路加福音 Luke 23-1-56

路加福音 Luke 23:1-56 Luke 23:1-56路加福音23:1-56 Pilate was the Roman governor of Judea from A.D. 26-36, whose official residence was in Caesarea, on the Mediterranean coast. When he came to Jerusalem, he stayed in the magnificent palace built by Herod the Great. When Pilate conducted the trial early in the day, probably sometime between 5 and 6 a.m., this was not unusual because the Romans kept their courts open from dawn to dusk. Pilate’s willingness to conduct an open-air court to please the Jews was also not unusual because the Romans kept their trials as public as possible, in order to stress the ready availability of justice. 彼拉多是公元 26-36年罗马政府设立的犹大地的总督,督署设于该撒利亚,位于地中海岸边。彼拉多来到耶路撒冷后,就住在由大希律王建造的宫殿里。彼拉多在早上大约5,6点的时候断案,这并没有什么不寻常的,因为罗马政府所设立的法庭从日出到日落一直都对外开放受理案件。彼拉多想要对外公开审理以次来取悦犹太人,他这样的想法也很正常,因为罗马政府要将诉讼尽可能的公开化,这样可以督促审理的公正。

1 Then the whole assembly rose and led him off to Pilate. 2 And they began to accuse him, saying, “We have found this man subverting our nation. He opposes payment of taxes to Caesar and claims to be Messiah, a king.” What two types of crimes was Jesus accused? 3 So Pilate asked Jesus, “Are you the king of the Jews?” “You have said so,” Jesus replied. 4 Then Pilate announced to the chief priests and the crowd, “I find no basis for a charge against this man.” Why was Jesus found innocent? 5 But they insisted, “He stirs up the people all over Judea by his teaching. He started in Galilee and has come all the way here.” Why does Pilate 6 On hearing this, Pilate asked if the man was a Galilean. 7 When he learned that Jesus was under Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who was also in Jerusalem at that time. Why doesn’t Pilate release Jesus, but instead send Him to Herod? 23:1 众人都起来,把耶稣解到彼拉多面前。 23:2 就告他说,我们见这人诱惑国民,禁止纳税给该撒,并说自己是基督,是王。耶稣当时被指控犯了哪两条罪? 23:3 彼拉多问耶稣说,你是犹太人的王吗?耶稣回答说,你说的是。 23:4 彼拉多对祭司长和众人说,我查不出这人有什么罪来。为什么耶稣被判是无罪的?23:5 但他们越发极力地说,他煽惑百姓,在犹太遍地传道,从加利利起,直到这里了。 23:6 彼拉多一听见,就问这人是加利利人吗? 23:7 既晓得耶稣属希律所管,就把他送到希律那里去。那时希律正在耶路撒冷。彼拉多为什么不释放耶稣,而是把他送到希律那里去了?

Herod Antipas, (born 21 bc—died ad 39), son of Herod I the Great. He became tetrarch of Galilee and ruled throughout Jesus of Nazareth’s ministry. About 4 bc Herod Antipas inherited part of his father’s kingdom. Herod Antipas ordered John the Baptist beheaded (Mark 6). Though only governor of two small provinces, Antipas locally styled himself “king” & used the name “Herod,” to bolster his claim that he was the true heir to his father’s legacy. Antipas feared Jesus, as he had feared John the Baptist, because both represented a clear rebuke to his kind of life. 希律安提帕斯,(BC 21— AD 39),大希律的儿子。他是加利利的领主,在耶稣事工期间一直执政。在BC4,希律安提帕斯继承了他父亲的一部分领地。是他下令将施洗约翰砍头(马可福音6)。虽然他只是两个小省的执政长官,安提帕斯在当地以“王”自居而且还使用了“希律”这个名字,以此来宣称他才是他父亲产业的真继承人。安提帕斯惧怕耶稣,正如他惧怕施洗约翰一样,因为耶稣和约翰都斥责了他的生活方式。

8 When Herod saw Jesus, he was greatly pleased, because for a long time he had been wanting to see him. Why were Herod and Pilate in Jerusalem? From what he had heard about him, he hoped to see him perform a sign of some sort. For what was Herod hoping? 9 He plied him with many questions, but Jesus gave him no answer. 10 The chief priests and the teachers of the law were standing there, vehemently accusing him. 11 Then Herod and his soldiers ridiculed and mocked him. What was the purpose in ridiculing and mocking Jesus? Dressing him in an elegant robe, they sent him back to Pilate. Why dress Jesus in an elegant robe? 12 That day Herod and Pilate became friends—before this they had been enemies. 23:8 希律看见耶稣,就很欢喜。因为听见过他的事,久已想要见他。希律和彼拉多为什么会在耶路撒冷?并且指望看他行一件神迹。希律希望看到什么? 23:9 于是问他许多的话。耶稣却一言不答。 23:10 祭司长和文士,都站着极力地告他。 23:11 希律和他的兵丁就藐视耶稣,戏弄他,他们藐视戏弄耶稣的目的是什么?给他穿上华丽衣服,把他送回彼拉多那里去。为什么给耶稣穿上华丽的衣服? 23:12 从前希律和彼拉多彼此有仇。在那一天就成了朋友。 13 Pilate called together the chief priests, the rulers and the people, 14 and said to them, “You brought me this man as one who was inciting the people to rebellion. I have examined him in your presence and have found no basis for your charges against him. What had Pilate found? 15 Neither has Herod, for he sent him back to us; as you can see, he has done nothing to deserve death. What had Pilate not found? 16 Therefore, I will punish him and then release him.” Why would Pilate have an innocent man beaten? [17] [Now he was obliged to release one man to them at the Feast.] 23:13 彼拉多传齐了祭司长,和官府,并百姓, 23:14 就对他们说,你们解这人到我这里,说他是诱惑百姓的。看哪,我也曾将你们告他的事,在你们面前审问他,并没有查出他什么罪来。彼拉多查出什么来了? 23:15 就是希律也是如此,所以把他送回来。可见他没有作什么该死的事。彼拉多没有发现什么? 23:16 故此我要责打他,把他释放了。彼拉多为什么要责打无罪的人?(有古卷在此有 23:17 每逢这节期巡抚必须释放一个囚犯给他们。) 18 But the whole crowd shouted, “Away with this man! Release Barabbas to us!” 19 (Barabbas had been thrown into prison for an insurrection in the city, and for murder.) What type of person was Barabbas? 20 Wanting to release Jesus, Pilate appealed to them again. 21 But they kept shouting, “Crucify him! Crucify him!” 22 For the third time he spoke to them: “Why? What crime has this man committed? I have found in him no grounds for the death penalty. Therefore I will have him punished and then release him.” What was Pilate’s decision? 23 But with loud shouts they insistently demanded that he be crucified, and their shouts prevailed. 24 So Pilate decided to grant their demand. Why did Pilate finally agree to have Jesus crucified? 25 He released the man who had been thrown into prison for insurrection and murder, the one they asked for, and surrendered Jesus to their will. 23:18 众人却一齐喊着说,除掉这个人,释放巴拉巴给我们。 23:19 这巴拉巴是因在城里作乱杀人下在监里的。巴拉巴是什么样的人? 23:20 彼拉多愿意释放耶稣,就又劝解他们。 23:21 无奈他们喊着说,钉他十字架,钉他十字架 23:22 彼拉多第三次对他们说,为什么呢?这人作了什么恶事呢?我并没有查出他什么该死的罪来。所以我要责打他,把他释放了。彼拉多做了什么决定? 23:23 他们大声催逼彼拉多,求他把耶稣钉在十字架上。他们的声音就得了胜, 23:24 彼拉多这才照他们所求的定案。为什么彼拉多最后答应要把耶稣钉十架?23:25 把他们所求的那作乱杀人下在监里的,释放了。把耶稣交给他们,任凭他们的 意 思 行 。

Notes注释 He was obliged to release one man - It was customary with the Romans to pardon prisoners on the birthday of the emperor as well as on other great public festivals. Passover was the greatest festival of the Jews. 他必须释放一个囚犯– 当时根据罗马的律例,在帝王的诞辰和其他重要的节日都要释放囚犯。逾越节是犹太人最重要的节日。

The Crucifixion of Jesus耶稣钉十架 26 As the soldiers led him away, they seized Simon from Cyrene, who was on his way in from the country, and put the cross on him and made him carry it behind Jesus. What was Simon suppose made to do? 27 A large number of people followed him, including women who mourned and wailed for him. 28 Jesus turned and said to them, “Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for me; weep for yourselves and for your children. 29 For the time will come when you will say, ‘Blessed are the childless women, the wombs that never bore and the breasts that never nursed!’ 30 Then “‘they will say to the mountains, “Fall on us!” and to the hills, “Cover us!”’ What is the meaning and intention of Jesus’ message to the pitying women of Jerusalem? 23:26 带耶稣去的时候,有一个古利奈人西门,从乡下来。他们就抓住他,把十字架搁在他身上,叫他背着跟随耶稣。西门被迫做什么? 23:27 有许多百姓,跟随耶稣,内中有好些妇女,妇女们为他号啕痛哭。 23:28 耶稣转身对她们说,耶路撒冷的女子,不要为我哭,当为自己和自己的儿女哭。 23:29 因为日子要到,人必说,不生育的,和未曾怀胎的,未曾乳养婴孩的,有福了。 23:30 那时,人要向大山说,倒在我们身上。向小山说,遮盖我们。耶稣对这些哀哭的耶路撒冷妇女们所说的话有什么用意? 31 For if people do these things when the tree is green, what will happen when it is dry?” Explain the meaning of this verse. 32 Two other men, both criminals, were also led out with him to be executed. 33 When they came to the place called the Skull, they crucified him there, along with the criminals—one on his right, the other on his left. What do you know about crucifixion? 34 Jesus said, “Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing.” To whom does Jesus address this prayer? What did Jesus ask? Why? And they divided up his clothes by casting lots. 23:31 这些事既行在有汁水的树上,那枯干的树,将来怎么样呢?请解释这节经文的意思。23:32 又有两个犯人,和耶稣一同带来处死。 23:33 到了一个地方,名叫髑髅地,就在那里把耶稣钉在十字架上,又钉了两个犯人,一个在左边,一个在右边。对于钉十架你都知道什么? 23:34 当下耶稣说,父阿,赦免他们。因为他们所作的,他们不晓得。耶稣是向谁祷告?耶稣求的是什么?为什么?兵丁就拈阄分他的衣服。 35 The people stood watching, and the rulers even sneered at him. They said, “He saved others; let him save himself if he is God’s Messiah, the Chosen One.”Contrast the attitudes behind Jesus’ prayer in v. 34 and the attitudes behind the reaction of the rulers and soldiers. 36 The soldiers also came up and mocked him. They offered him wine vinegar 37 and said, “If you are the king of the Jews, save yourself.” 38 There was a written notice above him, which read: THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS. Why would Pilate write the notice? 39 One of the criminals who hung there hurled insults at him: “Aren’t you the Messiah? Save yourself and us!” 40 But the other criminal rebuked him. “Don’t you fear God,” he said, “since you are under the same sentence? 41 We are punished justly, for we are getting what our deeds deserve. But this man has done nothing wrong.”Compare the two thieves. 42 Then he said, “Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom.” 43 Jesus answered him, “Truly I tell you, today you will be with me in paradise.” What comforting insights can we gain from Jesus’ words to the repentant criminal? 23:35 百姓站在那里观看。官府也嗤笑他说,他救了别人。他若是基督,神所拣选的,可以救自己吧。请将耶稣在34节里祷告的心态与百姓和官府当时的心态作比较。 23:36 兵丁也戏弄他,上前拿醋送给他喝, 23:37 说,你若是犹太人的王,可以救自己吧。 23:38 在耶稣以上有一个牌子,有古卷在此有用希利尼罗马希伯来的文字写着,这是犹太人的王。彼拉多为什么做这样一个牌子? 23:39 那同钉的两个犯人,有一个讥诮他说,你不是基督吗?可以救自己和我们吧。 23:40 那一个就应声责备他说,你既是一样受刑的,还不怕神吗? 23:41 我们是应该的。因我们所受的,与我们所作的相称。但这个人没有作过一件不好的事。对比这两个犯人。 23:42 就说,耶稣阿,你得国降临的时候,求你记念我。 23:43 耶稣对他说,我实在告诉你,今日你要同我在乐园里了。从耶稣对那个悔改的犯人所说的话中我们可以得到什么令人安慰的消息?

Notes注释 Cyrene - located in Libya, what we would call Tripoli. 古利奈—利比亚的一个城,我们现在称为“的黎波里”。

Crucified him - Crucifixion was regarded by the Romans as a death deserved only by traitors and slaves. It was very painful. After being stripped of his clothing, the sufferer was first bound to the crossbeam and then nailed by the hands, with strong iron spikes, to its extremities. The feet were either nailed separately, or a single nail was used. Then the cross was put into its hole in the ground. The feet of the sufferer were not more than one or two feet from the ground. 钉十架— 对于罗马人来说只有叛徒和奴隶才会以钉十架的方式处死。那是非常痛苦的。被扒光衣服后,犯人先被绑在十架上,然后手用大铁钉钉在十架上,并钉到底。两脚或是分别钉着或是用一根钉子钉在一起。然后十架被立起并固定在地上的洞里。犯人的脚离地面不超过一到两英尺。

Casting lots - gambling. Any possessions an executed person had with him were taken by the executioners. 拈阄– 赌博。受刑者身上所带的所有财产都被行刑者拿走了。

Wine vinegar - A sour drink carried by the soldiers for the day. 醋— 士兵当天所带的一种酸味的饮料。

The Death of Jesus耶稣的死 44 It was now about noon, and darkness came over the whole land until three in the afternoon, 45 for the sun stopped shining. And the curtain of the temple was torn in two. What is the significance of the two miracles ? 46 Jesus called out with a loud voice, “Father, into your hands I commit my spirit.” When he had said this, he breathed his last. What do Jesus’ final words from the cross tell us about His death? 23:44 那时约有午正,遍地都黑暗了,直到申初, 23:45 日头变黑了。殿里的幔子从当中裂为两半。这两个神迹的重要性是什么? 23:46 耶稣大声喊着说,父阿,我将我的灵魂交在你手里。说了这话,气就断了。关于他的死,耶稣在十架上的最后的话语告诉了我们什么? 47 The centurion, seeing what had happened, praised God and said, “Surely this was a righteous man.” 48 When all the people who had gathered to witness this sight saw what took place, they beat their breasts and went away. 49 But all those who knew him, including the women who had followed him from Galilee, stood at a distance, watching these things. Describe the three reactions to Jesus death? 23:47 百夫长看见所成的事,就归荣耀与神说,这真是个义人。 23:48 聚集观看的众人,见了这所成的事,都捶着胸回去了。 23:49 还有一切与耶稣熟识的人,和从加利利跟着他来的妇女们,都远远地站着,看这些事。请叙述对耶稣死的三种反应。

The Burial of Jesus耶稣被埋葬 50 Now there was a man named Joseph, a member of the Council, a good and upright man, 51 who had not consented to their decision and action. What decision and action? He came from the Judean town of Arimathea, and he himself was waiting for the kingdom of God. 52 Going to Pilate, he asked for Jesus’ body. Why was this a strange request? 53 Then he took it down, wrapped it in linen cloth and placed it in a tomb cut in the rock, one in which no one had yet been laid. 54 It was Preparation Day, and the Sabbath was about to begin. What is Preparation Day? 55 The women who had come with Jesus from Galilee followed Joseph and saw the tomb and how his body was laid in it. Who do you think these women are? 56 Then they went home and prepared spices and perfumes. But they rested on the Sabbath in obedience to the commandment. 23:50有一个人名叫约瑟,是个议士,为人善良公义。23:51众人所谋所为,他并没有附从。什么样的所谋所为?他本是犹太亚利马太城里素常盼望神国的人 23:52 这人去见彼拉多,求耶稣的身体。这为什么是一个奇怪的请求?23:53就取下来用细麻布裹好,安放在石头凿成的坟墓里,那里头从来没有葬过人。23:54那日是预备日,安息日也快到了。什么是预备日?23:55那些从加利利和耶稣同来的妇女,跟在后面,看见了坟墓,和他的身体怎样安放。你认为这些妇女是什么人?23:56她们就回去,预备了香料香膏。她们在安息日,便遵着诫命安息了。

Notes注释 Arimathea - A village about 32 kilometers northwest of Jerusalem. 亚利马太城 —耶路撒冷西北方约32公里的一个小城。