Ps 118 and Zechariah 9:9. Psalm 118 is part of the Hallel (“praise”), Psalms 113-118, which was used at Passover, particularly when the Passover lambs were sacrificed. 第13至15节 这段旧约圣经的引文来自诗篇118篇和撒迦利亚书9:9。诗篇118篇是Hallel(“赞美”)的部分。诗篇113-118被用于逾越节,尤其是当逾越节羔羊被献上之时。 Questions to Consider: 思考以下问题: 5. In view of the note on the use of the Hallel above, how do these words take on special meaning as Jesus rides into Jerusalem? (See Psalm 118:25-29.) 结合以上使用Hallel 的注解,说说这些话语在耶稣荣入耶路撒冷有怎样特别的含义?(见诗篇118:25-29。) 6. The donkey symbolized peace and humility. Can you think of Bible verses which show that these two concepts apply to Jesus the Christ? 驴象征和平与谦卑。你能否想起有哪些经文将这两个概念用在耶稣基督身上? Jesus Predicts His Death 12:20 – 36 耶稣预言自己的死12:20-36 7. How does Jesus’ reply to the Greeks’ request get to the most important issue? 耶稣对希腊人的回答如何引出最重要的主题? 8. Compare the Father’s words here (v. 28) to the other places where the Father spoke in Jesus’ ministry. What do they all have in common? 将父神在这里(第28节经文)的话对比于父神在其它地方在耶稣侍奉中说到的话语。它们有何共同点? 9. Compare Jesus’ words, “I will draw all men to myself,” to what Jesus says of the Father in Jn 6:44. How are they different from one another? 将耶稣说的“我就要吸引万人来归我”和他在约翰福音6:44节中说到父的话语相比较。两者有何不同? 10. Explain the crowds’ confusion in verse 34. 解释第34节经文中众人的疑惑。 Many Do Not Believe, Some Do 12:37-50 许多人不信,有些人相信12:37-50 11. What was the double reaction to Jesus and his words? What was the reason for this reaction? 对耶稣和他的话语有哪两种不同反应,为何会如此? 12. Summarize the content of verses 44-50 in your own words. 用自己的话概括第44-50节经文的内容。 13. In what other passages in John’s gospel did Jesus speak the same truths that are found in these verses (44-50)? 耶稣在约翰福音的哪些其他章节说到与第44-55节经文中一样的真理?